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郭国汀律师专栏
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀译
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀 译(下)
***郭国汀律师专译著
***(1)《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 郭国汀校
·寄语中国青少年——序《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》
·《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》译后记
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第二编 海上货物保险格式
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第三编 海上船舶格式保险单
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第五编 为各利益方的保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第六编 战争和罢工险格式
***(2)英国协会保险货物保险条款英中对译
·1934年1月1日协会更换保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物保险(B)和(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年8月1日协会恶意损害保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年9月5日协会商品贸易(A)(B)(C)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会黄麻保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冻肉保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年10月1日协会煤炭保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会天然橡胶(液态胶乳除外)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险A条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会运费定期战争和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1983年2月1日协会散装油类保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年12月1日协会盗窃、偷窃和提货不着保险条款(仅用于协会保险条款)/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日国际肉类贸易协会冻肉展期保险条款(仅适用于协会冻肉保险(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1986年4月1日协会木材贸易联合会条款(与木材贸易联合会达成的协议)/郭国汀译
***(3)英国协会保险船舶条款英中对译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船舶港口险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1988年6月1日协会造船厂的风险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶乘客设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损和3/4碰撞责任航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会机器损害附加免赔额保险条款/郭国汀译
·1985年11月1日协会游艇保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船壳定期保赔保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日附加免赔额适应条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶限制危险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1996年1月1日协会运费共同海损-污染费用保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年1月1日协会集装箱定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会渔船保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶搬移另件保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶附加危险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损、3/4碰撞责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增加价值(全损险,包括额外责任)定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶租赁设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1997年3月1日协会船舶抵押权人利益保险条款/郭国汀译
***(4)英国协会保险运费、战争、罢工险保险条款英中对译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增值定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·The Practice of Marine Insurance: Marine Insurance Policy Forms
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会运费定期战争和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1996年1月1日协会运费共同海损-污染费用保险条款/郭国汀译
***(5)《CIF 和 FOB 合同》第四版 郭国汀主译校
·《cif与fob合同》序
·《cif与fob合同》译后记
·郭国汀译《CIF 和FOB合同》读后
·《CIF和 FOB合同》第四版 郭国汀主译校
·《CIF 和 FOB合同》郭国汀主译校 第二章 装运
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第四章 保险(王崇能译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第五章 交单和付款(高建平译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第六章 法律救济(梅欢雪译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第七章 冲突法(黄辉译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第八章 各种类型的FOB合同(陈真,王崇能,黄辉,郭国汀译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第九章 FOB交付(蔡仲翰译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十章 FOB价格条款
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十一章 付款与接受(王力耘译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十二章保险 (李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十三章 法律救济(李小玲译)
·〈CIF 和 FOB 合同〉郭国汀主译校 第十四章 法律冲突(王力耘译)
***(6)《Scrutton 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》序
·我为法学翻译辩护- 《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》译后记 
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第一章:合同的性质、效力与解释
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人民反抗暴政的革命权利

Locke’sidea of the People’s right of Revolution

   

   Guoting Guo

   

   

   “The power that every individual gave thesociety, when he entered into it, can never revert to the individuals again, aslong as the society lasts, but will always remain in the community; becausewithout this there can be no community, no commonwealth, which is contrary tothe original agreement… but if they have set limits to the duration of theirlegislative, and made this supreme power in any person, or assembly, onlytempor\ary; or else, when by the miscarriages of those in authority, it isforfeited; upon the forfeiture, or at the determination of the time set, itreverts to the society, and the people have a right to act as supreme, andcontinue the legislative in themselves; or erect a new form, or under the oldform place it in new hands, as they think good.”[1]Lockeasserted.

   

   In this conclusion Locke involves someimportant political philosophy idea: origin compact are among all member of acommunity not between the ruler and the people; this contract has specialcharacter which cannot change arbitrary, and sovereignty of the commonwealthcome from the consent of the people. The supreme power is the legislative whichis the trustee only and people as sovereignty has right to forfeit it and hasthe right of revolution against tyranny. In fact, Locke’s theory justifies theBritish Revolution in1688 and has significant influence on the AmericanRevolution in 1776 and numberless revolutions in the world. In my short essay, Iwould like focus on Locke’s idea of thepeople’s right of revolution against Prince or government.

   

   Aristotle according to the number ofrulers divide the governments into three categories: rule by one, Monarchy(Tyranny); by few, Aristocracy (Oligarchy); and by many, Polity(Democracy);Until middle age and before modern time, Christian political thinkers claimedthat all states power come from divined God; even at earlier modern time, Hobbesstill announced the sovereignty of state belong to the absolute Monarchy, forhe believes that even tyranny are better than the state of nature which hedescribed as “the war of all against all”. However, Locke’s political idea isrevolutionary, he asserted that the legislative is the supreme power in anysociety and the people remain the supreme power to remove or alter thelegislative, when they find thelegislative act contrary to the trust reposed in them[2],and all other powers in the society derived from and subordinate to it.[3] Accordingto Locke, the end of men enter intosociety is for enjoyment of their properties in peace and safety, and the fundamental positive law of all society isthe establishing of the legislative power, which is not only the supreme power,but sacred and unalterable; [4] Sincethe members of legislative are elected by people periodically, and the peopleauthorize the legislative to make laws and set rules as guards and fences tothe properties of all the members or the society,[5]asa logical result, people are thesovereignty of the state, and the People’s Sovereignty in fact justify theright of revolution of the people.

