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·痛斥張耀傑----予汝真诚道欠的最后通谍!
·郭国汀痛斥假冒伪劣人格低下的[学者]張耀傑
***周游列国 漂泊四海
·我的哥本哈根之旅
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·与传统观念彻底决裂?!
·文明与传统
·轻松愉快的国庆节游行
·我的巴黎之旅
·浪际天涯孤独客
·郭国汀律师在纽伦堡
·余之法朗克福之行
·吾之法朗克福之游
·感受纽伦堡
·观光德国古城堡
·纽伦古城堡风光依旧
·感受如诗如画的世外桃源美景
·观光布鲁塞尔
·风景如画的莱茵河畔
·郭国汀律师出席布鲁塞尔第二届全球支持亚洲民主化大会留影
·郭国汀律师在德国法郎克福
·郭国汀律师在德国法郎克福
·郭国汀律师在德国法郎克福留莲忘返
***(58)郭国汀律师名案要案抗辩实录
***(一)郭国汀律师为清水君抗辩
·郭国汀我为什么为清水君辩护?
·律师郭国汀对黄金秋(清水君)颠覆国家政权案辩护大纲
·清水君网上组党案刑事上诉状
·江苏高院强行书面审判清水君上诉案
·黄金秋(清水君)颠覆国家政权上诉案辩护词纲要
·清水君案上诉辩护词附件
·清水君案江苏高院驳回上诉维持原判
·中共伪法官评黄金秋颠覆国家政权案
·郭国汀律师清水君颠覆国家政权案研究
·郭国汀归纳清水君思想论点主旨言论集
·郭国汀就黄金秋颠覆国家政权上诉案致江苏省高级法院院长函
·郭国汀致狱中清水君函
·郭国汀律师第五次会见清水君
·狱中会见清水君手记
·郭国汀就清水君案上诉审江苏高级法院刑一庭王振林法官函
·作家黄金秋被无罪判重刑十二年辩护律师郭国汀谴责中共司法不公
·我为留学生英雄清水君抗辩
·清水君近况
·清水君其人其事辩护律师答记者问
·清水君:开庭日
·清水君:我的最后陈述
·清水君狱中诗草
·告诉你一个真实的清水君─黄金秋自述
·狱中诗草-短诗赠郭兄雅正
·赠黑眼睛等诸友
·南郭/清水君自我辩护感人至深
·南郭/中国人决不能忘记清水君!
·南郭/清水君是当代中国英雄
·南郭/清水君在狱中受到中共监狱毫无人性的虐待!
***(二)郭国汀律师为法轮功抗辩
***(1)中共极权暴政的最新反人类罪:活体盗卖法轮功学员人体器官专栏
·郭国汀 中共活摘器官是真的!
·中共为何纵容活体盗卖法轮功信徒的人体器官Why the CCP Harvests the Living Falun Gong
·BLOODY HARVEST Organ of Falun Gong
·活体盗人体器官关健证人调查纪录
·惊天罪孽 铁证如山
·郭国汀:苏家屯事件敲响了中共的丧钟
·郭国汀:苏家屯事件是真实的
·郭国汀:西方媒体报导苏家屯是个时间问题
·西方媒体首次报导苏家屯事件!
·中共活割法轮功学员人体器官主调查人DADID Matas 获Tarnopolsky 2007年人权奖(英文)
***(2)郭国汀律师为法轮功强力抗辩
·Resolution for Falun Gong in Congress of USA
·法轮圣徒瞿延来为何令南郭敬重?答MICRONET有关瞿延来的质疑
·中共为何血腥镇压法轮功?
·诉江泽民案美国依据国际法的义务:是对公共安全的危胁还是种族灭绝?
·值得中国律师学习的起诉书: 诉江泽民\李岚清\罗干\刘京\王茂林损害赔偿两千万加元
·郭国汀论辩法轮功
·我为法轮功说句公道话
·陈光辉监外执行、保外就医申请书
·为争取信仰自由权已绝食抗争七百八十天的瞿延来.
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西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   Western World Political Democracy

   

   By thomasgguo

   

   

   现代西方国家民主至少包括四个要件:大众主权,政治平等,政治自由,及多数规则。大众主权即人民有最终决定权,体现为代议制民主,人民直接选举产生下议院议员,由议员代表人民行使立法权,间接选举产生国家领导人(总统,总理),行使行政管理权;政治平等表现为定期公开的自由选举,选举权一人一票,加拿大早在上个世纪50年代即已没有政治犯;普通刑事犯的政治权利,自1996年始,在狱犯人全部享有平等的投票权;政治自由指人权公约确认的公民基本自由,包括良心自由,宗教自由,思想自由,信仰自由,意见自由,表达自由,出版自由,和平集会自由,结社组党自由;多数规则受不得任意侵犯少数人的权利的限制,主要由上议院平衡制约。必须指出的是:政治民主仅是共和宪政自由民主政体的一个要素,而非全部。中国自由宪政民主运动的目标决非纯民主,而是共和宪政自由民主。

   

   Democracy

   In the past, many features of the Canadianpolitical system were undemocratic, but Canada has become increasinglydemocratic over time.Democracy in the modern western world it usuallyincludes the elements of popular sovereignty, political equality, politicalfreedom, and majority rule.

   

   Popular sovereignty

   Popular sovereignty means that the peoplehave final say, which in modern political system take the form of elections atcertain specified intervals. The election held at least every five years, Bymeans of plebiscites or referendums, only three times since 1867, when in 1898,1942 and 1992.Canadian cherished representativedemocracy, in which elected officials and appointed authorities made decisionson people’s behalf.Popular sovereignty is normally exercised inperiodic elections, which are mere opportunity to select those who will beresponsible for making political decision over the next four years on behalf ofwhole population. Political thinker believes that the people are the bestjudges for those who have best virtue and merit, and public interest and good.

   

   Political equality

   Everyone is equal on Election Day. Women,those without property, aboriginal, and various minority ethno culture group,excluded in the past. Considerable room for inequality remain in the electoralsystem. Political parties have been privately financed and it many well be thatthose who contributed money to a party or candidates expected to get somethingin return. Thus those help finance elections have more influence than thosemerely vote, beyond election day, tremendous inequality in political influencebegin to emerge, such as in-advocacy group and lobbying activity

   

   Political freedom

   

   Everyone has the fundamental freedoms. Freedomof conscience and religion;Freedom of thought, belief, opinion,expression, press, media;Freedom of peaceful assembly;Freedomof associationCharter provided a new means of enforcing rights andfreedoms, using the Courts to invalidate legislation that infringed on them.Sec 98 of Canadian Criminal Code prohibiting “unlawful association”, it wasin traduced after the 1919 Winnipeg general strike and not repealed until 1936.Incarceration or deportation of Canadian Japanese deprived personalliberty, property, and livelihood, as well as freedom of expression.Invocationof the War Measure Act 1970, imprison 400 non-violent Quebec separatists whohad no connection with the FLQ, which was outlawed.During theauthoritarian regime of Maurice Deplessis in Quebec; 2011 Governmentinfringement of political freedom in the anti-terrorism legislation after 2001.

   

   Majority rules donot mean people have the right to arbitrary infringethe minority rights. Senate’s role is protect the minority rights and check thepowers of majority.

(2012/01/01 发表)

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