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郭国汀律师专栏
·愤怒出诗人,悲愤出伟诗
***(55)郭国汀律师专访
·世纪回眸(69)-专访郭国汀之一
·世纪回眸(70)-专访郭国汀律师之二
·郭国汀谈郭飞雄、力虹、陈树庆遭被捕
·法律人的历史使命---答《北大法律人》主编采访录
·郭国汀律师答亚洲周刊纪硕鸣采访实录
·希望之声专访:声援高智晟同时也是在为自己
·胡平章天亮郭国汀谈中华文化与道德重建
·希望之声专访郭国汀 中共是最大的犯罪利益集团
·中共已是末日黄昏----郭国汀声援杨在新律师
·希望之声专访郭国汀用法律手段揪出幕后凶手
·【专访】郭国汀从海事律师到人权律师的转变
·专访郭国汀:为女儿打破沉默
·郭国汀谴责中共对他全家迫害恐吓
·郭国汀律师谈中国司法现状
·人权律师郭国汀在加拿大谈六四
·加拿大华人举办烛光悼念纪念六四-著名人权律师郭国汀称退党运动具有重大意义 
·采访郭国汀律师:被逼离婚 战斗到底
·华盛顿邮报报导高智晟律师事件
·[专访]郭国汀律师:从刘金宝案谈开去
·希望之声专访郭国汀和盛雪
·大纪元专访郭国汀 中共垮台是必然的
·郭国汀谈高智晟律师的公开信
·中共的末日只是时间迟早的问题
·中华文化与道德重建
·【专访】郑恩宠律师郭国汀谈郑案内情
·【专访】辩护律师郭国汀谈清水君案
·郭国汀指雅虎遵守当地法律说无法律根据
·郭国汀触怒司法当局:中国律师维护社会正义风险大
·US lawmakers ask Beijing to reinstate law firm of rights activist
***国际透视
·北朝鲜疯狂发展核武器为哪般?
·中国强劳产品出口的罪孽
·郭国汀 中国人民的真正朋友加拿大总理斯蒂芬 哈柏
·只有抛弃马列毛实现法治自由民主21世纪才有可能属于中国
·华盛顿邮报详细报导陈光诚案判决情况
·中国是国际网络表达自由的头号敌人
·华盛顿邮报陈光诚案庭审报导Chinese Rights Activist Stands Trial After Police Detain Defense Team
·新闻检查最严厉的十个国家胡锦涛称要向北朝鲜和古巴学习政治!
·国际人权观察就赵长青狱中受虐致胡温公开函
·中国驻美使馆拒收立即释放师涛的国际呼吁书
·国际保护记者委员会哀悼吴湘湖记者
·BBC 英语新闻报导《冰点》被封事件
·国际保护记者委员会关注声援杨天水
·国际保护记者委员会谴责中共迫害记者李长青
·国际保护记者委员会呼吁立即无条件释放杨天水
·CPJ URGER MR.HU RELEASE JOURNALISTS IN CHINA
·Overcoming Violence Abroad and at Home
·Lawyers Sentence Tests IOCs Ability to Enforce Olympic Promises
·Free China Rally in Canberra,
·Open Letter to President Hu Jintao and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao from the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong in China (CIPFG)
·非洲的复兴(African Renaissance)
***(56)大学日记
·错误是我犯的,但数十年后亲自纠错我还不伟大吗?!
·郭国汀 “只有社会主义才能救中国”质疑
·国家是民族矛盾不可调和的产物而非阶级斗争的产物/郭国汀
·阶级斗争的思考/郭国汀
·论干部制度/郭国汀
·无产阶级领袖有感/郭国汀
·学习与开放/郭国汀
·如何理解劳动?──有感于中国1956─1959年之“三大改造/郭国汀”
·时空畅想/郭国汀
·文革教训原因考/郭国汀
·对物质的思考/郭国汀
·精神文明与物质文明/郭国汀
·内因与外因关系的沉思
·外因是决定事物运动变化发展的根本原因
·开放党禁与多党联合政治
·论质、量互变关系
·如何理解劳动?——有感于中国1956—1959年之“三大改造”
·人类与自然环境
·共产主义是违背自然规律的妄想
***(57)网友评价评论与批评郭国汀
·一代大师
·良好的名誉是人们在任何时代任何社会安身立命之本
·各界人士对郭国汀律师高度评价
·浦志强、张思之大律师评价郭国汀
·清水君(黄金秋):我要特别感谢郭国汀大律师
·上海美女评价郭国汀律师
·欧阳小戎忆郭国汀律师
·不要迫害中国的脊梁 ──郭国汀
·良心律师,人权大侠!
·为国为民 侠之大者——郭国汀
·被缚的普罗米修司----
·感谢郭国汀律师
·让英雄的血流在光天化日之下
·声援中国人权律师郭国汀、强烈反对中共利用司法机器釜底抽薪镇压维权运动征集签名书
·谁是当代中国最高贵的人?
·答浦志强对郭国汀的批评
·警惕:中共对郭国汀律师的迫害并没有中止
·从郭国汀案看中国法制的崩毁
·值得大学生与爱国愤青一读的戏剧
·大中学生及爱国愤青的娱乐读物
·刘路与郭国汀之间的友情
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什么是自由主义?新自由主义?改革自由主义?

