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郭国汀律师专栏
·《郭国汀评论》第十九集:论中共暴政
·《郭国汀评论》第二十集:论中共暴政(下)
·郭国汀评论:论中共政权是个超级暴政
·郭国汀评论:论中共政权是个极权暴政
·郭国汀评论:论中共政权是个流氓暴政
·郭国汀评论:论中共是个犯罪组织
·论中共的骗子本能
·《郭国汀评论》第六集中共暴政与精神病
·郭国汀评论:论中共暴政体制性司法腐败
·郭国汀评论:论中共暴政体制性司法腐败(下)
·论逼良为娼的中共律师体制
·论逼良为娼的中共律师体制(下)
· 郭律师评价中共律师诉讼及司法体制现状
·郭国汀评论第八十三集:暴政恶法不除,国民无宁日
· 郭国汀评论第八十四集:暴政恶法不除,国民无宁日(下)
·郭国汀评论第六十六集中国共产党极权暴政的滔天罪行
·郭国汀评论第六十七集:中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽
·郭国汀评论第六十八集:中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪行
·郭国汀评论第六十九集:中共极权流氓暴政的滔天罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十集:中共极权专制暴政的深重罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十一集:中共极权流氓暴政的深重罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十二集:中共极权流氓暴政的滔天罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十三集:中共极权流氓暴政的深重罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十四集:中共极权流氓暴政的深重罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十五集:中共极权流氓暴政的滔天大罪
·郭国汀评论第七十六集:中共极权流氓暴政的深重罪孽
·郭国汀评论第七十七集:共产党极权暴政的缩命
·郭国汀评论第七十八集:论共产党极权暴政的宿命(中)
·郭国汀评论第七十九集:论共产党极权暴政的宿命(下)
·郭国汀评论第八十集:中共极权暴政摧残教育的深重罪孽
·共产党极权专制暴政的滥杀罪孽
·中共极权暴政的野蛮残暴杀人罪孽
·中共人为制造谋杀性大饥荒虐杀农民5000万
·中国反对派不能合作的根源何在?
·共产主义是好的,只是被共产党搞糟了?
·中共极权暴政下根本不可能存在法治
·今日中共还是共产党吗?
·推翻中共专制暴政是替天行道 郭国汀
·中共政权是吸血鬼暴政
·江泽民和胡锦涛均极可能是货真价实的特大汉奸卖国贼!
·中共专制暴政与生态环境
·中共专制暴政正在毁灭中国生态环境
·郭国汀论中共专制暴政与酷刑(上)
·论中共专制暴政与酷刑(中)
·郭国汀论中共专制暴政与酷刑(下)
·郭国汀评论:胡锦涛不是在执政而是在犯罪
·彻底推翻极权专制流氓暴政!永志不忘六四屠城滔天罪孽!
·朱镕基犯有贪污盗窃罪吗?
·朱镕基有关劳动保险金的罪责是非之我见
·中共党员是罪犯!——评贺卫方教授的中共分成两派说
·中共党员是罪犯 无耻无行文人是重罪犯!
·不是中国政府而是中共暴政丧尽天良!不但温家宝而且胡锦涛皆乃政治精神重症患者!
·中国共产党早已病入膏肓无可救药!
·杜绝三鹿毒奶粉事件的三项原则
·郭国汀律师系统批判中共极权专制暴政论文目录
·郭国汀中共政权已经彻底流氓化
·中共是极端残暴下流无耻的流氓暴政 郭国汀
·怀念当代中国最高贵的人——杨天水/张林
·关于中共政权合法性及专制暴政与人种信仰关系的论战 郭国汀
·南郭/推翻颠覆中共流氓暴政有功无罪!
·面对中共流氓暴政全体中国人应当做什么?
·面对十八层地狱,我的真情告白
·我的退党(社)、团、队声明
·从中共控制媒体看中共政权的脆弱
·关于加国公民起诉江泽民罗干李清王茂林案的宣誓证词(英文)
·中共极力扶持缅甸军事专制政府及苏丹专制暴政
·请胡锦涛立即停止疯狂攻击郭国汀律师的电脑
·中共专制暴政恶贯满盈
·申曦(曾节明):剥胡锦涛的画皮
·申曦(曾节明):胡锦涛其人其事
·申曦(曾节明):胡锦涛虚伪狡诈邪恶凶残阴险的真面目
·申曦(曾节明):胡锦涛的伪善与病态人格
·申曦(曾节明):盖棺认定胡氏中共暴政
·申曦(曾节明):江泽民的心病
·申曦(曾节明):邓小平罪孽深重
***(35)中国政治体制批判
·中共政权始终是一个非法政权 郭国汀
·郭国汀律师批判极权专制政治司法教育体制主张自由人权宪政民主文章目录
·郭国汀律师政论时评目录
·中国反抗专制暴政的先驱者与英雄
·郭国汀与横河谈中共暴政阉割国人灵魂使警察成为恶魔
·孙文广、程晓农、郭国汀谈共产党的公务员非法歧视政策
·划时代的审判,创造历史的壮举
·恶法不除,国无宁日
·致加拿大国会的公开函
·中共已是末日疯狂/郭国汀
·三权分立的哲学基础
·虚伪是极权专制的必然付产品-------南郭与中律网友们的对话
·汝竟敢骂共党骂毛泽东!
***(36)中共司法体制批判
·从人权律师的遭遇析中国人权的实际情况
·郭律师评价中国律师诉讼及司法体制现状
·中共专制暴政下为什么冤假错案堆积如山?
·中共勞教制度是人類歷史上最野蠻的制度
·马亚莲案与废除劳教制度
·郭國汀談中共勞教制度下的性酷刑
·郭國汀談萬名公民提出廢除勞教制度建立叻ㄐ袨槌C治法
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西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   Western World Political Democracy

