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郭国汀律师专栏
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***(45)人权研究
***中国人权律师基金会
·郭国汀推荐黄金秋竞选[第三届中国自由文化运动政论奖]推荐函
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·郭国汀提名张博树为2009中国自由文化奖之法学奖获奖候选人
·推荐郭国汀先生参选2009年台湾民主人权奖书
·letter of recommendation of Guoting for 2008 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award
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·支持郭国汀律师负责组建中国人权律师基金会
·第二届《中国自由文化奖》评奖程序的修改建议
·郭国汀提名张鉴康律师作为第二届自由文化奖之人权奖候选人
·关于提名陈泱潮竞选[中国自由文化运动文化成就奖]推荐函
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·Letter of recommendation of Guoting Guo for 2008 The Third Asian Democracy and Human Rights Award
***(46)关注西藏新疆少数民族人权
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·西藏问题的实质
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·达赖啦嘛的使命与梦想
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·达赖啦嘛论解决西问题的原则
·达赖啦嘛论爱同情怜悯与慈悲
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·布什总统再度敦促中国(中共)与达赖喇嘛对话
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***(47)人权律师法律实务
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·我为何从海事律师转向人权律师?
·盛雪专访郭国汀从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的思想根源
·郭国汀律师受中共政治迫害的直接原因
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·成为一名人权律师!---郭国汀律师专访
·一个中国人权律师的真实故事
·世界人权日感言/郭国汀
·人权漫谈/南郭
·人权佳话
·保障人权律师的基本人权刻不容缓
·不敢或不愿为法轮功作无罪辩护的律师,不是真正的人权律师!
·人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)
·我为什么推崇中国人权律师浦志强?
·巴黎律师公会采访中国人权律师郭国汀
·
·人权律师的职责与使命----驳李建强关于严正学力虹案件的声明
·驳斥刘路有关六四屠城的荒唐谬论
·李建强律师与郭国汀律师的公开论战
·李建强与郭国汀律师的论战之二
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·答康平伙计关于郭律师与李建强之争
·揭穿刘荻的画皮----南郭与[三刘]之争不属刘家私事而是中国民主运动的公事
·刘荻的灵魂竟是如此[美丽] !
·废除或修改煽动颠覆国家政权罪思想监狱中国律师集体第一议案的诞生
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·敦促刘路公开辩污的公开函
·敦促刘路公开辩污的最后通牒
·我为法轮功抗辩——答刘路质询函
***自由人权宪政共和民主之路争论
·中国人缺少宽容精神么?
·郭国汀评价刘晓波诺奖
·关于刘晓波是否合格人选答阮杰函
·郭国汀评刘晓波之伪无敌论
·中共怪异重判刘晓波的意图旨在克意扶持默契能控的民运‘领袖’
·质疑刘晓波先生盛赞俞可平民主论 郭国汀
·我愿意出任刘晓波2006/guoguoting/68
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社会转媒(国际互联网)对阿拉伯之春革命的巨大作用

社会转媒(国际互联网)对阿拉伯之春革命的巨大作用

   

   郭国汀

   

   

   Pivotal Role of Social Media in Shaping the Arab Spring

   

   Guoting Guo

   

   

   I. The Arab Revolutions is the most important political eventworld has been since the collapse of communism in 1989, which has changed thepolitical landscape of the Middle East.[1]

   

   As Prof Abdulkhaleq Abdulla of the Emirates University in Dubai observed thatTens of millions have been emancipated in months, a huge and incredible gainfor the Arab world. [2]

   

   TheArab uprising peacefully overthrow of Ben Ali’s 24 years autocracy ruling inTunis, ended Mubarak’s 30 years monopoly ruling in Egypt, and violentlyfinished Kaddafi’s 40 years tyranny in Libya, threaten Syria and Yemen’sautocracy regime. [3]

   

   Withinweeks the revolution spread to Bahrain, Algeria, Libya and then Morocco, Yemen,Jordan, Syria as well as Lebanon, Oman and Saudi Arabia[4]

   

   ,which has been called as the Arab Spring. The social media means internet andcomputer technology facilitate including: facebook, twitter, cell-phone,YouTube cyberspace,

   Web 2.0

   etc, which were used to bolster Arab Spring for freedomand democracy,

   

   Thesocial media played a pivotal role in igniting and shaping the Arab Spring. Althoughthe cause of revolution is the authoritarian ruling incited the huge socialeconomic and political problems, and the success of the revolutions depend onmilitary’s attitude rather than the role of social media. Despite of both Egyptand Tunisia had achieved decent economic growth rates and received praise fromthe International Monetary Fund in 2010, Tunisia’s per capita income 3.7 timeshigher than Egypt’s, Libya’s per capita income even muchhigher than both .

