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·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十一章 付款与接受(王力耘译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十二章保险 (李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十三章 法律救济(李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十四章 法律冲突(王力耘译)
***(6)《Scrutton 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》序
·我为法学翻译辩护- 《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》译后记 
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第一章:合同的性质、效力与解释
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第二章:合同当事人
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第三章:代理
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第四章:租船合同
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第五章:作为合同的提单
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第六章:租船合同项下货物的提单
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第七章:合同条款
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第八章:陈述
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第九章:合同的履行:装船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十章:提单作为物权凭证
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十一章:船东对承运贷物的灭失或损坏之责任
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十二章:合同的履行:航次租船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十三章:合同的履行:卸货
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十四章:滞期费
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十五章:运费
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第十六章:定期租船
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第十七章:联运提单,联合运输,集装箱
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十八章:留置权
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十九章:损害赔偿
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第二十章:1971年〈海上货物运输法〉
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第二十一章:管辖权与诉讼时效
***(7)《Omay 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译校
·王海明序《Omay 海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》序
·《Omay 海上保险:法律与保险单》译后记
·朱曾杰序《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第一章:导论
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第二章:海上保险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第三章:船舶险I
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第四章:船舶险II
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第五章:货物风险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第六章:货物除外责任
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第七章:碰撞责任
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第八章:战争险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第九章:罢工、暴乱和民事骚乱
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十章:近因
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十一章:施救费用
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十二章:共同海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十三章:救助
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十四章:全损\实际全损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十五章:单独海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十六章:代位追偿权
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十七章:重复保险与分摊
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·《郭国汀辩护词、代理词自选》
·“五懂”律师多多益善--《郭国汀律师辩护词、代理词精选》序
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·张凌序《郭国汀辩护词、代理词自选》
***(9)《郭国汀海事海商论文自选》郭国汀著
·《郭国汀海商法论文自选》
***(10)《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能译郭国汀审校
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译郭国汀审校 第一章:当事人的目标
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第六章:保险问题
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第四章:信用(融资)协议
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第十章:未来
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第八章:其他法律问题
***(11)《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译
·《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译 第三编:油污 第十一章:导论
·《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译 第三编:油污 第十二章:船舶油污及国际公共卫生法的调整
***(12)《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译
·《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译 第六章:国际技术转让
·《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译 第七章:外国投资
***(13)《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第一章:海事海商法的简明历史
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第五章:拖航
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十章:管辖及程序
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十一章:海洋污染
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十二章:特别法定权利、海上留置权、抵押权及其他请求权
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十三章:旅客运输
***(14)《现代提单的法律与实务》郭国汀/赖民译
·《现代提单的法律与实务》译者的话/郭国汀译
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·《审判的艺术》译者的话/郭国汀
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Injustice as the root of terrorism: Social political and economic fact

Injustice as the root of terrorism: Social political and economic factors

   

   GuotingGuo

   

   3/12/2013

   

   Introduction

   

   After 911 terror attacked, the terrorism studies has expanded to become a field with its own dedicated journals, research centres, leading scholars and experts, canon of published works, research funding opportunities, conferences, seminars, and study programmes. As Jackson(2008:377) noted that a new book on terrorism appears nearly every six hours, while peer-reviewed papers have increased by approximately 300%. Between 1968 and 2003, there were more than 6100 transnational terrorist attacks, causing more than 36000 deaths and injuries. (Robison,Kristopher and Jenkins 2006:1) In 2001 alone there were 1,732 recorded incidents worldwide, and five years later the annual figure had risen to 6,659. (Qvortrup2012:503) However, states terror which have killed, tortured, and intimidated hundreds of millions of people over the past century (Rummel 1994, Sluka 2000b), and many states continue to do so today in places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sudan, and China. Many of these states regularly employ extensive state torture, extra-judicial killings, disappearances, collective punishments, and daily forms of violent intimidation to terrorise opponents and enforce compliance to state rule(Jackson 2008:385). According to the experts of terrorism, the causes of terrorism are diversity including social, economic, political, religious, ideologies, cultural, ethnical factors. Some scholars believe the dictatorship states are less terrorism than democratic countries. Eubank and Weinberg (2001) and Lai (2007) suggest that more democratic countries generate substantially more terrorist activity, arguing that autocratic regimes are better prepared to suppress opposition. My argument is that the reason of the dictatorship states appear less terror attack, not because their political system are better than democracy, but for themselves become state terrorism which overwhelming any non-state group’s any demand for justice, and politics and economics connect with each other closely, political freedom and rights always company with economical freedom; therefore, the political injustice might be one of the important roots of terrorism which need pay more attention.

