(Homosexuality: a legal or moral problem?)接上页博讯www.peacehall.com
In human history, almost all country treated homosexual as crime and immoral which would be held to death, only recent two decade start decriminalization of homosexuals. However, decriminalization of homosexuals does not necessary turn it into moral, same as adultery used to be a crime, after decriminalization becomes an immoral issue.
III Homosexuals as pathological disease?
About the cause of homosexuals there are many theories. The earliest one is In 1852, Casper suggested that pederasty might be innate. With male genitals, body hair, voice, build and habitués but female from the inside, who desired men and abhorred women (Higgs 1999:74).a century later, A group of German researchers has suggested that too much or too little of certain sex hormones while a baby is in the womb can lead to later homosexual orientation (Stanway354). Another theory is that early child rearing experiences. Boys might over identify with their mothers or perhaps just fail to identify with their fathers, and hence in later life come to recognise their sexuality in female sexuality(Stanway 356).
However, mainstream psychiatry and psychology have abandoned the idea that homosexuality is pathological, which concluded in 1957 “homosexuality cannot legitimately be regarded as a disease, because in many cases it is the only symptom and is compatible with full mental health in other respects.” In 1973, the homosexuality was eliminated from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Ever Since, all major professional associations in mental health care have produced position statements documenting that same-sex sexual orientation is not a mental or physical illness and explicitly opposing efforts to change orientation. These statements are both influenced by and shape social attitudes and public opinion toward homosexuals people and help remove stigma toward them (Powell and Stein 2014:33). Ngunand Vilain (2014) announces that “preponderance of evidence from sexual orientation research strongly suggests that human sexual orientation has biological underpinnings … at the molecular level、、. there is little doubt that genetics plays a role in this trait”(p.183). In 2012, a California law stipulate : (1) “being lesbian, gay, or bisexual is not a disease, disorder, illness, deficiency, or shortcoming”.
But dissident camps in psychiatry and psychology still maintain that homosexuality is a disorder of medical or psychological significance (Murphy 2014: 7). Bioethics saw some discussion about whether homosexuality was a disease, mostly as a test case for general theories of health and disease. Most of this analysis took place after mainstream psychiatry and psychology repudiated the view that homosexuality is pathological. Even now, however, some analysts in bioethics leave the door open to the prospect that homosexuality is “disordered” in some measure (Murphy 2014: 8) While many scientists conducting research on sexual orientation think that sexual orientation is innate and not a disease, Powell and Stein (2014) suggests that “ this is far from proven. 、、there is evidence that sexual orientation is somewhat fluid for some members of the population, undermining the notion that orientation is always firmly predetermined at birth”. Current research suggests that genetic and other biological factors likely play a role in the development of sexual orientations, this does not means that orientations are unchangeable (p. 35). Whether sexual orientation is the result of choice is a distinct question from whether it is immutable or innate. Although issues involving sexual orientation and choice are complicated, the evidence is strong that people’s conscious choices do not play a strong role in the development of sexual orientations (p.36).
Many public figures openly express their negative opinion on homosexuality. The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury(1957) declared that “I believe that homosexual acts are always wrong in the sense that they use in a wrong way human organs for which the right use is intercourse between men and women within marriage. The ‘evil’ of the homosexual act is so self-evident in the fact that it is ‘a perversion of a natural function’ that we require no further proof or knowledge to validate our revulsion”. Sir C. Osborne (1966) commented: “I know nothing or very little about what is called buggery, but from what I do know about it, I hate it and I dislike it” (Woo 2014:11). In a radio interview on 6 June 2013, Ms Robinson urged gay people to seek reparative therapy, discussing a recent brutal assault on a gay man. She calls homosexuality worse than child sexual abuse, describe homosexuality ‘an abomination’. ‘It is the government’s responsibility to uphold God’s law’, which sanctions biblical death penalty for homosexuality. Of course, her remarks were met with public outrage and requests for prosecution (Curtis2013: 142).
From above argument and evidence, we can see the public debate and scientist research on homosexuals is far from the final conclusion. Homosexuality as abnormal and immoral phenomenon can be proved from various facts. For example, One of history's most intriguing woman, Hungarian Countess Erzsebet Bathory (1560-1614) the prototypical lesbian vampire of horror films, may have been sexually aroused in her torture and murder of 610 maidens, she bathed in their blood to preserve her youth (Paglia 1990: 247). Another evidence is A fringe group homosexual practice that appeared in the 1970s: fist fucking, whose devotees crave anal penetration by a male arm, greased by Crisco, up to the elbow (Paglia1970: 264). The third instance is that modern male homosexual has sought ecstasy in the squalor of public toilets (Paglia 1990:21). Public toilets until the 1970s were favored cruising grounds. In 19 century street urinals were installed and these were heavily frequented by men wanting sex with other men (Higgs 1999: 67). Furthermore, In1970s, 574 male homosexuals were asked the number of sex partners they had, about 40% reported having at least 500 sexual partners. 3/4 male homosexuals reported more than thirty different partners during their lives. Most homosexual men have a higher number of sexual partners than most heterosexual men(Reinisch144).Finally, Homosexuals are “supposed to dislike women,” and yet they express their bizarre interests in superficial/unnatural women as their sexual objects (Woo 2014:8). These are only a few examples to show what kind of grotesque activity the homosexuals’ people desire to do. All such abnormal practice certainly against public morals, if not break the law.
In principle, the homosexual must be in balance or disorder in their sexuality, and after hundred and thousand mixed blood and mixed sex between different generation offspring, some of them must be born with imbalance sex capacity and sexuality and this is an assumption that homosexual comes from. To avoid such abnormal offspring, before marriage, both side must be test their sexuality rate or sex hormones, and only allow those match in sex hormones couples got marriage and born children. According to Darwin's evolution theory, human being is evolved from inferior animal, since animal have selvage and primitive characteristics, only after hundred and thousand years evolution and civilization, it must mixed various generations copulated among man and woman, therefore, part of human being were born with imbalance body, mind and sex hormones and sexuality with abnormal psychiatry and psychology feature.
VI Homosexuality is moral or immoral?
It was granted that homosexuality is immoral, that same sex marriage would spread immoral ideas, and that same-sex marriage could put society at risk in all sorts of ways. Alex Rajczi (2008) argued that “none of this is true. The real argument for same-sex marriage is that there is not one single thing wrong with homosexuality”(p.502).