百家争鸣
周亚辉
[主页]->[百家争鸣]->[周亚辉]->[钓鱼岛列岛主权争议(Senkaku]
周亚辉
·中共就是全世界的最大的恶棍
·中国经济为什么在走向崩溃
·习近平的不以国内生产总值增长率论英雄是什么货色?
·自私自利的支那劣种在追求私人财富中加速短命死亡
·不要高估习近平的个人政治力量
·中国经济体系是极端差劲的体系
·澳洲有几千名汉奸卖国贼!
·中共4万亿搞国进民退加速中共垮台
·胡春华绝对是自由民主派!
·中国是个恶霸国家
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·中国是个恶霸国家
·中共为何能够成功地在中国人民那里妖魔化美国?
·中共为何能够成功地在中国人民那里妖魔化美国?
·美国对外国的军事干预的两种类型
·13亿支那劣种还在自鸣得意!
·中国现在有13亿多环境污染难民和有毒有害食品饮料难民
·典型的自私的中国大陆人是这样的!
·夏业良:中国将爆发严重金融和经济危机
·中国地方国企被政府吸血 加速“僵尸”化
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·中国是个恶霸国家
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·中国13亿婊子养的狗杂种不识好歹忘恩负义(1)
·朝鲜战争的真相
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·中国到底是六流国家还是五流国家或者是四流国家?
·中国是个恶霸国家
·中国13亿婊子养的狗杂种不识好歹忘恩负义
·中国大陆5千万政治精英分布在什么地方?
·中国三千万政治人渣分布在哪里?
·特别推荐:中国人有多少对西方文明的偏见?/丛日云
·习近平就是当代的刘盆子
·中国13亿婊子养的狗杂种不识好歹忘恩负义
·当今中国是几流国家?
·那些中国劣种为何喜欢当中共狗特务?
·中国汉人杀戮别的民族和部落点滴
·比较中国的黄奴与美洲的黑奴
·习近平就是当代的刘盆子
·专家:危机爆发信号已现 2014中国或现恐怖一幕
·专家:危机爆发信号已现 2014中国或现恐怖一幕
·中国13亿婊子养的狗杂种不识好歹忘恩负义
·美国解放军在历史上战果辉煌(1)
·就算薄熙来这次能逃过死刑!
·取代中国经济高速发展的16个国家
·中国经济奇迹已经走到尽头
·继中国后的16国:辨识中国的后继者
· 取代中国经济高速发展的16个国家
·中国的基本政治结构:5千万政治精英,3千万政治人渣和10亿群盲盲
·中国的基本政治结构:5千万政治精英,3千万政治人渣和10亿群盲
·李嘉诚从中国大陆撤资的原因
·习近平阻止不了中国的民主化
·宁吉喆任国务院研究室主任 为李克强重要助手
·叙利亚内战胜败已定!
·中国的中小学大量实质破产
·牛刀:史上最大危机爆发 苗头已出现
·金融时报:中央党校公开讨论中国共产党的崩溃
·袁纯清的一次彻底大暴露
·谈谈什么是汉奸和什么是卖国贼
·楼市泡沫远甚日本当年 专家预警中国改朝换代
·支那劣种喜欢滥用汉奸卖国贼一说
·支那劣种喜欢滥用汉奸和卖国贼来指控别人
·诺奖得主:中国房地产泡沫化问题严重
·美媒揭穿中国经济四个致命缺陷
·山西籍高官同乡会组织“西山会”
·原南京军区副司令披露朝鲜战争秘情
·揭露刘亚洲的反动真面目
·大陆开发商破产 泡沫破裂初现 房产大亨再示警
·支那劣种喜欢使用汉奸和卖国贼来指控别人
·蘭德公司:2020年中國會非常窮
·蘭德公司:2020年中國會非常窮
·史迈克:台湾并不是中国民主化的样板
·台湾与大陆的关系就是中华民国的两个地区的关系
·中国是个恶霸国家
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·中国经济增长难以为继 李克强称像骑自行车
·经济学人:中资收购海外黄金地产 或陷日本覆辙
·华尔街日报:中国经济难逃放缓命运
·外媒:中国人横扫美国物业 纽约底特律不良资产照收
·资金大量出逃 四大行27天流失存款1.3万亿
·大陆百城房价环比上涨 专家警告拐点开始生成
·支那劣种需要东洋刀
·俄专家预测中日开战:中国极可能屈辱性战败
·大曝光:中共控制海外舆论的六种手段
·紧随李嘉诚 大陆万科王石抛售30亿元地产
·中共越调控产能愈过剩 银行不良贷款持续飙升
·抛大陆房地产后 李嘉诚再抛唯一A股股权套现9亿
·特别推荐:苏共崩溃前 官员无信仰 犬儒当道
·刘淇昆∶八国联军乃正义之师
·中国为何全民捞钱却捞不着
·习近平外放 栗战书掌上海的原因
·李克强拒绝参加习近平张高丽刘云山小组
·特别推荐:天命——见胡锦涛乡弟回绩祭祖有感/程干远
·雾霾是支那劣种应得的报应
·中国的大面积雾霾,是中国人缺德的因果报应,是上帝对中国人的惩罚。
·特别推荐:中国菜并非世界第一!日本人当头棒喝 /村山宏
·雾霾是13亿支那劣种支那猪应得的报应
·雾霾是13亿支那劣种支那猪应得的报应
·专家们给中国楼市“算命” 崩盘前景吓人
·送中共贪官狗官一幅对联
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
钓鱼岛列岛主权争议(Senkaku


