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郭国汀律师专栏
·记名提单若干问题研究
·集装箱保险合同若干法律问题
·船舶保险合同“船舶出租”应指光船出租
·试论船舶保险合同项下“碰撞、触碰”的法律含义
·“新世纪”轮船舶保险合同(固定物、浮动物? )争议案的反思
·水上油污若干法律问题 郭国汀
·油污国际公约若干问题 郭国汀
·海上油污损害赔偿适用法律研究/郭国汀
·《郭国汀海商法论文自选》
·处理货抵目的港后收货人不提货的措施
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决
·托运人对海运合同货损、货差没有针对承运人的诉权
·海上货运合同货差纠纷案析
·共同海损案法律分析
·货物被骗属于货物一切险承保范围
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案
·GENERAL TRADE诉绍兴县进出口公司国际货物买卖合同品质纠纷案析
·货代违约造成贸易合同毁约应向谁索赔损失?
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·2002年国际船舶保险条款
·Peter . Liu劳动争议初步法律意见/郭国汀
·船舶保险合同(保证条款)争议案析/郭国汀
·自有集装箱被占用案初步法律意见/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·析一起签发放行记名提单再审争议案/郭国汀
·上海亚太国际集装箱储运有限公司诉天津海峡货运有限公司上海分公司海上货物运输合同货物被盗损失代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·海上保险合同争议起诉状/郭国汀
·民事答辩反诉状
·关于应当如何理解《INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES (A)》中“一切险”责任范围的咨询复函/郭国汀
·海运运费及代理费问题的解答/郭国汀
·美亚保险公司上海分公司诉BDP亚洲太平洋有限公司海上货运合同货损争议代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·货代违约造成贸易合同无效怎么办?郭国汀
·捷运通有限公司诉东方集团上海市对外贸易有限公司海上货运合同争议案析/郭国汀
·平安保险公司代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·记名提单若干法律问题上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·乐清外贸公司与长荣航运公司海上货物运输合同争议案初步法律意见书/郭国汀
·新世纪轮船舶保险合同争议上诉代理词
·“富江7号”轮沉船保险合同争议案析/郭国汀
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决 郭国汀
·请教郭国汀律师有关留置权问题
·新加坡捷富意运通有限公司诉上海中波国际贸易有限公司运费争议案析/郭国汀
·中国海关实际运作的宣誓证言/郭国汀
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀译
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀 译(下)
***郭国汀律师专译著
***(1)《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 郭国汀校
·寄语中国青少年——序《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》
·《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》译后记
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第二编 海上货物保险格式
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第三编 海上船舶格式保险单
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第五编 为各利益方的保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第六编 战争和罢工险格式
***(2)英国协会保险货物保险条款英中对译
·1934年1月1日协会更换保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物保险(B)和(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年8月1日协会恶意损害保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年9月5日协会商品贸易(A)(B)(C)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会黄麻保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冻肉保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年10月1日协会煤炭保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会天然橡胶(液态胶乳除外)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险A条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会运费定期战争和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1983年2月1日协会散装油类保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年12月1日协会盗窃、偷窃和提货不着保险条款(仅用于协会保险条款)/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日国际肉类贸易协会冻肉展期保险条款(仅适用于协会冻肉保险(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1986年4月1日协会木材贸易联合会条款(与木材贸易联合会达成的协议)/郭国汀译
***(3)英国协会保险船舶条款英中对译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船舶港口险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1988年6月1日协会造船厂的风险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶乘客设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损和3/4碰撞责任航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会机器损害附加免赔额保险条款/郭国汀译
·1985年11月1日协会游艇保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船壳定期保赔保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日附加免赔额适应条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶限制危险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1996年1月1日协会运费共同海损-污染费用保险条款/郭国汀译
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True meaning of the Republicanism

   True meaning of the Republicanism

   

   By thomasgguo

   

   Since my English is broken English which make me shame to write any English essays, although exiled to Canada six years, I still feel quite difficult to express myself clearly and accurately. However there is no way to improve my writing skill but writing, for practice make perfect.