   [5]

   

   Thus, the political repression, highly corruption andlacking economic opportunity and personal dignity were the forces behind theArab uprising. The most of demonstrator’s demands have focused on greaterpersonal freedom of expression, expanded rights for political participation,ended corruption, and longed for reforms, freedom as well the dignity.[6]

   

   In another word, Arabs are fighting for freedom and rights and liberaldemocracy.[7]

   

   II.Some observers argued the Social media function has limited,should not overemphasis on its determinant or essential to the success role.David Malone, president of Canada's International Development Research Centre,rejected the claims that social media helped topple Arab Spring dictators, saysmore people turned out for Egypt's 1977 Bread Riots than the demonstrationsthat toppled president Mubarak, and the revolutions in Iran and Indonesiawithout the social media at all.[8]

   

   Nizar Bennamate, the cofounder of Morocco's ‘February 20 movement’, noted thestreets are where the real action and the real change occur. “On social mediawe just speak about what happens.” George Jofféa, an expert of Africa study,argued that the social media in Arab Spring has not been determinant. Neitherinternet or Twitter or Facebook were essential to the success of thedemonstrations in Tunisia or Egypt.[9]

   

   Declan Hill, a journalist, mentioned in Syria and Bahrain there are lots ofFacebook and tweets, lots of on the street protests and no regime change,and

   in Iran, Social media have notprovided particularly good analysis or brought about regime change. [10]

   

   Khair El‐Din Haseeb, an Arab affairs expert, criticizes theoveremphasis on the role of social media in effecting Arab revolutions. ‘Theuprisings could not have marshalled all these various social factions if therehad not been a sufficient accumulation of consciousness for the requisiteradical reforms in which different political and conceptual orientations havefactored over the past 40 years’.[11]

   

   III. The social media were used to assemble, organize, plan, andstrategize activities struggling for political change, which is the pivotal inigniting and shaping the revolution. [12]

   

   In Tunisia, Activists used social media to reveal the Tunisian firstlady's shopping trips to Paris on the president's private jet. Lina Ben Mhenni,a teaching at the University of Tunis, She traveled to cities where securityforces were massacring citizens, Her accounts and photographs of the dead andinjured ensured that other Tunisian activists and international media knew whatwas happening in Tunis during the most violent days of the uprising. She becomes“the face of the revolution”. [13]

   

   Hamada Ben Amor, a Tunisian popular musician, His “Mr President, Your PeopleAre Dead!” became a viral sensation on the internet and was later taken up by Egyptiancrowds in Tahrir Square. [14]

   

   InEgypt, Facebook helped mobilize citizens and encouraged them on streets todemonstrate against the corrupted authoritarian regime. Wael Ghonim, a managerof Google Middle East, set up "We Are All Khaled Said" Facebook pagein memory of a young man who was tortured to death by two Alexandria police,which helped mobilize Egyptians fighting for dignity and freedom. He wasdetained then became “face of the revolution”. [15]

   

   Egyptians circulated videos of police abuse and identified individual officers online.[16]

   

   Bahrainis used Google Earth to reveal the shocking size of landsexpropriated by the royal family for private use. In Syria, The Facebookpage “We Are All Hamza Alkhateeb”was set up to commemorate a boy who wasarrested and killed by police in April 2011 while demonstrating with his familyin the city of Deraa; a melody “Come on Bashar leave!” become the anthems ofSyria uprising, disseminated and remixed in cyberspace. A YouTube video shows apopular singer in Yemen his song “The people demand the fall of theregime!” has received 160,000 hits. [17]

   

   The widespread use of the social media among the young turned out to bedecisive in the Arab revolutions. A quarter of the population in Tunisia hascomputers and there are over 8 million users in Egypt, and Arab population 60%under 35 years old, they know how to use computer and internet. [18]

   

   Anumber of scholars, experts and writers highlighted the important function ofthe social media in shaping the revolution. For instance, Panellists,said at an Arab Media Forum session on the role of social media, Social mediaplayed a major role in mobilising Arab streets as they rose against autocracyregimes; he highlighted the role played by social media during the Tunisianuprising in filling gaps that traditional media had left due to restrictionsthat were placed on it.[19]

   

   Naguib, a political science major at the American University in Cairo,pointed out Arab Spring showed the Arabs how their voices can be heard throughsocial media, and helped them fighting for freedom and rights, publishing timesand locations of anti-government protests and identifying opposition groups.[20]

   

   Shadi Hamid, director of research at the Brookings Doha Centre, observedsocial media helped disseminate updates about uprisings in the Arab world inways that could not have been possible before.[21]

   

   Sultan Suood Al Qasimi, a writer whose Twitter has more than 50,000followers since the Arab Spring, said the role played by social media in hisexperience that an Egyptian asked him to stop tweeting about the withdrawal ofpolice from certain districts of Cairo in fear of the panic his tweets couldspread.[22]

   

   Pollock,a writer specializes in Africa, interview the principals behind the region'syouth movements and discovered that the social media have made publiclyknowable experiences of tyranny common to many Egyptians and Tunisians buthitherto unacknowledged and helped organizing continuous protests by creatingnetworks the regimes difficult to suppress.[23]

   

   OctaviaNasr, a CNN formal journalist, observed that social media were a‘megaphone’ and catalyst for Arab Spring, which were an important factor inbringing about change in the Arab world, it played a role in accelerating theevents. [24]

   

   Dr. Natana J. DeLong-Bas observed that the Pivotal in the revolutionspeacefully overthrew regimes in Tunisia and Egypt and pressed for reformin other countries throughout the region has been the role of the new socialmedia “in translating ideas shared in cyberspace into real-life action on theground”,[25]

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