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人性论:人性本恶或人性本善? 郭国汀

   

   儒家主张“人之初,性本善”;基督教则认为人皆有原罪,“没有一个义人(道德完人),一个也没有”!那么,什么是人的本质?人的本质属性只有一种还是多种?如果只有一种是私性吗?假如有多种,有哪些?何谓本质?本质是某事物内在的,天然的,必然的,永恒不变的性质;人的本质首先是其爱和恨的性质;其次是其公心与私心的性质;再次,人是社会动物,也是政治动物,故人类的群体性质也是人的本质属性。但人类最本质的属性显然是爱,亦即爱是最高等级也是最本质的人类属性。因为没有爱就没有生命,没有爱也就没有一切。质言之,同属本质,却有层次高低的区别。这就是我为何特别推崇基督教的原因,因为基督教义最核心的内容即是爱,而宇宙的本质正是爱,人作为宇宙之子,其最本质的属性当然只能是爱.

   

   吾以为人的本性有善有恶,每个人天生即带有善恶基因;区别在于比例多少,有的人善的基因远远高于恶的基因,有的则反之,还有人则善恶相当;世上决没有全善,全恶之人。因此我认为善恶皆是人类天生的本质属性。西方现代政治学最了不起的发明在于设计出一整套行之有效的程序机制,最大限度限制了人性中天生的恶的因素,而迫使当权者释放其善的一面。因此,将当权者锁进了法治与宪政的牢笼内。恶人无法行恶而被迫行善,而善者则其善被发杨光大,这正是为何西方自由宪政法治民主国家社会长期稳定和谐的根据。2010年12月27日

   

   "There are no righteousness, not a single one! " I think this statement in Bible is right, for no human being are perfect, only the God is perfect. Even the God sometimes seems make mistake, for example, when he created the first Human being, he did not create a perfect man and woman, which prove that the God seems did not do his job absolutely good. Bible in Chinese version translate the sentence as " there is no Justice man, not a single Justice or good man". I firmly believe that it is wrong translation. For there are tons of justice and good men, although none perfect man. At least I am a justice and good man!

   Human nature is a fundamental idea of political science. According to its nature, our political design is quite different. In fact, Chinese have study this issue long time ago and many scholar and thinkers have create many good ideas. almost each generation have some idea about it. Good and evil, love and hate, selfish and other characteristics…

   Recently I have read through Chinese history and to my greatest surprise our ancient ancestors a number of great sages in fact known human nature much better than modern Chinese, they are second to none in this area, I will introduce their thought a little later, which really helpful for us to understand Chinese philosophy and political history.

   

   Chinese ancient thinkers and philosophers create a number of theory of human nature as follow:

   Mencius(372-289 BC) believes that Human nature are kind and good which come from Heaven, while Sunzhi(313-238 BC) observes that human nature are bad and evil, which can be correct and improve through morality training and adjust. Yangzhu(395-335 BC)perceives that human nature are selfish and one should care of himself first and do not care of other's business. Mozhi(468-376 BC) argues that human nature are love. Gaozhi(War-states) proposes that Human nature are not good nor bad, just like water change its shape and form to fit any content, he notes that social morality of good or bad are man-made idea which is not innate of man, He put it that "eating and sexing are human nature".

   Dong Zhongshu(179-104 BC) suggests that Heaven and Man have same nature, He divided human nature into three kind: holly nature, middle nature, and lower nature. the first is good and kind, the third is bad and evil. the second is between good and bad or kind and evil which is the ordinary people's nature, through culturalized can improve middle people's nature to be good. Yang Xiong(53-18 BC) claims human nature mixed good and evil, which through study and meditation can be kind and good. Sunyei(148-209) announced that above human nature is gentleman's kind nature, while lower nature is little man's evil nature, in the middle are mixed bad and good nature. to above educate them with "Li", to lower punish them with wipe and constrain, to middle with both Li and criminal.

   

   Hangyu(768-824) declared that human nature have three category, the best nature is always kind and good, while the worst nature is always bad and evil, and middle nature may be good or bad depend of education. He divide human nature into two group: Nature (Xin) is innate, which including Ren, righteousness, Li,wise, and trust; emotion (qing) is inspired by environment and reflection of one's inner mind, which including, happy, anger, lament, scare, love, evil, and desire. Nature is the base of emotion, and emotion is the nature's present. Li Ao(772-841) coined nature is good, but emotion are bad theory. He said "the man become holly because of his nature, while a man turn into confuse and puzzle his nature because of his emotion". "the emotion is not come from emotion, but come from nature, and the nature is not come from the nature, but because of emotion to show the nature". thus, to restore one's good nature, he must forget his emotion. and man want to be a holly man, he must be restore his nature, and forget his desire and back the way of nature life. This method of meditation is totally forget and get rid of all outside objects intervene, let himself quite in mind and soul. then he can understand the Heaven and the earth.

   

   Chen Jing (1032-1085) and Chen Yu(1033-1107) create the human nature have "Heaven fate called nature" and "life called nature" double nature theory, the former means that human nature is innate, which is the original reason reflect in human nature, and this heaven fate nature is the reason, is everyone when born with innate., it is the fundamental and best kind of nature. In human nature have Ren, righteness, Li, wise, and trust all are innate, which also are innate of heaven reason, human nature reflect the heaven reason. As to life is called nature, is from gas perspective to describe. From human nature's original source, which must be kind and good, human nature content bad and evil element, is caused by outside objective, and because of thought and worry to led it. the bad and evil is caused by emotional activity, also is the result of the gas influence, therefore we must be maintain heaven reason and get rid off human desire. Zhuxu (1130-1200) believes that the reason reflect on man is called nature, human nature content heaven reason is heaven fate nature; gas constitute human body,the human nature which mixed with the reason and gas is called gas characteristic nature. Since the reason is the best good, so the heaven fate nature are best kind, due to the gas has clear and dirty difference, so the gas characteristic nature have both good and evil, good or bad man depend on his gas is clean or dirty, through education and training, one's gas become clean again then he will turn to good and kind. Dao mind and human heart decide, by mediation on body and nourish nature can improve man's heaven fate nature and reason. Dao mind is Heaven reason, Human heart is not equal with human desire which is bad, human desire are bad, Heaven reason and human desire are conflict and can not exist at same time, thus he suggest to get rid off human desire and maintain heaven reason.Gong ZhiZhen(1792-1841) point out that human nature has no good nor bad, good or bad are caused by environment after one's born.

   

   

   In summary, Chinese thinkers and scholars thousand years ago already develop complicate theory about human nature, Mencius hold on human nature are good innate from Heaven, Sunzhi believes human nature are bad, although through education can correct and improve human nature from bad to good. Gaozhi notes that human nature are not good nor bad, all depend on environment influence. Dong Zhongshu first coins the three nature theory, which divide human nature into three group, above, middle and lower, above nature are always good, while lower nature are always bad, the middle nature can be both good and bad, rely on education and culture. Hangyu's three human nature divide "nature" from " emotion" and articulate human nature with five virtues and seven emotion. Chen Jing and Chen Yu as well as Zhuxu first divide human nature into Heaven fate nature with reason and gas nature with body. only gas nature might content bad and evil element, the heaven fate nature are reason and the reason is the best good. the Gas nature content human desire which is bad, so man should be remain Heaven reason, and get rid off human desire.

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