大家
[发表评论] [查看此文评论]    郭国汀律师专栏
[主页]->[大家]->[郭国汀律师专栏]->[《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险]
郭国汀律师专栏
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(10):为法治而战
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(11):冤杀的「恶霸」
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(12):哲思飞天
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(13):我的精神病院生涯真相
·《我的二十年律师生涯》—与《中国律师网》网友们的对话
·New York Time A Mild Shanghai Lawyer and His Accidental Crusade
·Guoting(Thomas) Guo's Resume
·A Chinese Human Right lawyer’s story by Guo Guoting
·My life mission , to help my country to set up the true rule of law. By Guo Guoting
·New York Judge interview with Thomas G.Guo( Guo Guoting)
·China Human Right report 2005
·Is there human rights in China?
·Thomasguo 's speech on the searching Justice conference
·My Human Rights Lawyer’s Career (Profile)
·Index of Guo’s on Articles and Activity of Human Rights
·rticles written by and about Guo Guoting and International Report links
·Index of Guo’s works and articles on advocating freedom, human rights, democracy
·A Mild Shanghai Lawyer and His Accidental Crusade
·郭国汀从最佳海事律师到人权律师 【人物】
***政治学研究
·政治的基本概念
·正义的学说
·正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性
·正义概念的进化与发展
·人民反抗暴政的革命权利
·当代世界政治现状
·独裁专权(即威权)与独裁统治及极权暴政
·政治权力的限制与平衡原理
·政治文化与政治
·什么是政治形态
·民主法治及权力
·True meaning of the Republicanism
·Judicial Independence and Canadian Judges
·如何制约流氓暴君下屠杀令扑灭宪政民主大革命?
·关于成立临时或流亡政府我的原则与立场
·公平游戏规则公平竞争是第一价值原则
·中国民主运动要不要遵守公平游戏规则?
·中国民运长期四分五裂的根源何在?
·郭国汀:唯有程序正义才能根治中国民运四分五裂顽症
·民运内部必须是平等尊重基础上充分争论协商妥协式的真诚合作
·自私是否人的本性?
·暴君与暴政
·暴力革命与和平演变的前提与条件
·关于暴力革命答深山质疑
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!/郭国汀
·语言风格——关于袁红冰改良还是革命的争论
·就袁红冰之《改良还是革命》与申先生的论战/郭国汀
·英雄人格哲学—袁红冰《自由在落日中》读后
·划时代的政论——简评袁红冰《改良,还是革命?》
·为什么袁红冰之《改良,还是革命?》是划时代的政论?
·再论政治案低调消音妥协辩护论的严重危害性
·再论政治案件低调消音妥协辩护论的危害性引起争论
·政治案辩护律师的最佳策略
·驳政治肮脏论
·文字狱与极权专制体制
·暴政与人种的优劣/新南郭
·虚伪是极权专制的必然付产品
·极权专制政体与思想家
·最暴虐无道的政府!/南郭
·郭国汀:歌功颂德或批评批判?
·判断一个政权合法性的公认标准
·判断政府合法性的普世公认标准 郭国汀
·中国律师理所应当关心政治 郭国汀
·政治体制的根本问题
·中国的前途在于专制改良还是政治民主革命?
·西方现代政治民主的基本要件
·郭国汀: 政府无权杀人!
·政府绝对无权武力镇压(屠杀)和平集会示威游行或罢工的公民
·国民有权推翻暴力镇压(屠杀)和平抗议民众的任何政府
·中国历史上不存在极权
·民主政治的终极目标是自由——答尼采黄昏君的质疑/南郭
·极权专制独裁者与知识分子
·与网友谈论民主政治与政权合法性
·政府不得滥杀和平请愿公民的最新国际公约
·中共极权专制暴政祸国殃民绝对乏善可陈
·郭律师评价中国律师诉讼及司法体制现状
***(40)宪政研究
·什么是宪政?
·什么是共和?
