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***(5)《CIF 和 FOB 合同》第四版 郭国汀主译校
·《cif与fob合同》序
·《cif与fob合同》译后记
·郭国汀译《CIF 和FOB合同》读后
·《CIF和 FOB合同》第四版 郭国汀主译校
·《CIF 和 FOB合同》郭国汀主译校 第二章 装运
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第四章 保险(王崇能译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第五章 交单和付款(高建平译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第六章 法律救济(梅欢雪译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第七章 冲突法(黄辉译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第八章 各种类型的FOB合同(陈真,王崇能,黄辉,郭国汀译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第九章 FOB交付(蔡仲翰译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十章 FOB价格条款
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十一章 付款与接受(王力耘译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十二章保险 (李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十三章 法律救济(李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十四章 法律冲突(王力耘译)
***(6)《Scrutton 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》序
·我为法学翻译辩护- 《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》译后记 
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第一章:合同的性质、效力与解释
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第二章:合同当事人
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第三章:代理
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第四章:租船合同
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第五章:作为合同的提单
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第六章:租船合同项下货物的提单
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第七章:合同条款
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第八章:陈述
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第九章:合同的履行:装船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十章:提单作为物权凭证
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十一章:船东对承运贷物的灭失或损坏之责任
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十二章:合同的履行:航次租船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十三章:合同的履行:卸货
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十四章:滞期费
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十五章:运费
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第十六章:定期租船
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第十七章:联运提单,联合运输,集装箱
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·王海明序《Omay 海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》序
·《Omay 海上保险:法律与保险单》译后记
·朱曾杰序《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第一章:导论
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第二章:海上保险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第三章:船舶险I
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第四章:船舶险II
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·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十章:近因
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十一章:施救费用
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十二章:共同海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十三章:救助
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十四章:全损\实际全损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十五章:单独海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十六章:代位追偿权
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·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第十章:未来
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第八章:其他法律问题
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·《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译 第三编:油污 第十一章:导论
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***(12)《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译
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Comparing Analysis of Marx and Lenin’s Theory on the Dictatorship of

   Guoting Guo

   

   3/22/2013

   

   The Dictatorshipof the Proletariat is the most important theory of the Marxism and Leninism,and the most confused idea in the Communist movement, which become allcommunist regime’s constitution fundamental principle. [1]Marxbelieved the capitalist mean of production will produce large number of workersthat constitute majority of population, and class struggle between bourgeoisand workers inevitable lead to the proletariat dictatorship, with the aim toeliminate private property and establish classless society; However, he neverdiscuss the theory in detail. Lenin claims himself as the real disciple ofMarx, develops his version of the dictatorship of the proletariat, practiced inSoviet Union and other communist regimes, caused at least 100 million peoplekilled during its practice.[2]Inmy essay, I am going to compare study the theory of the dictatorship and thedictatorship proletariat of Marx and Lenin, argue that for Marx and Engel, thedictatorship of the proletariat do not means revolutionary party or its elite’sdictatorship, but workers as a class for special purpose during transitionalperiod through working class democracy, implement political rule of the workingclass; while Lenin in the name of the proletariat, claimed for despoticabsolute power, rely on force unrestrained by any law, in essence turn toparty’s dictatorship over whole society, which completely against Marx’s idea.

   I. Meaning of thedictatorship of the proletariat

   Theterm ‘dictatorship’ origin as a constitutional institution of ancient RomanRepublic that provided for an emergency exercise of power by a trusted generalfor temporary and limited purposes, with aim to defense the republic againstforeign enemy or domestic subversion.[3]In1850s the term had the same meaning as its ancient time, which was not asynonym for despotism, tyranny, absolutism, or autocracy.[4]Although Marxmentioned about six times of the dictatorship of the proletariat, he neverdefined the term and only discussed it vaguely: universal franchise applied‘inevitable outcome will be the political rule of the working class.’[5]Hesometimes uses ‘worker state’, ‘parliamentary dictatorship of the party oforder’, ‘workers political rule’, and ‘worker class dictatorship’ to change theterm of the dictatorship of the proletariat’. Engels confirmed in his 1891Introduction to The Civil War in France …what this ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’look like? Paris Commune…was The Dictatorship of the Proletariat.”[6]Lenin defined the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ as the industrial workerslead people to overthrow the capitalism,create socialist system, eliminate private property , and abolish classes,realise the communism.[7]For Lenin, the aim of it is a ‘new democracy and independent participation inthe administration of the state.’[8]The basic principle is workers and peasants and other non-proletariat alliance,overthrow the bourgeois ruling, set up the political rule of the proletariat,establish and consolidate the socialist system. The essence is under theleadership of the proletariat party as the vanguard of working people to buildsocialism, abolish classes, and remove the basis for any kind of exploitationof man by man.”[9]