   
   
   
   

   
   Senkaku Islands dispute
   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   The Senkaku Islands dispute concerns a territorial dispute over a group of uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan and as the Diaoyu (in China)[1] or Tiaoyutai Islands (in Taiwan).[2] Aside from a 1945 to 1972 period of administration by the United States, the archipelago has been controlled by Japan since 1895.[3] The People's Republic of China (PRC) disputed the proposed US handover of authority to Japan in 1971[4] and has asserted its claims to the islands since that time.[5] The Republic of China (Taiwan) also claims the islands. The territory is close to key shipping lanes, rich fishing grounds, and there may be oil reserves in the area.[6]
   
   Japan argues that it surveyed the islands in the late 19th century and found them to be Terra nullius (Latin: land belonging to no one); subsequently China acquiesced to Japanese sovereignty until the 1970s. The PRC and the ROC argue that documentary evidence prior to the First Sino-Japanese War indicates Chinese possession and that the territory is accordingly a Japanese seizure that should be returned as the rest of Imperial Japan's conquests were returned in 1945.
   
   Although the United States does not have an official position on the merits of the competing sovereignty claims,[7] the islands are included within the U.S. Japan Security Treaty meaning that a defense of the islands by Japan may compel support from the United States military.[8]
   
   In September 2012, the Japanese government purchased the remaining three of the disputed islands that it did not already own from their private owner, prompting large-scale protests in China.[9]
   
   
   
   Contents
    [hide] 1 Islands
    2 Fishing rights
    3 Territorial dispute 3.1 Beginnings
    3.2 Chinese position
    3.3 Japanese position
   
   4 Alternative approaches
    5 Disputes about the causes
    6 Historical development 6.1 2008
    6.2 2010
    6.3 2011
    6.4 2012 6.4.1 Chinese anti-Japanese protests
   
   
   7 References
    8 Sources
    9 External links
   
   
   Islands
   
   Main article: Senkaku Islands geography
   
   The Senkaku Islands are located in the East China Sea between Japan, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China. The archipelago contains five uninhabited islands and three barren rocks, ranging in size from 800 m2 to 4.32 km2.
   
   Fishing rights
   
   The issue of sovereignty has been carefully circumvented in bilateral fishing agreements. In the 1997 fishing agreement, the Senkaku Islands were officially excluded from China's exclusive economic zone, but in a letter of intent Japan explained that Japan would not prevent Chinese boats from fishing there. Some Chinese sources have subsequently argued that this letter constitutes a waiver of Japan's claim to exclusive fishing rights.[10]
   
   Territorial dispute
   
   Beginnings
   
   Following the Meiji Restoration, the Meiji Japanese government formally annexed what was known as the Ryukyu Kingdom as Okinawa Prefecture in 1879. The Senkaku Islands, which lay between the Ryukyu Kingdom and the Qing empire, became the Sino-Japanese boundary for the first time.[citation needed]
   
