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·南郭致涵习近平先生
·郭律师致高智晟女儿格格的公开信
·福布斯报导高智晟失踪事件
·胡锦涛必须对高智晟受酷刑负直接罪责!
·郭国汀 高智晟律师为何不发声?
·我眼中的高智晟
·郭国汀 从我的经历看中共当局诽谤高智晟的下流
·所谓高智晟公开声明及悔罪书肯定是伪造的
·真正的中国人的伟大怒吼!
·加拿大著名人权律师安世立支持声援全球绝食抗暴的声明
·闻律师英雄高智晟再遇车祸有感 郭国汀
·呼吁全球万人同步大绝食宣言
·全球接力绝食抗暴运动的伟大意义 郭国汀
·郭国汀声援和平抗暴 呼吁抛弃中共
·中国律师界应全力声援高智晟
·专家剖析高智晟煽动颠覆国家政权案
·抓捕关押高智晟的整个过程都是违法的/郭国汀
·中共迫害高智晟亲人丧心病狂,中共党魁胡锦涛难辞其咎
·绝食维权抗暴日记
·郭国汀 漠视大陆维权是一种自杀行为
·英雄伟人与超人高智晟
·告全体中国律师及法律人书----闻高智晟被秘密绑架感言
·郭国汀: 高智晟遭秘密绑架可能成为中共灭亡的导火索
·给真正的中国女人的公开信
·郭国汀:驳刘荻的非理性投射说
·决不与中共专制暴政同流合污--------第29个全球接力绝食抗暴日记 郭国汀
·一部见证当代中国社会现实的伟大纪实作品--序高智晟《中国民间企业维权第一案》
·郭国汀呼吁国际重视高智晟妻儿的遭遇
·将接力绝食抗暴运动进行至最后胜利
·我为中华律师英雄杨在新喝彩 郭国汀
·郭国汀向老戚致敬
·万众一心,众志成城——全球万人同步绝食抗暴日记 郭国汀
·责令中共当局立即无条件释放兰州大学学生刘西峰!郭国汀
·加拿大著名人权律师ANSLEY支持声援全球绝食抗暴运动的声明
·郭国汀:中国律师应当向高智晟,浦志强律师学习!
***(45)人权研究
***中国人权律师基金会
·郭国汀推荐黄金秋竞选[第三届中国自由文化运动政论奖]推荐函
·郭国汀提名陈泱潮为2009中国自由文化奖之文化成就奖获奖候选人
·郭国汀提名张博树为2009中国自由文化奖之法学奖获奖候选人
·推荐郭国汀先生参选2009年台湾民主人权奖书
·letter of recommendation of Guoting for 2008 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award
·提名郭國汀律師作為[第三屆亞洲民主與人權獎]候選人的推薦函
·支持郭国汀律师负责组建中国人权律师基金会
·第二届《中国自由文化奖》评奖程序的修改建议
·郭国汀提名张鉴康律师作为第二届自由文化奖之人权奖候选人
·关于提名陈泱潮竞选[中国自由文化运动文化成就奖]推荐函
·推荐郭国汀先生参选第三届「亞洲民主人權獎」推荐书
·Letter of recommendation of Guoting Guo for 2008 The Third Asian Democracy and Human Rights Award
***(46)关注西藏新疆少数民族人权
·解决西藏问题的最佳方案--宪政联邦体制
·中共政权对藏民族所犯下的罪恶
·西藏自古以来属于中国吗?--西藏与中国关系简史
·什么是西藏问题?
·达赖啦嘛论解决西藏问题的原则
·中共宗教灭绝政策的实质是从精神心灵上扼杀藏人
·西藏自古以来属于中国吗?
·西藏问题的实质
·自由法治宪政民主联邦体制是解决西藏问题的最佳方案
·达赖啦嘛最常使用的词汇
·达赖啦嘛的使命与梦想
·达赖啦嘛论西藏问题的实质
·达赖啦嘛论西藏文明文化和历史
·达赖啦嘛论解决西问题的原则
·达赖啦嘛论爱同情怜悯与慈悲
·达赖啦嘛论藏传佛教的价值
·是中共暴政而非汉族奴役迫害藏民族!
·新疆暴亂是中共流氓暴政故意利用民族茅盾转嫁统治危机人为泡制的惨案
·坚决支持藏民维民争自由,平等,人权,民主的英勇抗暴运动
·从图片新闻看达赖喇嘛的国际影响力
·达赖喇嘛语录郭国汀译
·蜡烛与阳光争辉------从温家宝批达赖喇嘛说开去
·达赖喇嘛代表流亡政府及全体藏民与中国政府和平谈判理所当然----兼与王希哲兄商榷
·三一四西藏暴乱事件的真相
·布什总统再度敦促中国(中共)与达赖喇嘛对话
·达赖喇嘛抵美国西图参加为期五天的慈善的科学基础大会,据称150000门票全部售出
·布什总统出席奥运开幕式已不确定
·达赖喇嘛今天重申不抵制奥运会
·布什总统决意出席奥运开幕式并非仅由于他性格顽固
***(47)人权律师法律实务
·郭国汀:中国人没有基本人权——2008年加拿大国会中国人权研讨会专稿
·我为何从海事律师转向人权律师?
·盛雪专访郭国汀从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的思想根源
·郭国汀律师受中共政治迫害的直接原因
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·成为一名人权律师!---郭国汀律师专访
·一个中国人权律师的真实故事
·世界人权日感言/郭国汀
·人权漫谈/南郭
·人权佳话
·保障人权律师的基本人权刻不容缓
·不敢或不愿为法轮功作无罪辩护的律师,不是真正的人权律师!
·人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)
·我为什么推崇中国人权律师浦志强?
·巴黎律师公会采访中国人权律师郭国汀
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(BLOODY HARVEST Organ of Falun Gong)接上页博讯www.peacehall.com