   

   I. The definition of terrorism

   

   Many scholars has made various definition of terrorism, majority of them are in narrow sense which except state as actor. Bruce Hoffman(1998:43) argues that terrorism involves violence ‘perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity’. Ehrlich and Liu (2002) defined terrorism as actions carried out by militarily-weak sub-or trans-national groups from developing nations to gain political ends through violence against private citizens or public property of militarily-powerful developed nations. Enders and Sandler (2006: 3) define that terrorism ‘is the premeditated use or threat to use violence by individuals or sub-national groups in order to obtain a political or social objective through the intimidation of a large audience beyond that of the immediate victims.’ Sedgwick(2007:110) noted that the important characteristic of terrorism is the use of violence for indirect political and psychological consequences by a group aiming to take political power. Pete Lentini(2008) suggested that the terrorism is a sub-state group or individual uses or threatens to use violence against innocent people or non-combatants or even property to effect political change and achieve political goals by creating an atmosphere of fear.

   Although vary in some elements, all above definitions have a common factor, that terrorism is perpetrated by non-state actors; in fact these definitions are highly influenced by the US State Department’s definition of terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as ‘premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience’ . According to these definitions, the essential elements of terrorism are: (a) using or threat use of violence; (b) by individuals or groups; (c) toward innocent civilians; (d) for political or social reason; (e) by instilling fear and terror.

   The fundamental nature of terrorism is use violence attack innocents for political purposes. Since who are actors, whether individual or a group or a state, do not change the nature of terrorism at all. Thus, it does not make sense to exclusion of state as the subject of terrorism. Richard Jackson(2008:383) argues that if terrorism refers to violence directed towards or threatened against civilians which is designed to instil terror or intimidate a population for political reasons, then broader definition should include state-sponsored terrorism and state terrorism – a broadly consensual definition of terrorism in the literature (Raphael 2007) . Therefore, for justice and fairness, the terrorism can be concisely defined as “using violence direct attack on innocents for political purposes”.

   

   II. Major causes of terrorism

   

   The causes of terrorism are very complicate involving many factors such as social, political, economic, ideological, religious, cultural, ethnic etc. Traditionally, studies of political violence and terrorism have focused on the social and economic causes of terrorism. Relative deprivation often measured as economic inequality and a low level of economic income has often been blamed for increased levels in the incidence of terrorist attacks. However, there is evidence to suggest that these causes do not account for the occurrence of terrorist incidents in Western Europe. According to Matt Haunstrup Qvortrup (2012: 505), the Major causes of contemporary transnational terrorism including inequality and social strains of transitional developments (Lake 2002); political repression (Hefez 2003); the cultural clash between Western and Islamist values (Huntington 1996), the pro-Israeli stance of US (Pape 2005) The fourth wave of international terrorism rooted in Islamist ideologies (Snow 1996) leftist terrorism traditionally used a national liberation framework.

   Many scholars recently pay much attention to study the relationship between the ethnic faction and terrorism. For instance, Kurrild-Klitgaard et al. (2006) report a weak, but nevertheless positive relationship between terrorist activity and the ethnic, linguistic, and religious fractionalization of countries on the receiving end of terrorist attacks. Enders and Sandler( 2006:76) suggest that heightened ethnic tensions in a country generally increase the number of transnational terrorist attacks by citizens of that country; and poorer countries also spawn more terrorists. Basuchoudhary & Shughart (2010:66) observed that ethnically polarized countries are more likely to be plagued by civil war and other domestic violence. The unleashing of ethnic and religious separatism in the Middle East and Central Asia in the wake of the colonial powers’ withdrawal from the scene and the collapse of the Soviet Union are central to the understanding of modern terrorist activity. But the fact of the Democratic Republic of the Congo – a hotbed of ethnic tensions – has no reported transnational terrorist incidents; while ethnic-tension-free Greece had 110 transnational terrorist events between 1982 and 1997. This suggests that a correlation between ethnic tensions and terrorism is plausible. (Enders and Sandler, 2006:79)

   The logic of the ethnic tension cause terrorism is base on that human nature. Mankind are both social and political animal. For the survival of the species has hinged on the evolution of cooperative interaction amongst rationally self-interested individuals and the strongest of mankind’s interpersonal bonds are nurtured by ties of blood. Kinship fosters trust, loyalty and adherence to other behavioral norms that help control free-riding. Amartya Sen (2006) emphasizes that while identification with a particular group can facilitate within-group cooperation , ‘excessive’ identification can also lead to inter-group conflict. Thus, while groups promote the creation of ‘social capital’ that allows their members to coexist peacefully, trading networks to emerge, and public goods to be produced, the asymmetrical relationships between insiders and outsiders can lead to polarization and violent confrontation. Such inter-group tensions may find expression in transnational terrorist activity. (Basuchoudhary & Shughart 2010:65)

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