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诉江泽民案美国依据国际法的义务:是对公共安全的危胁还是种族灭绝?


   
   诉江泽民案美国依据国际法的义务:是对公共安全的危胁还是种族灭绝?
   
   南郭点评:2002年10月法轮功在美国联邦法院依据《外国人侵权索赔法》(the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA).对江泽民提起侵权之诉,约36位国会议员支持法轮功之诉,但2003年9月地区法院以江系国家主席享有外国元首豁免权为由驳回了起诉。本案主要涉及中共迫害镇压法轮功是否构成种族灭绝?是否存在制度性的迫害?法轮功是否宗教?是否邪教?什么情况下元首无权享受豁免?

   
   作者系迈阿密大学经济学院副教授,总体上说,由于他是局外人,持论较客观,但由于他对法轮功实际情况并不十分了解,且由于语言文化等差异,使其不易辩别真假,特别是将中共精至包装出口转内销式的谎言当真,导致文中错误不少.例如,他对中国实际的人权状况并不真正了解,故对中共统治下的人权所谓进步的评价明显过高;SARS期间,中共编造有法轮功学员故意染上SARS到处传染给别人以制造动乱,而作者对中共的谎言未能识别而采信;作者在文中引称:After this event, a Hong Kong news source quoted Mr. Li Hongzhi as stating, "At long last, there are Falun Gong practitioners who are willing to step forward and sacrifice their lives for the purpose of advocating the Fa [way]. "[84],其实,中共CCTV在2001年1月29日晚播出所谓天安门自焚伪案时,曾指控是李洪志指挥自焚,后来改称李洪志对有学员自焚捍卫法轮功很高兴,“终于有人愿意为了大法而牺牲了”。该所谓香港媒体引证李洪志先生的说法,纯属中共编造的谎言。中共旨在掩盖自已导演的自焚伪案罪孽以栽赃法轮功,煽动民众仇恨法轮功。
   
   再者,转法轮谈到辟谷时仅是谈修炼界的一种现象,而非法轮功的修炼方法,并明确说明该法门不讲辟谷;大量学员因被非法关押而绝食抗议受中共强制灌食致死,中共却胡编说学员辟谷或自杀! 此外,转法轮得及的遥视,宿命通等功能,并非如作者以为李洪志先生给学员均下上了这些功能。即使在实修中有人如有升华可能出现这些功能时,李先生也给封锁起来,因为不能干扰常人社会或是用功能做一些似好实坏的事。
   
   无论如何,作者从国际法与美国法及判例详尽分析了本案涉及的众多法律问题,作了较有说服力的论证.江氏侥幸逃避法律制裁,主因乃是中共向布什政府施加了巨大压力,此外证据亦不够充分,如果中国本土律师配合调查取证.证实中共大规模残暴镇压法轮功是制度性的,而且并非针对法轮功学员的违法犯罪行为更非为所谓公共安全,而是针对学员的信仰,特别是大规模活体盗卖法轮功学员人体器官,江胡恐怕皆将永久性面临国际法的追诉.本文值得所有关心法轮功的法律人精读.
   
   
   
   2009年3月15日第158个反中共极权专制暴政争自由人权民主绝食争权抗暴运动日
   
诉江泽民案美国依据国际法的义务:是对公共安全的危胁还是种族灭绝?

   
   宗教信仰自由是一项基本人权
   
   
   
   United States Obligations under International Law and the Falun Gong v. Jiang Zemin Lawsuit: A Justified Reaction to a Threat to Public Security or Genocide ? You Decide
   
   
   
   By Robert Bejesky*
   
   
   
    Conflicting public perceptions of the Falun Gong: "Falun Gong is a notorious, evil cult built on a pack of lies and deceptive heretical fallacies. It controls the mind[s] of its practitioners and manipulates them spiritually."[1]
   
    "Falun Gong is a meditation system that teaches truthfulness, compassion and tolerance. It emphasizes the cultivation of one's heart and mind, and has five sets of gentle physical movements that harmonize the body with the outside universe."[2] "Similar to yoga and Tai-chi, it is designed to improve health and reduce stress."[3]
   