   

   

   

   The mere fact of blood testing and organ examination does not establish that organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners is taking place. But the opposite is true. If there were no blood testing, the allegation would be disproved. The widespread blood testing of Falun Gong practitioners in detention cuts off this avenue of disproof.

   27) Sources of past transplants

   

   

   

   The numbers of organ transplants in China is huge, up to 20,000 in 2005 according to China Daily. China has the second largest number of operations done in the world, just after USA.

   

   

   

   The large volumes coupled with the short waiting times means that there has to be a large number of potential donors on hand at any one time. Where is and who is this large donor population?

   

   

   

   There are many more transplants than identifiable sources. We know that some organs come from prisoners sentenced to death and then executed. Very few come from willing donor family members and the brain dead. But these sources leave huge gaps in the totals. The number of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed and willing sources come nowhere close to the number of transplants.

   

   

   

   The number of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed is itself not public. We are operating only from numbers provided by Amnesty International sourced from Chinese public records. Those numbers, when one considers global execution totals, are large, but nowhere near the estimated totals of transplants.

   

   

   

   At least 98% of the organs for transplants come from someone other than family donors.9 In the case of kidneys, for example, only 227 of 40,393 transplants - about 0.6% - done between 1971 and 2001 in China came from family donors. [37]

   

   

   

   The government of China admitted to using the organs of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed only in 2005 [38] [39], although it had been going on for many years. The regime has had no barriers to prevent marketing the organs of "enemies of the state".

   

   

   

   According to tabulations constructed from the Amnesty International reports [40] of publicly available information in China, the average number of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed between 1995 and 1999 was 1680 per year. The average between 2000 and 2005, was 1616 per year. The numbers have bounced around from year to year, but the overall average number for the periods before and after Falun Gong persecution began is the same. Execution of prisoners sentenced to death can not explain the increase of organ transplants in China since the persecution of Falun Gong began.

   

   

   

   According to public reports, there were approximately 30,000 [41] transplants in total done in China before 1999 and 18,500 [42] 4141 in the six year period 1994 to 1999. Shi Bingyi, vice‑chair of the China Medical Organ Transplant Association, says there were about 90,000 [43] transplants in total up until 2005, leaving about 60,000 transplants in the six year period 2000 to 2005 since the persecution of Falun Gong began.