   

   By thomasgguo

   

   

   现代西方国家民主至少包括四个要件:大众主权,政治平等,政治自由,及多数规则。大众主权即人民有最终决定权,体现为代议制民主,人民直接选举产生下议院议员,由议员代表人民行使立法权,间接选举产生国家领导人(总统,总理),行使行政管理权;政治平等表现为定期公开的自由选举,选举权一人一票,加拿大早在上个世纪50年代即已没有政治犯;普通刑事犯的政治权利,自1996年始,在狱犯人全部享有平等的投票权;政治自由指人权公约确认的公民基本自由,包括良心自由,宗教自由,思想自由,信仰自由,意见自由,表达自由,出版自由,和平集会自由,结社组党自由;多数规则受不得任意侵犯少数人的权利的限制,主要由上议院平衡制约。必须指出的是:政治民主仅是共和宪政自由民主政体的一个要素,而非全部。中国自由宪政民主运动的目标决非纯民主,而是共和宪政自由民主。

   

   Democracy

   In the past, many features of the Canadianpolitical system were undemocratic, but Canada has become increasinglydemocratic over time.Democracy in the modern western world it usuallyincludes the elements of popular sovereignty, political equality, politicalfreedom, and majority rule.

   

   Popular sovereignty

   Popular sovereignty means that the peoplehave final say, which in modern political system take the form of elections atcertain specified intervals. The election held at least every five years, Bymeans of plebiscites or referendums, only three times since 1867, when in 1898,1942 and 1992.Canadian cherished representativedemocracy, in which elected officials and appointed authorities made decisionson people’s behalf.Popular sovereignty is normally exercised inperiodic elections, which are mere opportunity to select those who will beresponsible for making political decision over the next four years on behalf ofwhole population. Political thinker believes that the people are the bestjudges for those who have best virtue and merit, and public interest and good.

   

   Political equality

   Everyone is equal on Election Day. Women,those without property, aboriginal, and various minority ethno culture group,excluded in the past. Considerable room for inequality remain in the electoralsystem. Political parties have been privately financed and it many well be thatthose who contributed money to a party or candidates expected to get somethingin return. Thus those help finance elections have more influence than thosemerely vote, beyond election day, tremendous inequality in political influencebegin to emerge, such as in-advocacy group and lobbying activity

   

   Political freedom

   

   Everyone has the fundamental freedoms. Freedomof conscience and religion;Freedom of thought, belief, opinion,expression, press, media;Freedom of peaceful assembly;Freedomof associationCharter provided a new means of enforcing rights andfreedoms, using the Courts to invalidate legislation that infringed on them.Sec 98 of Canadian Criminal Code prohibiting “unlawful association”, it wasin traduced after the 1919 Winnipeg general strike and not repealed until 1936.Incarceration or deportation of Canadian Japanese deprived personalliberty, property, and livelihood, as well as freedom of expression.Invocationof the War Measure Act 1970, imprison 400 non-violent Quebec separatists whohad no connection with the FLQ, which was outlawed.During theauthoritarian regime of Maurice Deplessis in Quebec; 2011 Governmentinfringement of political freedom in the anti-terrorism legislation after 2001.

   

   Majority rules donot mean people have the right to arbitrary infringethe minority rights. Senate’s role is protect the minority rights and check thepowers of majority.

(2012/01/01 发表)

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