·宪政的实质
·分權制衡理論的历史淵源
·中国自由文化运动与宪政研究
·The Arguments For and Against the Notwithstanding Clause
·Freedom is not free but it is costly
·宪法改革的设想 南郭提要
·联邦共和民主宪政体制是美国经久强盛不衰的原因
·党化党控教育是中共祸国殃民的一大罪恶
·立宪时代的法政哲学思考提要
·有限政府与法治宪政
·联邦主义要旨
·It’s Not Patriotic to Violate the Constitution
·An Imperial Presidency Based on Constitutional Quicksand
·US Constitution revolution for real democracy
·One of the major writer whose legal thought Influence the Americas Founding Fathers
·Beyond the Constitution
·Philosophy Constitutionalism
·USA Constitution is in grave danger
·Constitutional Interpretation
·The Bill of Rights
***(41)民主研究
·美国宪政民主的基本要素
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险

第四编 对船东的附加保险
   (Additional Insurances For Shipowners)
   第1章历史沿革
   海上保险的一个最古老的领域,人们可以合乎逻辑地认为,乃是承保当风险开始时保险标的的价值。早期在Edward Lloyd’s(爱德华劳矣德)咖啡馆,保险人会要求证明向他投保的价值是真实的,比船东披露他为购船已支付的帐单金额更佳的证明,在于其装备、及他为预期的冒险项目已花费的金钱。
   1906年《海上保险法》第16.1款重申了这一古老的规则:
   “ Subject to any express provision or valuation in the policy, the insurable value of the subject-matter insured must be ascertained as follows:-
   (1) In insurance on ship, the insurable value is the value at the commencement of the risk, of the ship, including her outfit, provisions and stores for the officers and crew, money advanced for seamen’s wages, and other disbursements (if any )incurred to make the ship fit for the voyage or adventure contemplated by the policy, plus the charges of insurance upon the whole:”
   “除保险单的任何明文规定或定值外,保险标的的保险价值必须按下列规定确定:
   (1)在船舶保险中,保险价值是风险开始时的船舶价值,包括其装备、船员和高级船员的食物、饮料和储备、预付给船员的工资,以及为使船舶适合于保险单预期的航程或冒险须垫付的其他费用加上全部保险费用:”
   基于此项原则,在航程开始时花费的开支(船东期望据此赢利)有保险利益,显而易见,在航程期间,通过重新装备船舶,雇用新船员,添加食物和饮料,船东不得不支付额外的费用,这些开支亦可成为适当的保险标的。
   因此,需要对“费用”获得附加的保险,或者,若船舶由于被用于某一特殊的运输,应拥有某种增强价值(enforced value),则应基于船舶的“增加价值”(increased value)办理此种附加保险。
   至19世纪中叶,为保险的目的,与保险人约定船舶的价值已成为惯例,这解决了许多难题,特别在发生全损时,有助于保险人确定理赔金额。尽管如此,约定价值的金额可能无法适当地赔偿在航程期间已支付额外费用的船东,因此,当必要时,船东通过对费用或增加的价值乐于拥有获得进一步保险的便利。
   至于目前的保险实务,请阅下述
   第2章 额外责任
   (Excess Liability)
   在讨论主条款时我们已了解到,对于救助、共同海损及施救费用的索赔均受有关任何不足额保险及仅承保保险价值3/4的碰撞责任的制约。因此,船东为“额外责任”办理附加保险相当普遍。
   在船舶保险单中万一出现船舶不足额保险时,使他们能够获得高于船舶保险单下可获赔金额的任何特定分摊或责任的附加额外保险。
   在Holman & Sons v. Merchants’ Marine Insurance Company案中, 一艘船按39000英镑的价值投保船舶保险,此外,船东还对船体和机器办理了1855年英镑的增值附加保险,承保风险包括“船体和机器应分摊的超过(在船舶保险单中)保险价值的共同海损和救助费用,船舶应负的任何责任”。由于船舶在船舶保险单中不足额保险的事实,船东无法根据该保险单全额索赔船舶应分摊的共同海损和救助费用。被保险人的律师辩称:根据增值和额外责任保险单,他们有权索赔全部亏损,直至全部保险金额。法院判决被保险人只能索赔该1855英镑分别除以全部超额救助价值和全部超额分摊价值的额外价值的保险金额的比例部分(such proportion of the sum insured against excess liability as the £1855 bore to the total excess valuation for salvage and the total excess contributory value respectively.)。
   某些简单的数字可以说明根据额外责任保险单评估索赔的正确方法。
   获救价值 10000镑 支付了2000镑的救助费
   船壳保险单中的保险价值 10000镑
   扣除损害 2000镑
    8000镑 支付1600镑
   额外价值 2000镑 支付400镑
   额外责任保险金额1800镑 应支付
   1800/2000×400= 360镑
   现行的条款是:
   A.协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款1/11/95(Institute Time Clauses, Hulls: Excess Liabilities)
   This insurance is subject to English law and practice
   本保险受英国法律和惯例制约
   第1条
   1.1 This insurance covers only:
   1.1.1 General Average, Salvage and Salvage Charges recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of the difference between the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein (or any reduced value arising from the deduction therefrom in process of adjustment of any claim which law or practice or the terms of the insurance covering hull and machinery may have required) and the value of the Vessel adopted for the purpose of contribution to general average, salvage or salvage charges, the liability under this insurance being for such proportion of the amount not recoverable as the amount insured hereunder bears to the said difference or to the total sum insured against excess liabilities if it exceed such difference.