   

   

   

   The other identified sources of organ transplants, willing family donors and the brain dead, have always been tiny. In 2005, living-related kidney transplants consisted of 0.5% of total transplants [44]. The total of brain dead donors for all years and all of China is 9 up to March 2006 4444 [45]. There is no indication of a significant increase in either of these categories in recent years. Presumably the identified sources of organ transplants which produced 18,500 organ transplants in the six year period 1994 to 1999 produced the same number of organs for transplants in the next six year period 2000 to 2005. That means that the source of 41,500 transplants for the six year period 2000 to 2005 is unexplained.

   

   

   

   Where do the organs come from for all the transplants in China? The allegation of organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners provides an answer.

   

   

   

   Again this sort of gap in the figures does not establish that the allegation of harvesting of organs from Falun Gong practitioners is true. But the converse, a full explanation of the source of all organ transplants, would disprove the allegation. If the source of all organ transplants could be traced either to willing donors or executed prisoners, then the allegation against the Falun Gong would be disproved. But such tracing is impossible.

   

   

   

   Estimates of executions in China of prisoners sentenced to death are often much higher than the figures based on publicly available records of executions. There is no official Chinese reporting on overall statistics of executions, leaving totals open to estimation.

   

   

   

   One technique some of those involved in estimating executions have used is the number of transplant operations. Because it is known that at least some transplants come from executed prisoners and that family donors are few and far between, some analysts have deduced from the number of transplants that execution of prisoners sentenced to death have increased.

   

   

   

   This reasoning is unpersuasive. One cannot estimate execution of prisoners sentenced to death from transplants unless executions of prisoners sentenced to death are the only alleged source of transplants. Yet, Falun Gong practitioners are another alleged source. It is impossible to conclude that those practitioners are not a source of organs for transplants because of the number of executions of prisoners sentenced to death where the number of executions of prisoners sentenced to death is deduced from the number of transplants.

   

   

   

   Can the increase in transplants be explained by increased efficiency in harvesting from prisoners sentenced to death and then executed? The increase in transplants in China paralleled both the persecution of the Falun Gong and the development of some transplant technology. But the increase in transplants did not parallel the increase of all transplant technology. Kidney transplant technology was fully developed in China long before the persecution of Falun Gong began. Yet kidney transplants shot up, more than doubling once the persecution of Falun Gong started. There were 3,596 37 kidney transplants in 1998 and nearly 10,000 in 2005 43.

   

   

   

   A second reason that multiple organ harvesting from executed prisoners sentenced to death does not explain the increase in organ transplants is overall disorganization of organ matching in China. There is no national network for the matching and sharing of organs.[46] Doctors decry the wastage of organs from donors, bemoaning the fact that “only kidneys were used from donors, wasting of other organs” 46 . Each hospital manages its own organ supply and waiting list. Patients go from one hospital where there are no ready organs for transplants to other hospitals were transplant surgery takes place at once. [47] Hospitals refer patients from their own hospital where they say they have no readily available organs for transplant to another hospital which they say does have organs for transplant. [48] This disorganization diminishes the efficient use of organs.

   

   

   

   A third reason that multiple organ harvesting from executed prisoners sentenced to death does not explain the increase in organ transplants is the experience elsewhere. Nowhere have transplants jumped so significantly with the same number of donors, simply because of a change in technology. Year by year statistics for Canada, the United States and Japan are set out in an appendix.

   

   

   

   The increase in organ transplants in China parallels the increase in persecution of the Falun Gong. These parallel increases of Falun Gong persecution and transplants, in themselves, do not prove the allegation. But they are consistent with the allegation. If the parallel did not exist, that hypothetical non‑existence would undercut the allegations.

   28) Sources of future transplants

   

   

   

   Organ transplant surgery in China is a booming business. There were only 22 liver transplant centres [49] operating across China before 1999 and 500 in mid - April, 2006 88 [50]. The number of kidney transplantation institutions increased from 106[51] in 2001 to 368[52] in 2005.

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