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康正果文集
·惡夢還在惡
·裸體像和裸露
·走向終極的悖謬
·魅力的構成及其頹廢
·情色和身體
·為了寫作的自由
·脱贫与致富的悖谬--谁制造了三农问题
·破碎的受難—試論廖亦武從詩歌躁動到底層勘探的書寫歷程
·羨憎交織的他者—從《閹割與狂狷》一書說起
·紅旗下的情感教育——說《人寰》
·向中國宣告死症—讀鄭義的《中國之毀滅》
·胡锦涛耶鲁行侧记
·“抗美援朝”的炮灰——读哈金《战废品》
·会心的漫游—读张承志《鲜花的废墟》
·良知的辩护——读胡平《法轮功现象》
·康正果就荣获2006当代汉语贡献奖答谢词
·海外华人写作的“海外性”
·一九四五年以來臺灣的文化譜系—— 一個大陸人的海外觀
·義無再辱——惶恐回國行
·捐款感言
·中国的民族/国家主义焦虑——致海内外爱国华人
·饑餓與記憶
·一个血性思者的质文熔炼——阅读周剑岐
·史海神探,梼杌克星——胡志伟及其重审现代史的编著
·歷史的神思
·纪实与真实----耶鲁观中国当代DV纪录新片有感
·六十周年回眸
·五毛党可以休矣--有关张磊捐款引起的争议
·资本主义的爱情故事和后共产综合症
·走向民权民德的政治解放——汪晖近作质疑:谁的主权?什么平等?
·从价值转换到历史还原——《百年中国的谱系叙述》一书导言
·理清传统和现代衔接的脉络——余英时《中国知识分子论》编序
·面对乳房
·被忽视的先声 ——重温殷海光的“共产党问题”论述
·破解毛共军事神话——读芦笛《毛主席用兵真如神?》
·文学的思索者
·一顆裹著糖衣的苦葯
·毛像的流变与高氏兄弟的“去毛”创作
·極卑與極高的詭變——毛澤
·畫境的發掘 -—班宗華和他的中國藝術史研究
·時勢激蕩中的革命逆流 ——毛澤
·收買人權
·军党中苏之纠结及其间的权斗——从井冈山到陕北
·還原毛共:徹底批毛必須徹底批共
·潰逃後的幸存、寄生和詭變 ——從延安窯洞到抗日前綫
·毛共的修煉與成精——從整風前後到“七大”召開
·港人的自由与中共对它的利用和侵蚀
·頭號戰犯毛澤东 ——從國共和談到血腥内戰
·什么功?谁之罪? ——《还原毛共:从寄生幸存到诡变成精》一书导言
·结语及后话:毛共的现形和蜕变 ——从毛时代到后毛时代
·毛泽东和歹托邦:乱与暴的反噬
·有关卖淫现象的话语变迁
·突破“一中”的困境
·共情与共恶
·国民与党民
·土原上的蚁民 ——兼谈杨争光小说的土味
·徐培兰变形记 ——读《黄尘》三部曲
·妇女在改革开放以来的生存状况再不好也比毛时代好
·寂園居士的佛化人生——《陝西佛寺紀略》修訂本後記
第二卷 散文
·步行
·曖昧的貓(組圖)
·寵物(組圖)
·獨處
·乾花
·流年知多少
·荒野之美(組圖)
·詩舞祭
·老威的簫和嘯(圖)
·羅家莊
·馬悅然诗酒說漢學
·死睡
·樹的風骨(組圖)
·演示熬磨
·榆樹下的省思
·饮趣
·书乐/书累
·山情海梦
·墓园心祭
·神圣的避难
·公私辨
·白发的美学
·闲话聚会
·老孫家
·阿美什之乡
·休说鲈鱼堪脍
·身体教堂
·消失了的游戏
·磨坊河
·谷仓与廊桥
·华人华文发光华
·纪实与真实 ——耶鲁观中国当代DV纪录新片有感
·盖章与签名
·鹿梦
·善缘
·端午节漫谈
·《我的反动自述》简体版自序
·《伊人集》序
·桕墅方集序
·从四合院到大杂院 ——开通巷78号院忆旧
·我在美国的中文教学工作
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自學意大利語

Teach Yourself Italian
   For a writer, a foreign language is a new kind of adventure.
