百家争鸣
郭国汀律师专栏
[主页]->[百家争鸣]->[郭国汀律师专栏]->[当代自由主义的基本特征]
郭国汀律师专栏
·性格决定命运/南郭
·文学感言/郭国汀
·郭国汀:春
·郭国汀:读实秋有感.
·郭国汀:理想.
·郭国汀:律师.
·郭国汀:作文.
·郭国汀:坚韧不拔
·郭国汀:兴趣.
·信函/南郭
·日记与书信/南郭
·性格/南郭
·天才,蠢才,笨蛋/南郭
·陈良宇是中共残酷政治斗争的牺牲品
·郭国汀 国人民族主义乃中共误导所致
·人民公社万岁?!--《辉煌的幻灭》读后感
·如何成为一名伟大的,优秀的法律人?网友评论
·如何成为一名对社会有用的人
·谁杀死了中国伟大的诗人杨春光?
·忆对我前半生影响至深的三位老师
·A Letter to a Chinese
·不敢讲真话的民族注定是受奴役遭天谴的软骨头的劣等种族
·This is no time to kowtow to China
·南郭初步定论宣昶玮
·自封上帝皇帝圣人者:狂妄无知之徒?!
·南郭点评宣昶玮自封紫薇圣人
·南郭点评张千帆教授论宪政
·愤怒出诗人,悲愤出伟诗
***(55)郭国汀律师专访
·世纪回眸(69)-专访郭国汀之一
·世纪回眸(70)-专访郭国汀律师之二
·郭国汀谈郭飞雄、力虹、陈树庆遭被捕
·法律人的历史使命---答《北大法律人》主编采访录
·郭国汀律师答亚洲周刊纪硕鸣采访实录
·希望之声专访:声援高智晟同时也是在为自己
·胡平章天亮郭国汀谈中华文化与道德重建
·希望之声专访郭国汀 中共是最大的犯罪利益集团
·中共已是末日黄昏----郭国汀声援杨在新律师
·希望之声专访郭国汀用法律手段揪出幕后凶手
·【专访】郭国汀从海事律师到人权律师的转变
·专访郭国汀:为女儿打破沉默
·郭国汀谴责中共对他全家迫害恐吓
·郭国汀律师谈中国司法现状
·人权律师郭国汀在加拿大谈六四
·加拿大华人举办烛光悼念纪念六四-著名人权律师郭国汀称退党运动具有重大意义 
·采访郭国汀律师:被逼离婚 战斗到底
·华盛顿邮报报导高智晟律师事件
·[专访]郭国汀律师:从刘金宝案谈开去
·希望之声专访郭国汀和盛雪
·大纪元专访郭国汀 中共垮台是必然的
·郭国汀谈高智晟律师的公开信
·中共的末日只是时间迟早的问题
·中华文化与道德重建
·【专访】郑恩宠律师郭国汀谈郑案内情
·【专访】辩护律师郭国汀谈清水君案
·郭国汀指雅虎遵守当地法律说无法律根据
·郭国汀触怒司法当局:中国律师维护社会正义风险大
·US lawmakers ask Beijing to reinstate law firm of rights activist
***国际透视
·北朝鲜疯狂发展核武器为哪般?
·中国强劳产品出口的罪孽
·郭国汀 中国人民的真正朋友加拿大总理斯蒂芬 哈柏
·只有抛弃马列毛实现法治自由民主21世纪才有可能属于中国
·华盛顿邮报详细报导陈光诚案判决情况
·中国是国际网络表达自由的头号敌人
·华盛顿邮报陈光诚案庭审报导Chinese Rights Activist Stands Trial After Police Detain Defense Team
·新闻检查最严厉的十个国家胡锦涛称要向北朝鲜和古巴学习政治!
·国际人权观察就赵长青狱中受虐致胡温公开函
·中国驻美使馆拒收立即释放师涛的国际呼吁书
·国际保护记者委员会哀悼吴湘湖记者
·BBC 英语新闻报导《冰点》被封事件
·国际保护记者委员会关注声援杨天水
·国际保护记者委员会谴责中共迫害记者李长青
·国际保护记者委员会呼吁立即无条件释放杨天水
·CPJ URGER MR.HU RELEASE JOURNALISTS IN CHINA
·Overcoming Violence Abroad and at Home
·Lawyers Sentence Tests IOCs Ability to Enforce Olympic Promises
·Free China Rally in Canberra,
·Open Letter to President Hu Jintao and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao from the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong in China (CIPFG)
·非洲的复兴(African Renaissance)
***(56)大学日记
·错误是我犯的,但数十年后亲自纠错我还不伟大吗?!
·郭国汀 “只有社会主义才能救中国”质疑
·国家是民族矛盾不可调和的产物而非阶级斗争的产物/郭国汀
·阶级斗争的思考/郭国汀
·论干部制度/郭国汀
·无产阶级领袖有感/郭国汀
·学习与开放/郭国汀
·如何理解劳动?──有感于中国1956─1959年之“三大改造/郭国汀”
·时空畅想/郭国汀
·文革教训原因考/郭国汀
·对物质的思考/郭国汀
·精神文明与物质文明/郭国汀
·内因与外因关系的沉思
·外因是决定事物运动变化发展的根本原因
·开放党禁与多党联合政治
·论质、量互变关系
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
当代自由主义的基本特征

