宗教信仰

谢选骏文集
[主页]->[宗教信仰]->[谢选骏文集]->[谁也没有写莎士比亚]
谢选骏文集
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谁也没有写莎士比亚

   谢选骏:谁也没有写莎士比亚
   
   网文《谁写了莎士比亚?)2013-11-11写道:
   
   Emerson在论莎翁的一篇文章里说,莎士比亚是他自己的唯一传记作者,so far from Shakespeare’s being the least known, he is the one person in all modern history fully known to us. 然而,就是因为人们从戏里看到的东西太多,才开始怀疑他的身份。戏里的很多东西,如法律、医学、树木、花草、自然史、哲学、历史,还有一大堆拉丁经典作家和作品,以及不同的生活和宫廷场景——多半儿是“对不起”莎翁本人的,因为他似乎没有那么系统的学习和那么多样和高贵的生活。而那会儿恰好有一个Francis Bacon,什么都懂,什么都写;更重要的是,人们从他的作品里发现了4000多处与莎剧“平行”的东西——所以,自18世纪末以来,就有人怀疑莎剧是培根写的,到19世纪,支持所谓Baconian theory的人更多了。马克吐温、尼采甚至数学家康托尔,都相信那个写剧的莎士比亚就是培根。


   
   最近买了些Kessinger Publishing的旧本重印(rare reprints),有十多本关于莎翁的,其中就有几本研究“莎翁问题”。George C. Bompas的小册子,Problem of the Shakespeare Plays,列举了15个莎剧的疑点(此书网上有更好版本的pdf,我就不抄了),结论是,不论从道德还是学问来看,那些戏都不可能是老莎写的。In these plays, the genius of Bacon is manifest; they bear the stamp of his character, they reflect his intellect, they speak his language, they mirror his life.
   
   后来又出现一种Oxfordian论,说莎剧的作者是牛津伯爵Edward de Vere。Hamlet的故事就很有Edward的影子。牛津论近百年来很流行,它的主要“证据”是在伯爵的生活与莎剧的场景之间找平行,而对其他证据都采用“阴谋论”的策略:没有证据正是最好的证据,因为真正的证据都被篡改了。
   
   “真莎翁”的候选者还有很多,其他人我都没听说过。原以为这个“疑案”已经解决了——至少莎剧的专家们不会去玩儿那样的考证了,结果不是。莎剧问题还在争论着。1991年,大西洋月刊以“The Ghost of Shakespeare”为题刊载了两派人物的论战,后来战场转向网络,令一些人感叹它在Wikipedia的出现,简直令那些“标准的资源”蒙羞(puts to shame anything that ever appeared in standard resources)。
   
   2007年4月,Shakespeare Authorship Coalition发表了合理质疑莎翁身份的宣言(Declaration of Reasonable Doubt About the Identity of William Shakespeare),征集大众的意见,这样在莎翁400岁时(2016年)他们“将被迫承认”质疑莎翁是有合法根据的(will be forced to acknowledge that legitimate grounds for doubting Shakespeare's authorship exist)。
   
   前些时候买过哥伦比亚大学的莎翁专家James S. Shapiro写的Contested Will: Who wrote Shakespeare是大专家第一次考察这个问题。他把牛津论的复活归结为水门事件以来的阴谋论的文化环境——是这样吗?
   
   谢选骏指出:上文作者发问说“谁写了莎士比亚?”他不知道,谁也没有写莎士比亚!莎士比亚不是写出来的,是拼凑出来的——所以内容极为庞杂,成色十分不一。那是“大全”,就像神学大全一样,不过是“人文大全”罢了。就像巴尔扎克的《人间喜剧》,演绎了但丁的《神圣戏剧》(神曲)。
(2018/01/30 发表)
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