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伯拉图亚里士多德论古希腊民主体制

   伯拉图亚里士多德论古希腊民主体制

   

   郭国汀编译

   

   “当穷人征服,杀害一部分人,驱逐另一部分人,并由剩下的人们平等享有公民权和政府之时民主即来临,官员通常经由抽签决定[1]。他们是自由人,城市充满了行动自由和言论自由,男人可做任何他想做的事;每个男人皆可按自已的意愿安排他自已的私生活[2]。因为它的自由,这是最佳的宪约![3]

   

   在那里无需总督,如果你不喜欢没有必要被管理,如果他们战斗,你无需参战;如果他们保持和平,你无需遵守和平,除非你渴望和平。[4]在介入政治生涯以前从不关心任何政治实践,但是予之荣誉如果他宣称他忠诚于人民![5]这些事情即是民主,没有总督及多种彩色;一律平等,能力平等与不平等者一视同仁,平均平配。[6]

   

   对于此种最美好的宪约和最优秀的男人,亦即暴政和暴君。暴政是如何诞生的?从民主演变而来。[7父不象父,子不象子;师不象师,生不象生;处国人与公民平等;老人让位于年青人;老人似顽童以免被视为老顽固;暴民自由在民主城市无法进一步,当奴隶得赎,男女奴隶与买奴隶者平等!人们不在乎法律,无人是其主人;这是通往暴政的开始,如此美妙的开端!427过大的自由似乎什么也没有改变,仅对男人的城市带来更严重的奴役。民主体制是暴政兹长之所;从绝对自由演变成最彻底,最全面的奴役![8]

   

   民主制下的领导层是一些未经训练,缺乏能力者,因为他们被排除在政府之外,从未有过荣誉;但在民主体制下,这一小撮人却成为领导阶层。仅是个别人狠,大众则盲从,他们从不容忍任何异议,所有政府事务,皆操控在此类人手中。另一层则总是与大众分离,忙于赚钱且通常皆变得非常富有。“人民”将被命名为第三等级,包括所有在政治之外的自已没有多少财产的手工工人。这是民主制中人数最大及最具主体的阶级,当他们联合时。但他们时常并不在意联合,除非得到某种好处,他们确实不时得到些许好处,这取决于头儿们的能力,剥夺富有者财产分配少许给大众而自已独占大部分。429惨遭抢劫者通常只能自我辩护,则被打成“反动寡头”而无知的被蒙骗的大众审判富人。

   

   当暴政出现时,起因于纯属保护者的角色。当人民的保护者发现一个非常顺服的暴民时;当他不再抑制流血时,当他随意控制审判,毁灭某人的生命时,当他偿到帝王的甜头时,当他清除和处决政敌时,当他决意废除债务和分配财产时,他要么被他的敌人消灭,要么自已变成暴君,使自已变成狼。[9]

   

   有关左与右的古代希腊说法:法官作出审判,指令正义的人坐在天庭的右上首,不义的人则被令居左边。[10]

   

   在民主体制下,所有的人分享所有的事[11]。

   

   从正确的宪约的变异:暴政变自王国,寡头源自贵族,民主源于公民政体。[12]暴政是最坏的变异,同时民主则是最温和的变异。[13]

   

   伯拉图认为在所有合适的政体中,民主是最坏的;但是在所有坏的政体中,民主则是最好的。[14]邱吉尔2300年后说:民主是最不坏的政府。在每一种情况下,一个国家的公民主体是主权者;公民主体是宪约主体;因此在民主制下,(因为所有的自由人皆是公民),故人民是主权者,而在寡头制下(仅少数富人有公民权)故富人是主权者。[15]

   

   民主政体乃是主权权力撑握在那些不占有生产工具的人手中。[16]各类民主政体:基于平等原则;依合格财产为准录用官员;所有的公民平等;任何人只要是公民皆平等并依法统治;依多数原则统治但不依法律;[17]自由是民主的特征,正如财富是寡头制,品德是贵族制的特点一样;而多数决定原则是三者共同的特点。[18]

   

   在民主制下,对于富人不参加会议不课罚款,而穷人出席会议则领取工资;选任官员不依据财产资格,而依抽签决定。[19]完全意义上的民主是指人民甚至有高于法律的主权。[20]