    Falun Gong teachings and member actions have caused over 1,700 deaths.[4] This includes hundreds of member suicides.[5] 748 Falun Gong members have died at the hand of government authorities while in police or administrative custody.[6]
   
    Falun Gong teachings drove a member to murder 17 innocent people by poison.[7] Tens of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been detained in Chinese administrative detention facilities to force them to renounce their spiritua beliefs.[8] Torture is commonplace in these facilities.[9]
   
   
   
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
   
   
   
    1. INTRO DU CTION ............................................................................. 297
   
    II. THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT'S TREATMENT OF FALUN G O N G ..... 299
   
    A. Chinese Government and Jiang Zemin v. Falun Gong ...... 299
   
    1. History of Falun Gong .................................................... 299
   
    2. Stage One ......................................................................... 301
   
    3. Stage Two ......................................................................... 302
   
    4. Stage Three and the Clash with the Chinese
   
    Government ..................................................................... 304
   
    III. HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES ............................................................. 308
   
    A . Introduction ............................................................................ 308
   
    B. Potential Human Rights Violations ..................................... 310
   
    1. Banning Falun Gong: Cultural and Government
   
    Relativism ........................................................................ 310
   
    2. Government and Populace Positions Regarding
   
    Falun Gong ...................................................................... 315
   
    3. Detention of Members ................................................... 317
   
    4. Criminal Law Offenses and Convictions ...................... 319
   
    5. R E T L ................................................................................ 320
   
    6. Summary .......................................................................... 323
   
    IV. GENOCIDE AND UNIVERSAL CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.. 324
   
    A. The International Legal Framework that Prohibits Genocide ………..324
   
    B. Applying International Law that Prohibits Genocide to
   
    the Falun Gong Crackdown ................................................. 326
   
    1. Introduction ..................................................................... 326
   
    2. Is Falun Gong a Religion? ............................................. 327
   
    3. Is Falun Gong a "Cult"? ................................................. 330
   
    4. To Eliminate "in Whole or in Part" ................... 333
   
    C. Summary of Cited Twentieth Century Atrocities ................ 334
   
    V. JURISDICTION FOR UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION CRIMES
   
    AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS ............................................ 335
   
    A. The International Relations Debacle ................................... 335
   
    1. Civil Jurisdiction .............................................................. 337
   
    2. Applying Precedent and Comity to the Falun Gong
   
    Case ................................................................................... 338
   
    V I. CONCLUSION ................................................................................. 339
   
   
   
    I. INTRODUCTION
   
   
   
    According to some media sources and groups, Falun Gong is a peaceful meditation group that has been viciously attacked by the Chinese government. According to the Chinese government, many Falun Gong practitioners are the spawn of a heretical cult leader, and the group collectively could raze Chinese society if given the opportunity to evangelize. On July 22, 1999, the Chinese government marked Falun Gong as an "evil cult," (no only after September marked it as evil cult) banned it, organized a crackdown movement that included a campaign to garner public support for the crackdown, and implemented a policy conceived to "re-educate" Falun Gong members to reverse the group's indoctrination.[10]
   
   
   
    The events involving Falun Gong over the past four years in China have knocked at the door of the U.S. judicial system. Falun Gong filed a lawsuit in October 2002 against former Chinese leader Jiang Zemin in federal court for acts of genocide and other human rights violations pursuant to the jurisdiction of the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA).[11] More than three dozen members of Congress filed an amicus curiae brief in support of Falun Gong, while the Bush Administration filed an amicus curiae brief to dismiss the case.[12] The lawsuit was dismissed in September 2003 by the U.S. district court, which held that Jiang Zemin's head-of-state immunity barred the lawsuit.[13] The dispute, however, seems far from over.[14] This article endeavors to impartially present the merits of the case by navigating the highly propagandized media positions and encourages the reader to draw his or her own conclusions regarding the claims.

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