Thomas G.Guo

   

   最近曾节明发表了数篇抨击新自由主义及批判自由的价值的评论。其中某些论点虽有一定道理,但似乎首先应当明确“新自由主义”包括哪些具体原则,并明确指出其依据和证据。且不宜一概否定之,因为任何理论与主张皆可能存在不足,同时也有其合理内涵。在批判某一论点的同时,应当指出为其辩护的论点有哪些,供读者参考。自由是公认的最高价值观之一,“自由,平等,博爱”是法国大革命的口号,“生命,自由,追求人生幸福的权利“是美国独立宣言归纳的原则,自由有其公认的特定含义,中共暴政下党用文人滥用”新自由主义“给暴政脸上贴金而已。吾以为曾先生似乎混淆了新自由主义及改革自由主义,而且节明对自由主义的主要内容和基本原则有不切实的评论。Hayek and Nozick等人提出的是改革自由主义而非新自由主义,而且当代世界各主要自由宪政民主国家皆奉行改革自由主义。英国前首相萨切尔和美国前总统里根皆非奉行新自由主义,而是主张改革自由主义。

   

   孟德斯鸠指出:“自由是做法律所许可的一切事情的权利”,穆勒说:人是自由的,但以不伤害他人的自由为边界。法国人权宣言明确:自由即为法律所不禁止之事。因此,自由有其明确的定义。随心所欲胡作非为显然不是政治学中公认的自由概念。自由从来是法律下的自由,而该法律主要是指自然法或上帝法则。中共暴政下,决非自由太多,而是根本没有丝毫政治自由,因此批判自由主义明显不合适宜。即使要批,也必须首先明确定义的前提下为之。

   

   自由主义最初形成于十七世纪的英国。自由主义作为术语是由十九世纪的威廉哥拉斯通首创。自由主义的价值有更远久的历史,自由主义源于资本主义政治经济的堀起,由霍布斯和洛克为捍卫私有财产和个人自由首创的政治哲学。自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;古典自由主义将亚当斯密的经济理论结合斯滨赛的社会学理论,强调国家的作用应当限于确保国内外安全,并保障私有财产安全,主张消极自由,排除外部干预;其政治哲学依据则是霍布斯和洛克的社会契约,强调个人主义,保护个人权利对抗社会和国家,否认国家干预个人生活任何领域的权利。极端自由主义是无政府主义者倡导的。十九世纪末由于原始资本主义带来的普遍贫困,社会主义问世,因而自由主义与社会民主主义结合则产生了新自由主义,强调国家干预的积极自由,消除自由的障碍;1970年代Hayek andNozick等人又提出了改革自由主义.当代世界各自由宪政国家主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等(强调机会平等)、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   自由主义的理论与实践博大精深,并非口号式的公式能够解决。任何人未作深入细致研究学习,不宜作任何结论式评论。限于时间关系,仅提供吾归纳之自由主义(英文)主要论点供各位参考。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and manysocial democratic parties in Europe, has really been liberal incharacter.The liberalism associated with the socialdemocratic left, is a new or social liberalism;the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory ofHerbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedom andrewards those who work hardest. At theend of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw morepositive role of state, create greater opportunities for individuals to achievetheir goals. Through a range of socialreform measures, liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20century. 1970s a revised version of classicalliberalism emerged to challenge the new liberalism, right winggovernment, political thinker Hayek and Nozick.

   Meaningof liberalism

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products.

   Classical liberalismemphasizes the negative liberty, removeexternal constraints; new liberalismemphasizespositive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed theconsent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict. Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financialresource, ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Human nature make human beings are rational and self-interested they look afterthemselves first and have the capabilities to do so better than anyone else. Theyhave the power to choose and therefore responsible for their action.

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

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