   1.1.2 Sue and Labour Charges recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of the difference between the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein and the value of the Vessel adopted for the purpose of ascertaining the amount recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery, the liability under this insurance being for such proportion of the amount not recoverable as the amount insured hereunder bears to the said difference or to the total sum insured against excess liabilities if it exceed such difference.
   1.1.3 Collision liability(three-fourths) recoverable under the Institute 1/4ths Collision Liability and Sistership Clauses in the insurances on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of such three-fourths liability exceeding three-fourths of the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein, in which case the amount recoverable under this insurance shall be such proportion of the difference so arising as the amount insured hereunder bears to the total sum insured against excess liabilities.
   1.2 The Underwriters’ liability under 1.1.1, 1.1.2 and 1.1.3 separately, in respect of any one claim, shall not exceed the amount insured hereunder.
   1.1 本保险只承保:
   1.1.1 共同海损、救助和救助费用根据本船体和机器保险可以获得补偿但未获全额补偿,是由于船舶的保险价值(或在理赔过程中按承保船体和机器保险的法律、惯例或条款要求予以扣减后减少了的价值)与船舶分摊了共同海损、救助或救助费用之后的价值之间存在差额,根据本保险的责任,按照本保险的保险金额与该差额的比例,或当承保额外责任的保险金额总和超过该差额时,按本保险的保险金额与该保险金额的总和的比例,承担责任。
   1.1.2 施救费用根据本船体和机器保险可以获得补偿,但未获全额补偿,是由于船舶的保险价值与为确定根据船体和机器保险的补偿额采用的船舶价值之间存在差额,本保险下的责任为按照本保险的保险金额与该差额的比例,或当承保额外的保险金额总和超过该差额时,按本保险的保险金额与该保险金额的总和的比例,承担责任。
   1.1.3 (3/4)碰撞责任根据协会船体和机器3/4碰撞责任条款和姐妹船条款可以获得补偿,但未获全额补偿,是由于此种3/4碰撞责任超过了保险船舶的3/4保险金额而存在差额,本保险下可获补偿的金额,按本保险的保险金额与承保额外责任的保险金额的总和的比例计算。
   1.2 保险人分别根据上述1.1.1, 1.1.2和1.1.3项的责任,有关任何一次索赔,不得超过本保险的保险金额。
   第2条 退费条款
   2 RETURNS
   To return pro rata monthly net for each uncommenced month if this insurance be cancelled by agreement.
   2 退费
   若本保险经协议解除,每一未开始的月份的净保险费按月比例退还。
   The following clauses shall be paramount and shall override anything contained in this insurance inconsistent therewith.
   下述条款为首要条款,任何与本保险规定不一致者均以本保险规定为准。
   第3条 战争除外条款
   3 WAR EXCLUSION
   In no case shall this insurance cover loss damage liability or expense caused by
   3.1 war civil war revolution rebellion insurrection, or civil strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act by or against a belligerent power
   3.2 capture seizure arrest restraint or detainment (barratry and piracy excepted), and the consequences thereof or any attempt thereat
   3.3 derelict mines torpedoes bombs or other derelict weapons of war.
   3 战争除外
   在任何情况下,本保险不承保由下列原因引起的灭失、损害、责任和费用。
   3.1 战争、内战、革命、叛乱、暴动或由此引起的内乱、或任何交战团体之间的敌对行为
   3.2 捕获、扣押、扣留、管制或拘押(船长、船员的欺诈恶行和海盗除外)及这些行为的后果或进行这些行为的任何企图
   3.3 遗弃的水雷、鱼雷、炸弹或其他遗弃的战争武器。
   第4条 罢工除外条款
   4 STRIKES EXCLUSION
   In no case shall this insurance cover loss damage liability or expense caused by
   4.1 strikers, lock-out workmen, or persons taking part in labour disturbances, riots or civil commotions
   4.2 any terrotist or any person acting from a political motive.
   4 罢工除外
   在任何情况下,本保险不承保由下列原因引起的灭失、损害、责任和费用

[下一页]

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场