   II. The organisation of the dictatorship

   Marx suggestedworkers as a class to dictatorship, but he did not clear answer the questionconcerning the organisation of the dictatorship; in 1870, Engels pointed outthe Blanqui’s dictatorship is not of the whole revolutionary proletariat class,but of just those few who launched the attacked. [10]In April 1871 in the “Civil War in France” Marx praised the commune as an‘essentially working class government’, he implies the Commune as the exampleof The Dictatorship of the Proletariat, represents ‘proletariat democracy’.Paris commune consists of universal suffrage elected councillors who functionas legislators and executives, a citizens army, elected judges, police andofficials, equal pay as workers, subject to recall at any time.[11]Engels declared ‘commune was The Dictatorship of the Proletariat’.[12]Bakunin rejected the idea of dictatorship, and asked ‘will the proletariat as awhole beat the head of the government? [13]Leninasserted the secret professional revolutionary party with strict discipline, the party soon turn the dictatorship ofproletariat into a dictatorship of the party over the proletariat andpeasantry;[14]in essence Lenin followed Blanquist rather than Marx’s idea of thedictatorship, in practice meant the dictatorship of the communist party overthe people, a small elite over the party.[15]

   III. The reason andpurpose for the dictatorship

   The purpose ofthe dictatorship as Marx explained that‘ the class dictatorship of the proletariat is the necessary transit pointalong the road to the abolition of class distinction; to the abolition of allthe revolutions of production…abolition of all the social relations that correspond to these relations ofproduction, to the revolutionizing of all the ideas that result from thesesocial relation .’[16],on 5 March 1852, In the letter to Weydemeyer, Marx remarked ‘this dictatorshipitself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to aclassless society.’ [17]as Engel claim ‘in a word, all Marx’s communism theory is to eliminate privateproperty’; to establish the fundamental economic basis of the communism have noway of agreement.

   

   IV. The dictatorshipis only a transitional period

   

   Marx in 1850 inthe Class Struggles in France 1848-1850, argued that the ruling of the workingclass ( eg. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat) was ‘a transitional period’ inthe establishment of the classless society;[18]hebelieved ‘every provisional political set-up following a revolution calls fordictatorship and an energetic dictatorship at that’.[19]Then in 1875 In the Critique of the Gotha Programme, Marx asserted: “betweencapitalist and communist society lies the period of the revolutionary transformation…the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of theproletariat”. [20]Forthe transition, Lenin said it should be ‘a state that is democratic for theproletariat and dictatorial against the bourgeoisie,”[21]and ‘a period of struggle between capitalism which defeated but not destroyedand communism which born but still very feeble.[22]SinceMarx and Engels believed only in the advanced industry state, the communistrevolution can success, the transition is only a ‘short period’ for implement thepolicy of eliminating classes and build the communism society; Lenin believewithin 10 to 20 years, Soviet Union can be successful to establish thecommunism[23].Thus, Lenin’s transitional period is ‘10 to 20 years’;[24]Chinese Communist party after failing its promise to fulfil socialismrepeatedly, declared in 2010, that China will completed her “primary stagesocialism” building, as to the communism that is ‘the great cause which needtens generation common struggle’, but China must be persist the dictatorship ofthe proletariat before set up the communism!

   V. The leadershipof the communist party for dictatorship

   Marxnever discusses the leadership of the dictatorship. During Paris Commune, afteracrimonious debating over to set up a dictatorial Committee of Public Safety,with special arbitrary powers , the proposed by the Blanquist-Jacobin Majoritywas adopted, the anti-dictatorial Minority represented all the figures who hadspecial connection with Marx walked out of the Commune.[25]Show Marx rejected Blanquist’s idea of dictatorship as party’s leadership.

   Lenin proceededthe idea of a socialist revolution must be led by an elite party. He urged thatThe Dictatorship of the Proletariat must be under the leadership of the party.Since The Dictatorship was ‘a persistent struggle, bloody and bloodless,violent and peaceful, military and economic, ’ ‘Without a party of iron thathas been tempered in the struggle’, it was impossible to wage such a strugglesuccessfully;[26]Lenin argued “whoever weakens…the iron discipline of the party of…dictatorship, actually aids the bourgeoisie against the proletariat”[27]therefore, Lenin turn the dictatorship of the proletariat into the partydictatorship over people with absolute despotism. Russian Marxism theorist Plekhanovin 1906 point out that ‘Lenin is Blanquist rather than Marxist, he show Marxistbanner while sell Blanquist idea,’[28]GermanMarxism theorist Kautsky in 1918 argued that Lenin’s ‘revolutionarydictatorship’ was far from removed from Marx’s idea of ‘The Dictatorship of theProletariat’, which not meant ‘a form of government’. [29] ‘It always led to the dictatorship of a single man, or of a small knot ofleaders. [30]Asanarchist communist Bakunin points out that such a state ‘will be nothing elsebut despotic rule over the masses by a new, numerically small aristocracy ofgenuine or sham scientist. [31]

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