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郭国汀律师专栏
·郭国汀 从我的经历看中共当局诽谤高智晟的下流
·所谓高智晟公开声明及悔罪书肯定是伪造的
·真正的中国人的伟大怒吼!
·加拿大著名人权律师安世立支持声援全球绝食抗暴的声明
·闻律师英雄高智晟再遇车祸有感 郭国汀
·呼吁全球万人同步大绝食宣言
·全球接力绝食抗暴运动的伟大意义 郭国汀
·郭国汀声援和平抗暴 呼吁抛弃中共
·中国律师界应全力声援高智晟
·专家剖析高智晟煽动颠覆国家政权案
·抓捕关押高智晟的整个过程都是违法的/郭国汀
·中共迫害高智晟亲人丧心病狂,中共党魁胡锦涛难辞其咎
·绝食维权抗暴日记
·郭国汀 漠视大陆维权是一种自杀行为
·英雄伟人与超人高智晟
·告全体中国律师及法律人书----闻高智晟被秘密绑架感言
·郭国汀: 高智晟遭秘密绑架可能成为中共灭亡的导火索
·给真正的中国女人的公开信
·郭国汀:驳刘荻的非理性投射说
·决不与中共专制暴政同流合污--------第29个全球接力绝食抗暴日记 郭国汀
·一部见证当代中国社会现实的伟大纪实作品--序高智晟《中国民间企业维权第一案》
·郭国汀呼吁国际重视高智晟妻儿的遭遇
·将接力绝食抗暴运动进行至最后胜利
·我为中华律师英雄杨在新喝彩 郭国汀
·郭国汀向老戚致敬
·万众一心,众志成城——全球万人同步绝食抗暴日记 郭国汀
·责令中共当局立即无条件释放兰州大学学生刘西峰!郭国汀
·加拿大著名人权律师ANSLEY支持声援全球绝食抗暴运动的声明
·郭国汀:中国律师应当向高智晟,浦志强律师学习!
***(45)人权研究
***中国人权律师基金会
·郭国汀推荐黄金秋竞选[第三届中国自由文化运动政论奖]推荐函
·郭国汀提名陈泱潮为2009中国自由文化奖之文化成就奖获奖候选人
·郭国汀提名张博树为2009中国自由文化奖之法学奖获奖候选人
·推荐郭国汀先生参选2009年台湾民主人权奖书
·letter of recommendation of Guoting for 2008 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award
·提名郭國汀律師作為[第三屆亞洲民主與人權獎]候選人的推薦函
·支持郭国汀律师负责组建中国人权律师基金会
·第二届《中国自由文化奖》评奖程序的修改建议
·郭国汀提名张鉴康律师作为第二届自由文化奖之人权奖候选人
·关于提名陈泱潮竞选[中国自由文化运动文化成就奖]推荐函
·推荐郭国汀先生参选第三届「亞洲民主人權獎」推荐书
·Letter of recommendation of Guoting Guo for 2008 The Third Asian Democracy and Human Rights Award
***(46)关注西藏新疆少数民族人权
·解决西藏问题的最佳方案--宪政联邦体制
·中共政权对藏民族所犯下的罪恶
·西藏自古以来属于中国吗?--西藏与中国关系简史
·什么是西藏问题?
·达赖啦嘛论解决西藏问题的原则
·中共宗教灭绝政策的实质是从精神心灵上扼杀藏人
·西藏自古以来属于中国吗?
·西藏问题的实质
·自由法治宪政民主联邦体制是解决西藏问题的最佳方案
·达赖啦嘛最常使用的词汇
·达赖啦嘛的使命与梦想
·达赖啦嘛论西藏问题的实质
·达赖啦嘛论西藏文明文化和历史
·达赖啦嘛论解决西问题的原则
·达赖啦嘛论爱同情怜悯与慈悲
·达赖啦嘛论藏传佛教的价值
·是中共暴政而非汉族奴役迫害藏民族!
·新疆暴亂是中共流氓暴政故意利用民族茅盾转嫁统治危机人为泡制的惨案
·坚决支持藏民维民争自由,平等,人权,民主的英勇抗暴运动
·从图片新闻看达赖喇嘛的国际影响力
·达赖喇嘛语录郭国汀译
·蜡烛与阳光争辉------从温家宝批达赖喇嘛说开去
·达赖喇嘛代表流亡政府及全体藏民与中国政府和平谈判理所当然----兼与王希哲兄商榷
·三一四西藏暴乱事件的真相
·布什总统再度敦促中国(中共)与达赖喇嘛对话
·达赖喇嘛抵美国西图参加为期五天的慈善的科学基础大会,据称150000门票全部售出
·布什总统出席奥运开幕式已不确定
·达赖喇嘛今天重申不抵制奥运会
·布什总统决意出席奥运开幕式并非仅由于他性格顽固
***(47)人权律师法律实务
·郭国汀:中国人没有基本人权——2008年加拿大国会中国人权研讨会专稿
·我为何从海事律师转向人权律师?
·盛雪专访郭国汀从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的思想根源
·郭国汀律师受中共政治迫害的直接原因
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·成为一名人权律师!---郭国汀律师专访
·一个中国人权律师的真实故事
·世界人权日感言/郭国汀
·人权漫谈/南郭
·人权佳话
·保障人权律师的基本人权刻不容缓
·不敢或不愿为法轮功作无罪辩护的律师,不是真正的人权律师!
·人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)
·我为什么推崇中国人权律师浦志强?
·巴黎律师公会采访中国人权律师郭国汀
·
·人权律师的职责与使命----驳李建强关于严正学力虹案件的声明
·驳斥刘路有关六四屠城的荒唐谬论
·李建强律师与郭国汀律师的公开论战
·李建强与郭国汀律师的论战之二
·英雄多多益善!郭国汀
·英雄辈出的时代刘路千万别走错路 郭国汀
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什么是自由主义?新自由主义?改革自由主义?