当代自由主义的基本特征 What is liberalism?

   

   Thomas G.Guo

   

   自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;当代世界各国主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and many social democratic partiesin Europe, has really been liberal in character.The liberalism associated withthe social democratic left, is a new orsocial liberalism; the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory of Herbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedomand rewards those who work hardest.

   Atthe end of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw more positive role of state, creategreater opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.

   Through a range of social reform measures,liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20 century. 1970s arevised version of classical liberalism emerged to challenge the newliberalism, right wing government, political thinker Hayekand Nozick.

   

   Meaningof liberalism

   

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products. Classicalliberalism emphasizes the negative liberty,remove external constraints; new liberalismemphasizes positive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed the consent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that

   stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict.

   Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financial resource,ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Humannature make human beings are rational andself-interested they look after themselves first and have thecapabilities to do so better than anyone else. They have the power to choose andtherefore responsible for their action.

   

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

   

   Developmentfeatures of liberalism

   

   Reform liberalismin four ways to refashion the liberalism idea: first,add the idea of positive freedom, is freedomto, it entails the capacity and power to do something. Second,boosted conception of equality. Add the equality of opportunity. Third, more favourstate intervention. Market alone would not provide individuals withpositive freedom and the equality of opportunity, using mechanisms ofredistribution such as progressive taxation and welfare/ unemployment policies,advocated welfare state conceptualised by John Maynard Keynes. Fourth, advocated universalsuffrage.

   

   Early liberals were not democrats, liberal politicalsystem are not necessarily democratic. Liberalism in contemporary politics hassome characters.

   Liberalism is the dominant ideology in Western society. Canada usesseveral mechanisms to control and limited political powers: responsible government, whereby the execrativeneeds to explain, justify and defend its action to a legislative assembly; federalism, which in formally dividing powerbetween federal and provincial governments. Fragments power and provide a checkon the power of both; the charter of rights andfreedom, which offer a judicial check on political power, assures therule of law

   and guarantees liberalrights and freedoms. Five major federal parties allagree with the main principles of liberalism.

   The central ideological in Canada is betweenclassical and reform liberalism. Classical speak of lowering taxes,eliminating deficit, reducing the debt, controlling public spending,privatizing Crown Corporation, creating a good business environment. Reformliberals put more emphasis on social spending and rely on the state to redistributewealth and correct the deficiencies of the market, speak of social justice andequality. American political parties, Republican and Democratic, are verysimilar, close to classical liberalism. Liberalism is not as dominant inWestern Europe as it is in North America. Neoliberalism is classical liberalismwith the added element of international free trade.

[下一页]
blog comments powered by Disqus

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场