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郭国汀律师专栏
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郭国汀:苏共政权垮台的根本原因

苏共政权垮台的根本原因

   

   郭国汀

   

   

   What reasons cause the communist regime collapse?

   

   

   Guoting Guo

   

   Russiancommunist regime was demised in the end of 1991 after Eastern Europeancommunist regimes finished years ago, which is out of almost all western andeastern politicians and scholars’ expectation. There are number of books andarticles debated and argued various reasons and causes led the communist empirecollapse. Since Chinese communist regime is a copy of Soviet regime and Chineseleaders always claim that ‘the soviet union’s yesterday is out’s today’. Manypeople wonder why Chinese communist regime continue survive and seems boomingin economy while Soviet Union totally collapses. Does soviet regime’s collapseis unavoidable or simply by some error made by its leader? Does Chinese regimerevive the communist regime? Even professor Fransis Fukuyama doubtsthat “Whetherthe Chinese model might be increasingly attractive, does this means thatcommunism could be resurrected?”[1] Professorof political science Holmes also said that communism mighthave some positivity elements; we should seriously treat the theory andpractice of the communism.[2]Myargument is that communist regime will collapses no matter how expression andachievement it will make, it is only a matter of whether peaceful or bloody wayand sooner or later to end of the evil and criminal regime.

   

   

   I

   

   Harvard

   University Professor of history

   Richard Pipes pointed out that soviet unioncommunist regime collapse reasons are economic failure, citizens contact greatdeal foreign information, the war in Afghanistan failure, could not able tomaintain the competition of weapons and equipment, could not able to suppressthe dissidents movement, Poland’s united worker association’s influence, ledleaders lose confidence and president Reagan challenge further made sovietgovernment lost its fighting will. Each these reason has some affection, but ifit is a health institution. They are not able to make a great empire suddenlycollapse; they work because the institution itself had rotten beyond rescue.Marxism as the basic theory of communism ,carry oncause it collapse, it is an unrealistic physiology base on wrongly historicphilosophy. [3]thesecond seriously error of Marxism is the notion of the human nature couldunlimited alienable, which assert that by forcing education measure couldeliminate human being’s greedy, it is far from the greatest original sin, suchas vanity,conceit, pride,ambition,deceitfulness,hypocrisy etc. Richard further assert that communism definitely failure for atleast two reasons: in order forced its main aim-equality, it had to create aforced institution, which demand privileges, then damage the equality; whileloyalty to nationality and territory conflict to the loyalty to class, inanywhere and at any time, the formal always overpass the later. Therefore heconcluded that communist as a wrong theory, a fake science turn into a fakereligion and plant in an unreliable institution, which had proved that it couldnot get rid of the error notion and rely on the mistake notion set up the errorregime and have to collapse.[4]

   

   There isquite common view that it is Gorbachev glasnost (that ispenness) and democratic socialism policy which mainly causes the demise of thecommunist regime in both western and eastern world.

   

   Peter,Our text book the author, pointed out that It is safe to say that had Gorbachevnot emerged victorious in the power struggle, or had he been a differentperson, the fate of the Soviet Union would have been different.[5]Conservative American commentators that it was Reagan’s military build-up thatforced the Soviet Union into bankruptcy drove home the conclusion to the newleaders that they would never catch up with the American and that as aconsequence Reagan’s politics were primarily responsible for the collapse ofthe SU.[6]Reagan did not but the communists defeated themselves.

   

   Professorpolitical science Holmes observed that the character of Gorbachev and hisreform and democratic policy cause the collapse of the communist party regimeof Soviet Union. Formal British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher remarked thatshe can do business with Gorbachev.

   

   

   SomeRussian scholars who visited or invited by Chinese government declared it isGorbachev who should responsible for the collapse of the empire. Л.С.Leyinova declares that competition between Gorbachevand Jelsin for power is a reason which causes the collapse of the Soviet Union.[7]“Gorbachev’s openness, democratization, reveal the dark side of the part,become the destroy country’s weapon.” Reirikov, a soviet scholar in aconference in Beijing said, he also claim that main reason is Gorbachev betraythe party and people.[8]American Professor of economy David inQinghua university make a speech: Collapse of the Soviet Union neither provesthe failure of socialism nor proves the advantage of the capitalism. It onlyproves that when soviet institution turn an agricultural society toindustrialization, it is better than capitalism, which has speeding and morefairness.[9]

   

   Many Chinese scholars claimed the similar opinionas above Russian and USA scholars, however, because they are under dictatorshipregime’s heavy surveillance which makes them either becomes fake scholar orsimply give party lip service exchange for their personal benefits. Forexample:

   

   A Chinese scholar remarks that Gorbachev denyStalin and Lenin, socialism, Soviet Union’s history, party’s leadership,finally cause the demise of the party.[10] Chen Zhihua, a Chinese scholar said.“Gorbachev’s new thinking, democratization, openness, in nature is anti-Marxismand Leninism, deny socialism. During the demise of soviet communism, variousanti-communism propaganda, he is the general director. He further claim that“Gorbachev betrays Marxism and Leninism, his reform and democratic socialism,openness, multiparty, privatization, denies soviet history, is the fundamentalreason of the demise of the soviet union and party.”[11]However,it is said that Gorbachev in a conference in the capital city Ankara of Turkeyremarks that “my life purpose is eliminating the communism” and “my aim of lifehas fulfil”. Mr. Wang Chengci whois the director of China social science institution said that “collapse of theSoviet Union is because of Gorbachev’s error new thinking reform and loseparty’s

   capacity of executive

   is the most important reason”.[12]

   Deputy dean of the Chinese Social ScienceInstitution (Marxism Study ) also claim that “Soviet party’s demise realthought root is betray the Marxism, so-called democratic democracy, amendconstitution, give up party’s leadership position and the ideology of Marxism.[13]“Decisive element is Russian communist party rotten, its demise fundamentalreason is not Stalin’s style but Gorbachev’s betray Marxism and Leninism aswell the basic interests of the people.[14]Chen Zhihua argued.

   “The failure ofRussian communist party is begin from the area of thought; Gorbachev supportedideology of multi-ideology, led disorder of thought of the party which open thedoor of Western thought.[15]hishumanly democratic socialism, democratization, and openness, in fact is userobber’s way to destroy socialism. The party give up the control of thought,hand out the culture, western though internet CNN and Hollywood media tool,export the idea of freedom, democracy, causes Russian people change theirnotion, led down the bases of thought.”A scholar name Maco even blame like this ridicule way.

   

   Above scholarsvarious comments the most believable one is Harvard university professorRichard’s argument which stress that “the roots of collapse of the communism islie on the basic theory of the communism which is Marxism”.

   I quite agree with his arguments.

   

   As regard to Peter’sargument that it is Gorbachev personality and who decide the fate of the SovietUnion sound reasonable, In 1987 and 1988 thousands of groupscame into being. The appearance of these associations changed the face ofSoviet society.[16]Gradually glasnost turns into freedom of speech. Intellectuals become courage,and the taboos fell one after another, creating a sense of excitement. [17] But this argument isnot acceptable without challenge, for had the regime is health and amendable,the openness and democratic policy could never bring such result. For truth candefeat mistake on free market of thought, and could bear any debate, only faketruth have to rely on violence support in closed society. In opened societyfreedom and justice always will do, while in closed society usually who hold onviolence will win. Human history is evolution from barbarous to civilization,the way to obtain political power is competed from violence to free andfairness election.

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