   

   民主源于那些在任何方面平等即在各方面绝对平等的观念。民主基于他们是平等的理由,主张平等参与任何事务。[21]民主政体是比寡头安全和更少造成国家分裂的政体。[22]过于简单和绝对描述民主为人民大众是主权者是错误的。[23]]

   

   我们应当说民主制下自由人是主权者,正如富人在寡头制中是主权者一样;自由人总是居多数而富人总是仅占少数;当少数人被占多数的非自由人统治时并不是民主;而当并不富有的占多数的自由人,位居主权控制政府时即是民主。[24]

   

   [1] Democracy comesinto being when the poor conquer, kill some of the other party and banish others,share out the citizenship and government equally with the rest, the offices aregenerally settled by lot. P419 556b

   

   [2] ‘They are freeman; the city is full of freedom and liberty of speech, and men may do whatthey like’. ‘there is liberty of action; each men would arrange his own privatelife in it just as it pleased him’.p.419.

   

   [3] This is the mostbeautiful constitution, because of it is liberty!P.419.

   

   [4] No necessary tobe governor there, no need to be ruled if you do not like it; you need not goto war if they fight, you need not keep peace if the others keep it, unless youdesire peace; p.420

   

   [5] Care nothingwhat the practices before entering and living political life, but gives himhonour if he only says he is loyal to the people! P.420

   

   [6] These things arein democracy, no governor and plenty of colour; equality of a sort, distributedto equal and unequal alike. P.420

   

   [7] For the mostbeautiful constitution and the most beautiful men, that is tyranny and thetyrant. How does tyranny come about? Democracy change into this. P.425.

   

   [8]P.428

   

   [9]P.431

   

   [10]Plato The Republic 613c see Great Dialogues of Plato translatedby

   W.H.D. Rouse, Signet Classics 1984.P.491.Judges gave judgement, commanded the just men to proceed to the right andupwards through heaven, the unjust men they sent down to the left.

   

   [11] In democraciesall share in all things. 1328b24

   

   [12] The deviationsfrom (the right constitution): tyranny from kingship, oligarchy fromaristocracy, democracy from polity. 1289a26

   

   [13] Tyranny is theworst while democracy is the most moderate of the deviations. 1289a38

   

   [14] Plato thinksthat where all are reasonable enough, then democracy is the worst of them; butwhen all are bad, democracy is the best. 1289a38

   

   [15] in every casethe

   citizenbody of a state is sovereign;the citizenbody is the constitution. Thus in democracies the people aresovereign, in oligarchies the few. 1278b6

   

   [16] Democracies isthe sovereign power in the hands of those who have no stock of possessions andare without means. 1279b16 when the poor rule, that is democracy. 1279b16

   

   [17] Variousdemocracies: base on the principle of equality, property-qualification foroffice; all citizens share; everyone shares, if citizens, law rules; multitudeis sovereign and not the law. 1291b39

   Demagogues where the laws are not rule, become tyranny

   

   [18] Freedom is thedefinitive principle of democracy, as wealth of oligarchy, and virtue ofaristocracy;the principle of majority-decision belong to all three. 1294a9

   

   [19] In democracy nofines for non-attendance are imposed on the wealthy, and the poor receive payfor their services. In democracies, there is no property-qualification, by lotis regards as democracy. 1294a35

   

   [20] A fullest senseof democracy which the people is sovereign even over the laws. 1298b11

   

   [21] Democracy arosefrom the idea that those who are equal in any respect one equal absolutely. Allare free, claim that they are all equal absolutely. The democrats, on theground that they are equal, claim equal participation in everything. 1301a25

   

   [22] Democracy issafer and less liable to faction than oligarchy. 1302a 2

   

   [23] It is a mistaketo describe democracy too simple and absolute saying that democracy where themass of people is sovereign. 1290a30

   

   [24] we should sayrather that it is a democracy whenever the free are sovereign, oligarchy whenthe rich are sovereign;

   free are many,rich are few. Whenever the free are not numerous, but rule over a majority whoare not free, cannot say it is democracy. A democracy exists whenever those whoare free and are not well-off, being in the majority, are in sovereign controlof government. 1290b7

(2012/12/12 发表)

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