   By Jhumpa Lahiri
   鍾芭•拉希莉(1967年7月11日-),印度裔美國人,著名小說作家。拉希莉出生於倫敦,兩歲時隨家人移民到美國羅德島州,1989年於巴納德學院獲得英語文學的文學士學位,其後又於波士頓大學獲得英文等碩士學位,畢業後曾於波士頓大學任教。2001年,她與時代雜誌拉丁美洲版的編輯阿爾貝托•布什結婚,分別與2002年及2005年誕下嬰兒,目前定居在意大利羅馬。
   自學意大利語

   
   對一個作家來説,一門外語就是一種新的歷險
   
   鍾芭•拉希莉
   Exile
   流離
   My relationship with Italian takes place in exile, in a state of separation.
   我與意大利語的關係發生在流落的處所,一個有所隔離的國度。
   Every language belongs to a specific place. It can migrate, it can spread. But usually it’s tied to a geographical territory, a country. Italian belongs mainly to Italy, and I live on another continent, where one does not readily encounter it.
   每一種語言都屬於一個特殊的地方。它可以外流,四處傳播,但它總是與某一地域和國度保持著緊密的聯係。意大利語主要屬於意大利,在我居住的另一個大陸,自然沒人說這種語言。
   I think of Ovid, exiled from Rome to a remote place. To a linguistic outpost, surrounded by alien sounds.
   我想起了離開羅馬,被流放到異域的奧維德。他身處語言的前哨境地,滿耳都是聼不懂的語言。
   I think of my mother, who writes poems in Bengali, in America. Almost fifty years after moving there, she can’t find a book written in her language.
   我還想到了我的母親,她人在美國,卻用孟加拉文寫詩。她移居該處近五十年之久,從未找到一本孟加拉文的書籍。
   In a sense I’m used to a kind of linguistic exile. My mother tongue, Bengali, is foreign in America. When you live in a country where your own language is considered foreign, you can feel a continuous sense of estrangement. You speak a secret, unknown language, lacking any correspondence to the environment. An absence that creates a distance within you.
   至於我自己,可以說已過慣了語言上的流亡生活。我的母語孟加拉語在美國是外語。當你住在一個自己的母語被視爲外語的國家,你會感受到持續不斷的疏離。你私下說著一種不爲人知的語言,又與周邊缺乏任何溝通。缺席的處境於是形成你内心的距離。
   In my case there is another distance, another schism. I don’t know Bengali perfectly. I don’t know how to write it, or even read it. I have an accent, I speak without authority, and so I’ve always perceived a disjunction between it and me. As a result I consider my mother tongue, paradoxically, a foreign language.
   就我的情況來説,則是別樣的距離和分裂。我並不十分熟悉孟加拉語,根本寫不了,幾乎不會讀,因爲有口音,說起孟加拉語心裏也不踏實,所以總覺得與它十分隔膜。那明明是我的母語,結果卻弄得我反把它視爲外語。
   As for Italian, the exile has a different aspect. Almost as soon as we met, Italian and I were separated. My yearning seems foolish. And yet I feel it.
   至於意大利語,那種流離的狀況卻有所不。我幾乎剛一接觸意大利語就與它處於隔離狀態。學習它的熱望似近乎癡想,至今我都頗有此感。
   How is it possible to feel exiled from a language that isn’t mine? That I don’t know? Maybe because I’m a writer who doesn’t belong completely to any language.
   從一種並非我母語的語言中,一種我並不懂的語言中,怎麽能產生流亡的感受呢?可能因爲我是一個並不完全屬於任何一種語言的作家。
   I buy a book. It’s called “Teach Yourself Italian.” An exhortatory title, full of hope and possibility. As if it were possible to learn on your own.
   我買了一本書,題曰《自學意大利語》。這書名富有勸導意味,飽含了希望和可能性,似乎確有自學的可能。
   Having studied Latin for many years, I find the first chapters of this textbook fairly easy. I manage to memorize some conjugations, do some exercises. But I don’t like the silence, the isolation of the self-teaching process. It seems detached, wrong. As if I were studying a musical instrument without ever playing it.
   我學過多年的拉丁文,因此覺得此書的第一章還是挺容易學的。我著手牢記動詞變位,做一些練習。但我不喜歡這種孤立自學過程中的默讀狀態,其間難免有脫節和差錯,我仿佛是在不做實際演練的情況下學一種樂器。
   In graduate school, I decide to write my doctoral thesis on how Italian architecture influenced English playwrights of the seventeenth century. I wonder why certain playwrights decided to set their tragedies, written in English, in Italian palaces. The thesis will discuss another schism between language and environment. The subject gives me a second reason to study Italian.