   In 1885, the Japanese Governor of Okinawa Prefecture, Nishimura Sutezo, petitioned the Meiji government, asking that it take formal control of the islands.[11] However, Inoue Kaoru, the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, commented that the islands lay near to the border area with the Qing empire and that they had been given Chinese names. He also cited an article in a Chinese newspaper that had previously claimed that Japan was occupying islands off China's coast. Inoue was concerned that if Japan proceeded to erect a landmark stating its claim to the islands, it would make the Qing empire suspicious.[11] Following Inoue's advice, Yamagata Aritomo, the Minister of the Interior, turned down the request to incorporate the islands, insisting that this matter should not be "revealed to the news media".[11]
   
   On 14 January 1895, during the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan incorporated the islands under the administration of Okinawa, stating that it had conducted surveys since 1884 and that the islands were terra nullius, with there being no evidence to suggest that they had been under the Qing empire's control.[citation needed]
   
   After China lost the war, both countries signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki in April 1895 that stipulated, among other things, that China would cede to Japan "the island of Formosa together with all islands appertaining or belonging to said island of Formosa (Taiwan)".[12]
   
   The treaty, however, was nullified after Japan lost the Second World War in 1945 by the Treaty of San Francisco, which was signed between Japan and part of the Allied Powers in 1951. The document nullifies prior treaties and lays down the framework for Japan's current status of retaining a military that is purely defensive in nature.[citation needed]
   
   There is a disagreement between the Japanese, PRC and ROC governments as to whether the islands are implied to be part of the "islands appertaining or belonging to said island of Formosa" in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.[11] China and Taiwan both dispute the Japanese claim by citing Yamagata Aritomo's reasons and decisions to turn down the request to incorporate the islands in 1885.[13] Both PRC and ROC asserted sovereignty over the islands.[14]
   
   On May 15, 1972, the United States ended its occupation of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Island chain, which included the Senkaku Islands.[15]
   
   Chinese position
   
   
   
   A 1785 Japanese map, the Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説) by Hayashi Shihei adopted the Chinese kanji (釣魚臺 Diaoyutai) to annotate the Senkaku Islands, which were painted in the same color as China.[11][16] The primary text itself can be found here.[17]
   Although Chinese authorities did not assert claims to the islands while they were under US administration, formal claims were announced in 1971 when the US was preparing to end its occupation.[18] While Japan argues that a 1968 survey finding possible oil reserves in the area explains the emergence of Chinese claims,[19] the Chinese argue that the sovereignty dispute is a legacy of Japanese imperialism and China's failure to secure the territory's prompt return following Japan's military defeat in 1945 was due to the complexities of the Chinese Civil War. The two civil war combatants, the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang (KMT), formed the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) respectively, and the communists eventually forced the ROC off the mainland in 1949. Both the PRC and ROC currently claim sovereignty based on arguments that include the following points:
    1.Discovery and early recording in maps and travelogues[20]
    2.The islands were China's frontier off-shore defence against wokou (Japanese pirates) during the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911). A Chinese map of Asia, as well as a map compiled by a Japanese cartographer[21] in the 18th century,[20] shows the islands as a part of China.[20][22]
    3.Japan took control of the islands during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, to whom they were formally ceded by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. A letter of the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1885, warning against annexing the islands due to anxiety about China's response, shows that Japan knew the islands were not terra nullius.[13][20][22]
    4.The Potsdam Declaration stated that "Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine", and "we" referred to the victors of the Second World War who met at Potsdam, the USA, the UK and the Republic of China. Japan accepted the terms of the Declaration when it surrendered.[22][23][24]
   
    5.China formally protested the 1971 US transfer of control to Japan[25]
   
   According to Chinese claims,[20] the islands, known to China at least since 1372,[26] had been repeatedly referred to as part of Chinese territory since 1534,[26] and later controlled by the Qing Dynasty along with Taiwan.[20] The earliest written record of Diaoyutai dates back to 1403 in a Chinese book Voyage with the Tail Wind (zh:順風相送),[27] which recorded the names of the islands that voyagers had passed on a trip from Fujian to the Ryukyu Kingdom.[11]

[下一页]
blog comments powered by Disqus

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场