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郭国汀律师专栏
***(9)财产保险,船舶保险,海上保险经典名案
·建达轮船舶保险合同争议上诉案代理词
·船舶保险合同争议案补充代理词
·海上货运保险合同争议案仲裁代理词
·海上货运保险合同货损争议案代理词
·驾驶员意外伤害保险争议案代理词
·保险代理合同答辩状
·安泰轮船舶保险合同争议上诉审代理词
·住房按揭保险合同争议上诉答辩状
·住房按揭保险合同争议上诉答辩状
·保险代理合同答辩状
·运输货运保险合同争议案代理词
·保证保险合同争议案代理词
·驾驶员意外伤害保险争议案上诉审代理词
·保证保险合同争议案答辩状
·股权转让合同争议仲裁案代理词
·保证保险合同代理词(修正)
·商品房按揭保证保险合同争议案上诉代理词
·信托货款合同争议案再审申请书
·关于所谓“酒后驾车险”的法律分折/郭国汀
***(60)郭国汀律师论文案析与评论
·论FOB合同下承运人签发提单的义务
· 论海上火灾免责
· 论海上火灾免责
·论承运人单位责任限制
·论提单适用法律条款与首要条款
·无正本提单放货若干法律问题
·从1906年英国海上保险法起草者说开去
·集装箱保险合同争议举证责任规则
·“新世纪”轮船舶保险合同(固定物、浮动物? )争议案的反思
·船舶保险合同(保证条款)争议案析
·记名提单若干问题研究
·集装箱保险合同若干法律问题
·船舶保险合同“船舶出租”应指光船出租
·试论船舶保险合同项下“碰撞、触碰”的法律含义
·“新世纪”轮船舶保险合同(固定物、浮动物? )争议案的反思
·水上油污若干法律问题 郭国汀
·油污国际公约若干问题 郭国汀
·海上油污损害赔偿适用法律研究/郭国汀
·《郭国汀海商法论文自选》
·处理货抵目的港后收货人不提货的措施
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决
·托运人对海运合同货损、货差没有针对承运人的诉权
·海上货运合同货差纠纷案析
·共同海损案法律分析
·货物被骗属于货物一切险承保范围
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案
·GENERAL TRADE诉绍兴县进出口公司国际货物买卖合同品质纠纷案析
·货代违约造成贸易合同毁约应向谁索赔损失?
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·2002年国际船舶保险条款
·Peter . Liu劳动争议初步法律意见/郭国汀
·船舶保险合同(保证条款)争议案析/郭国汀
·自有集装箱被占用案初步法律意见/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·析一起签发放行记名提单再审争议案/郭国汀
·上海亚太国际集装箱储运有限公司诉天津海峡货运有限公司上海分公司海上货物运输合同货物被盗损失代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·海上保险合同争议起诉状/郭国汀
·民事答辩反诉状
·关于应当如何理解《INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES (A)》中“一切险”责任范围的咨询复函/郭国汀
·海运运费及代理费问题的解答/郭国汀
·美亚保险公司上海分公司诉BDP亚洲太平洋有限公司海上货运合同货损争议代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·货代违约造成贸易合同无效怎么办?郭国汀
·捷运通有限公司诉东方集团上海市对外贸易有限公司海上货运合同争议案析/郭国汀
·平安保险公司代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·记名提单若干法律问题上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·乐清外贸公司与长荣航运公司海上货物运输合同争议案初步法律意见书/郭国汀
·新世纪轮船舶保险合同争议上诉代理词
·“富江7号”轮沉船保险合同争议案析/郭国汀
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决 郭国汀
·请教郭国汀律师有关留置权问题
·新加坡捷富意运通有限公司诉上海中波国际贸易有限公司运费争议案析/郭国汀
·中国海关实际运作的宣誓证言/郭国汀
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀译
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀 译(下)
***郭国汀律师专译著
***(1)《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 郭国汀校
·寄语中国青少年——序《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》
·《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》译后记
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第二编 海上货物保险格式
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第三编 海上船舶格式保险单
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第五编 为各利益方的保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第六编 战争和罢工险格式
***(2)英国协会保险货物保险条款英中对译
·1934年1月1日协会更换保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物保险(B)和(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年8月1日协会恶意损害保险条款/郭国汀译
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当代自由主义的基本特征

当代自由主义的基本特征 What is liberalism?

   

   Thomas G.Guo

   

   自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;当代世界各国主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and many social democratic partiesin Europe, has really been liberal in character.The liberalism associated withthe social democratic left, is a new orsocial liberalism; the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory of Herbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedomand rewards those who work hardest.

   Atthe end of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw more positive role of state, creategreater opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.

   Through a range of social reform measures,liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20 century. 1970s arevised version of classical liberalism emerged to challenge the newliberalism, right wing government, political thinker Hayekand Nozick.

   

   Meaningof liberalism

   

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products. Classicalliberalism emphasizes the negative liberty,remove external constraints; new liberalismemphasizes positive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed the consent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that

   stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict.

   Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financial resource,ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Humannature make human beings are rational andself-interested they look after themselves first and have thecapabilities to do so better than anyone else. They have the power to choose andtherefore responsible for their action.

   

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

   

   Developmentfeatures of liberalism

   

   Reform liberalismin four ways to refashion the liberalism idea: first,add the idea of positive freedom, is freedomto, it entails the capacity and power to do something. Second,boosted conception of equality. Add the equality of opportunity. Third, more favourstate intervention. Market alone would not provide individuals withpositive freedom and the equality of opportunity, using mechanisms ofredistribution such as progressive taxation and welfare/ unemployment policies,advocated welfare state conceptualised by John Maynard Keynes. Fourth, advocated universalsuffrage.

   

   Early liberals were not democrats, liberal politicalsystem are not necessarily democratic. Liberalism in contemporary politics hassome characters.

   Liberalism is the dominant ideology in Western society. Canada usesseveral mechanisms to control and limited political powers: responsible government, whereby the execrativeneeds to explain, justify and defend its action to a legislative assembly; federalism, which in formally dividing powerbetween federal and provincial governments. Fragments power and provide a checkon the power of both; the charter of rights andfreedom, which offer a judicial check on political power, assures therule of law

   and guarantees liberalrights and freedoms. Five major federal parties allagree with the main principles of liberalism.

   The central ideological in Canada is betweenclassical and reform liberalism. Classical speak of lowering taxes,eliminating deficit, reducing the debt, controlling public spending,privatizing Crown Corporation, creating a good business environment. Reformliberals put more emphasis on social spending and rely on the state to redistributewealth and correct the deficiencies of the market, speak of social justice andequality. American political parties, Republican and Democratic, are verysimilar, close to classical liberalism. Liberalism is not as dominant inWestern Europe as it is in North America. Neoliberalism is classical liberalismwith the added element of international free trade.

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