   讀研究所期間,我打算寫一篇有關意大利建築如何影響十七世紀英國戲劇創作的博士論文。我很想深究某些用英文書寫的劇作多把劇中的悲劇場面設置在意大利宮殿中的原因。我還打算在論文中討論語言與環境的分裂,這是我學習意大利語的第二個原因。
   I attend elementary courses. My first teacher is a Milanese woman who lives in Boston. I do the homework, I pass the tests. But when, after two years of studying, I try to read Alberto Moravia’s novel “La Ciociara” (“Two Women”) I barely understand it. I underline almost every word on every page. I am constantly looking in the dictionary.
   我選讀意大利語的初級課程。我的第一個老師住在波士頓,是位來自米蘭的女士。我做作業和參加考試。連續學了兩年,我嘗試讀我還勉強讀得懂的阿爾貝托•摩拉維亞(Alberto Moravia)所著小説《兩個女人》。我不斷查閲詞典,幾乎在每一頁的每個單詞下都劃綫標記。
   In the spring of 2000, six years after my first trip to Italy, I go to Venice. In addition to the dictionary, I take a notebook, and on the last page I write down phrases that might be useful: Saprebbe dirmi? Dove si trova? Come si fa per andare? Could you tell me? Where is? How does one get to? I recall the difference between buono and bello. I feel prepared. In reality, in Venice I’m barely able to ask for directions on the street, a wakeup call at the hotel. I manage to order in a restaurant and exchange a few words with a saleswoman. Nothing else. Even though I’ve returned to Italy, I still feel exiled from the language.
   2000年春,時隔我初次旅遊意大利六年之後,我去威尼斯旅遊。除了詞典,我還帶有課本,在它的末頁寫上一些會有用的短語,如Saprebbe dirmi? Dove si trova? Come si fa per andare?(請問/在哪裏/怎麽走)我記住buono和bello的區別。我覺得做到了有備而往。實際上來到威尼斯,我謹能做到在街上問路,在旅館裏能要求喚起床的電話,可在飯館叫菜和應付購物,此外就別無所有了。儘管我已返回意大利,我依然感到與這種語言毫不沾邊。
   A few months later, I receive an invitation to the Mantua literary festival. There I meet my first Italian publishers. One of them is also my translator. Their publishing house has a Spanish name, Marcos y Marcos. They are Italian. Their names are Marco and Claudia.
   幾個月後,我收到曼陀瓦文學節的邀請,在那裏遇見我的作品首位意大利文出版人和譯者。他們的出版社有一個西班牙文的名字,叫Marcos y Marcos。他倆都是意大利人,一個名叫Marco,另一個名叫Claudia。
   I have to do all my interviews and presentations in English. There is always an interpreter next to me. I can more or less follow the Italian, but I can’t express myself, explain myself, without English. I feel limited. What I learned in America, in the classroom, isn’t sufficient. My comprehension is so meagre that, here in Italy, it doesn’t help me. The language still seems like a locked gate. I’m on the threshold, I can see inside, but the gate won’t open.
   我只能用英語接受訪談和發表演講,身旁少不了有一位譯者陪同。我多少能聼懂一些意大利語,但離開英語,我就難以作充分的表達和解釋。我處處都覺得捉襟見肘,我在美國和課堂上所學的東西都不足以應用。我領會意大利語的能力也很薄弱,身處意大利,才深感無助。意大利語依然像一道緊鎖的大門。我踏上入口,可看到門内,但卻被關在門外。
   Marco and Claudia give me the key. When I mention that I’ve studied some Italian, and that I would like to improve it, they stop speaking to me in English. They switch to their language, although I’m able to respond only in a very simple way. In spite of all my mistakes, in spite of my not completely understanding what they say. In spite of the fact that they speak English much better than I speak Italian.
   Marco和Claudia給了我入門的鑰匙。當我提到我一直在學意大利語,並很想有所進步時,他們便停止用英語與我交談,轉而說他們的國語。儘管我當時僅可以粗淺的方式作回應,但我再也不在乎我的語病,不在乎我不能完全聼懂他們所說的話,也不在乎他們說英語比我說意大利語要好的事實。

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