   My writing is only for practice not for expert or educate purpose, welcomed any friend to correct my error either in grammar, word or theory, fact and ideas. Following comment all come from my reading and thinking,for space and private use, I do want list all where these ideas come from and did not involved any intellectual property problem.

   

   Second president of the United States John Adams observed that there ‘can be no republic without common good; no liberty without a republic, no common good without law, and no just law without a democratic branch in the constitution’. Here Adams combines the liberty with republic, Britain although remained the Monarchy but in essence adopted many principles of republic. But what is the republicanism?

   

   Republicanism first is the idea of Government exists for common good, second it is the popular sovereign, for the best test of the public good; third, it is liberty under law, which enacted with reason and natural law(God will), purpose protected citizens from any other’s including the state’s invasion.

   

   Liberalism was not known before 19 century. It was emerged with French revolution. Benjamin Constant articulated persuasively in1819, that liberty of ancients as actual participation in government, while liberty of modern meant the rule of law, and specific protections for individual rights, including freedoms of opinion, property, association,speech, religion, and private independence. He defined liberty as the right to be subjected only to the laws and never to arbitrary will of one or more individual.

   

   Republicanism and liberalism basically do not conflict with each other, for both endorse law as the necessary vehicle of social justice. Republicanism is the parent of liberalism. As a legal theory of republican Rome, republicanism revived in Renaissance Italy, restated in Commonwealth England, realized in United States in 1787, reanimated by the French revolution in 1793.

   

   The essential elements of a republican legal system include: 1)Pursuit common good, through 2) popular sovereign, and 3) the rule of law, under 4)mixed and balanced government, comprising 5) deliberative senate, 6) elected executive, and 7) representative House of legislature.

   

   Republicanism secures the liberty of all citizens according to just law, through an independence judiciary, and liberty means that no one is subject to any other’s arbitrary will.

   

   Central meaning of republican government is legislation for public or common good of people, need popular sovereign,because the people are best judge of public welfare and common interest;unfettered governors and factions will pursue their own interest as a human nature greed and selfish being; the rule of law constrains the people and governors from favour their private interests; senate as legislation, moderates the swings of popular emotion, protected minority’s rights, through deliberative debate . The House of Representative (Commons) controls the usurpations of the senate, and vice versa. Thus, the mixed republic government balanced governors against the senate and people are the best way to preserve the liberty of the whole.

   

   When missing any part of three: Executive,legislature and judiciary, the common good and liberty cannot survive. Popular sovereignty without balance is simple democracy not republic. The majority will abuse unprotected minority, therefore imperatively to tyranny of majority. The rule of law can advanced the tyranny of despots. Senators and governors may exploit their authority for private interest.

   

   Since individual independence is the first need of the modern society, ‘one must never require from them any sacrifices to establish political liberty.’ John Stuart Mill concluded that ‘the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others’.

   

   John Locke defined the liberty of man in society as subjection to the duly enacted laws of a legislature established by consent,and independent of any private will. The legislative power should be limited tothe public good of society. Monarchist theorist Robert Filmer identified that the freedom as the ability for everyone to do what he lists, to live as hepleases, and not to be typed by any laws. Thus, freedom is not absolute right,it must be the liberty under the just law, which were enacted for common good,according to the reason and natural law, in another word the God’ will.

   

   Both Liu Xiaobo and Yany Hengjin donot understand what is republicanism and liberalism, neither of them have right idea of democracy too. And this is why Mr.Liu wrongly praise Mr. Yu Keping’s fake theory of democracy and Mr. Yang support Rousseu’s out of date and narrow applicable theory of democracy.

   

   I used to pointed out ten years ago, our Chinese are ignorance of modern political science, we know very little of theory and few have opportunity even have a look of those great politics works in the world. Of course,I myself also know very little, and this is why I need more study and thinking.

   

   Only republicanism democracy is for common good, the pure or direct democracy is for fraction interest instead of public advantage.What we should fight for is republicanism constitutional democracy. The rule of just law, which enacted according reason and natural law spirit for common good, is the secret for any success state.

(2012/01/01 发表)

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