   

   Locke assumes thatmen by nature are all free, equal and independent, without hisconsent, no one can be put out of this estate, nor subjected to the politicalpower of another.[6]So people’s consent actually becomes the root of all political power. Forenjoyment of lives, liberty and estate peace and security and avoid the stateof war, mankind quit their natural power, resign it to the public which canpunish the offences,[7]consentto constitute Political Society, that is, freemen consent of unite andincorporate into a society[8]. In such society must be have adecisive power, an authority and a standing rule and common judge to appeal toresolve the controversies and disputes among people.[9]Thusexcludes all private judgement, the legislators make laws, Umpire settlestanding rules, official apply and execute those rules equally to all member ofthe society, and common judges decidesall disputes happen between any members of that society and punishes thoseoffence.[10]

   

   Locke proposed that the end ofgovernment is good of mankind, and the end of political power is to preserve citizen’slives, liberties and fortune; He defined political power as: a right of mankindto make laws with penalties of death, and all less penalties, regulate and preservethe property, employ the force of the community, execute laws, defence thecommonwealth from foreign injury, for the public good.[11] Heassumes that the power origin from the compact and mutual consent of those whomake up the community.[12] Thus,political power should be limited and not an absolute or arbitrary.

   

   Since people have the sovereignty ofState, and the government is limited, whenever a Prince or legislative orgovernment breach the trust and abuse the power to invade the property,threaten the lives or deprive the liberty of the people, or simply as a tyrant, as a result will bring the situationeven worse than the state of nature and introduce to the state of war among thepeople, in such cases, People have the Right of Revolution which isinalienable.

   

   

   Althoughsuggested that individual can never revert the power which has given tocommunity after they enter into commonwealth, Locke firmly asserts the people’sright of revolution. However to execute such right must be very careful andonly under strict condition, if the government act within its legal power and didnot invade the fundamental right of the people, no right to revolution.

   Locke urged that “Anyone who by force invadesthe rights of people or prince, and lays the foundation for overturning theconstitution and frame of any just government is guilty of the greatest crime;they should be esteemed the common enemy and pest of mankind.”[13] Lockeinsists that in some situation, people have an inalienable right of revolutionagainst authority.

   

   

   Since the fundamental end ofgovernment is protect the lives, liberty and estate of the people, and thereason why mankind voluntary agree to give up their natural power enter into acommunity is for enjoyment of their property peace and security, therefore whenhappen following cases, which constitute fundamental breach of contract, thepeople have either the right of dissolve the legislative or the right of revolutionto overturn the government:

   

   When the legislative acts against thetrust by endeavour to invade the property of the people;

   

   When legislative make themselves mastersor arbitrary disposers of the lives, liberties, or fortunes of the people;

   

   Wherever the legislators endeavour totake away and destroy the property of the people; “where the laws cannot beexecuted, it is all one as if there were no laws”[14].

   

   Whenever the legislators or Prince reducepeople to slavery under arbitrary power,

   

   Whenever the legislative transgress thisfundamental rule of society; endeavour to grasp themselves, or put into thehands of any other absolute power over the lives, liberties, and estates of thepeople;

   

   When the legislative (or the Prince) actcontrary to their trust, the government are dissolved,[15]andwhenever the government disappear the society may be return to state of nature.According to Locke, Want of a commonjudge with authority, puts all men in a state of nature, the state of nature isa state of perfect freedom to order actions, dispose possessions within the bounds of the law of nature; Also a stateof equality, all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, all the sameadvantages of nature, use of the same faculties, equal one amongst anotherwithout subordination or subjection.[16]Ina state of nature, one man comes by a power over another, every man has a rightto punish the offender, has a power to kill a murderer,[17]andhas the executive power of the law of nature[18].

   

   If above situation occurs, either thelegislative changed or the legislators act contrary to the end for which theywere constituted; those who are guilty are guilty of rebellion.[19]Because by breach of the trust, Prince and legislative forfeit the power, “whenthe legislative is broken or dissolved, dissolution and death follows,” for“the constitution of the legislative is the first and fundamental act ofsociety,”[20]Locke explained. They put themselves into a state of war with the people, whoare thereupon absolved from any farther obedience, and are left to commonrefuge against force and violence. The people have a right to resume theiroriginal liberty, by establishment of a new legislative provide for their ownsafety and security[21],or overthrow the government to constitute a new one.

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