Thomas G.Guo

   

   最近曾节明发表了数篇抨击新自由主义及批判自由的价值的评论。其中某些论点虽有一定道理,但似乎首先应当明确“新自由主义”包括哪些具体原则,并明确指出其依据和证据。且不宜一概否定之,因为任何理论与主张皆可能存在不足,同时也有其合理内涵。在批判某一论点的同时,应当指出为其辩护的论点有哪些,供读者参考。自由是公认的最高价值观之一,“自由,平等,博爱”是法国大革命的口号,“生命,自由,追求人生幸福的权利“是美国独立宣言归纳的原则,自由有其公认的特定含义,中共暴政下党用文人滥用”新自由主义“给暴政脸上贴金而已。吾以为曾先生似乎混淆了新自由主义及改革自由主义,而且节明对自由主义的主要内容和基本原则有不切实的评论。Hayek and Nozick等人提出的是改革自由主义而非新自由主义,而且当代世界各主要自由宪政民主国家皆奉行改革自由主义。英国前首相萨切尔和美国前总统里根皆非奉行新自由主义,而是主张改革自由主义。

   

   孟德斯鸠指出:“自由是做法律所许可的一切事情的权利”,穆勒说:人是自由的,但以不伤害他人的自由为边界。法国人权宣言明确:自由即为法律所不禁止之事。因此,自由有其明确的定义。随心所欲胡作非为显然不是政治学中公认的自由概念。自由从来是法律下的自由,而该法律主要是指自然法或上帝法则。中共暴政下,决非自由太多,而是根本没有丝毫政治自由,因此批判自由主义明显不合适宜。即使要批,也必须首先明确定义的前提下为之。

   

   自由主义最初形成于十七世纪的英国。自由主义作为术语是由十九世纪的威廉哥拉斯通首创。自由主义的价值有更远久的历史,自由主义源于资本主义政治经济的堀起,由霍布斯和洛克为捍卫私有财产和个人自由首创的政治哲学。自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;古典自由主义将亚当斯密的经济理论结合斯滨赛的社会学理论,强调国家的作用应当限于确保国内外安全,并保障私有财产安全,主张消极自由,排除外部干预;其政治哲学依据则是霍布斯和洛克的社会契约,强调个人主义,保护个人权利对抗社会和国家,否认国家干预个人生活任何领域的权利。极端自由主义是无政府主义者倡导的。十九世纪末由于原始资本主义带来的普遍贫困,社会主义问世,因而自由主义与社会民主主义结合则产生了新自由主义,强调国家干预的积极自由,消除自由的障碍;1970年代Hayek andNozick等人又提出了改革自由主义.当代世界各自由宪政国家主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等(强调机会平等)、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   自由主义的理论与实践博大精深,并非口号式的公式能够解决。任何人未作深入细致研究学习,不宜作任何结论式评论。限于时间关系,仅提供吾归纳之自由主义(英文)主要论点供各位参考。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and manysocial democratic parties in Europe, has really been liberal incharacter.The liberalism associated with the socialdemocratic left, is a new or social liberalism;the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory ofHerbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedom andrewards those who work hardest. At theend of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw morepositive role of state, create greater opportunities for individuals to achievetheir goals. Through a range of socialreform measures, liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20century. 1970s a revised version of classicalliberalism emerged to challenge the new liberalism, right winggovernment, political thinker Hayek and Nozick.

   Meaningof liberalism

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products.

   Classical liberalismemphasizes the negative liberty, removeexternal constraints; new liberalismemphasizespositive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed theconsent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict. Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financialresource, ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Human nature make human beings are rational and self-interested they look afterthemselves first and have the capabilities to do so better than anyone else. Theyhave the power to choose and therefore responsible for their action.

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

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