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陈奎德作品选编
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·自由与文化—《新自由论》(1988年版)第六章
·结语:自由、风险、责任—《新自由论》(1988年版)第七章
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·包遵信 vs. 秘密警察国家
·风向转换:民主国际的对华外交
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·世界民主同盟呼之欲出
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·雪域诗韵——盛雪诗集《觅雪魂》序
·二零零七:未完成的交响
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·三十年,什么“东”“西”?
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·怯懦的审判
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·“国安部”清场——奥运综合症(二)
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“国安部”清场——奥运综合症(二)

有一个词,叫“清场”。当中国处于某些特殊历史时刻,它会倏然而出。

   1976年四月五日深夜,在聚集大量市民及诗歌花圈的天安门广场,灯光骤灭,官方宣布清场:一万多民兵、工人纠察队、五营卫戍部队、三千公安人员,狼突而出,民众被打、被驱、被捕。

   1989年六月四日淩晨四时,天安门广场灯光熄灭,清场降临:此前的华洋一体众声喧哗,突然归于死的寂静。围绕清场前后,铁甲怪兽现身千年古城,横冲直撞,成百上千的学生与市民倒在血泊之中。

   2008年3月14日, 西藏拉萨,数万军警突击清场,游行示威的藏族喇嘛,遭到镇压与搜捕;外国新闻记者,遭到骚扰和驱逐。

   如今,2008奥运前夕,清场,再次出现了。它以更大规模,笼罩北京全城。主导者是国安部和武警。“以超常措施,决胜奥运安保”这是北京大街的横幅。这使人想到了“超限战”这本恶名昭著的书。一场体育盛典,一次嘉华年会,居然令北京与1989年一样,进入戒严状态,直追战时情势。

   看来,共产党人果然是“特殊材料”做成的,他们的行事方式与正常人正常政府截然相反。我们注意到,面临大灾巨难,中共“把丧事办成喜事”;而面对喜事盛会,中共又“把喜事办成丧事”,这两种中共传统,就在2008的今年,已经先后呈现。“把丧事办成喜事”的典型,是汶川大地震;“把喜事办成丧事”的典型,则是北京奥运。

   人们看到,最近,“风声鹤唳、草木皆兵”,是国际社会形容北京奥运最多的一个词。当局为了确保奥运,动用11个师的武警,6万多北京警察,犹嫌不够,又从外省调京数万军警,已建立三级安保指挥体系。他们制定了周密的防范计划和预案,实施了“平安奥运行动”,共分三阶段,1-5月为治理整顿阶段。6-7月是巩固防范阶段,7-8月奥运会举办期间,要严防死守保奥运。连文字,都是使用战争语言。

   从年初开始,当局全城搜捕与驱赶身无片瓦的上访人员、外来民工,人数多达百万。为达目的,当局甚至用停电停水之残酷手段,扫荡各类地下室和简易棚户。同时,逮捕或放逐或限制异议人士、基督教人士、法轮功修炼者。如逮捕胡嘉,永久性放逐异议人士李剑虹出境,再次囚禁杜导彬,限制温克坚和赵达功出境……等等。

   当局如临大敌,如遇鏖战。在北京城内,设置"三道治安防线",层层把关。7月20日起,北京全面管制。车辆依车牌尾数分单双号行使、奥运专用车道、混凝土等工程暂停施工,在奥运开幕当晚禁止北京地区的飞机起降,又在北京、天津、山东、上海等地,实施天上"净空";机场实施"两次安检";对乘坐车船进入北京的旅客实行购票实名制,警察随意登车,对进京车辆和人员大规模盘查。国内外非北京籍留京人员必须随身携带至少两种证件等。就连北京周边农村,也进入备战状态,每个村口的路口都安排了一批村民,手臂上挂着治安联防的红袖章,在路口拉起了一根上面挂着彩条的线,随时将一些他们认为可疑的过往的车辆与行人拦截盘查。而与北京相关的电力系统,则配合当地综合治理部门,在每根高压电的架下搭起了临时帐篷,安排了临时床,每天24小时派人值班,保卫电杆。

   如此,当局视民众为寇仇,紧张乖戾,势同水火。管制之严,甚于抗战时的日据区。闲杂人等,概不准入。中共的愿景,就是在京澳期间,市民都蜗居家中,守看电视,大街则空空如也。如此清静江山,无人捣乱,稳定和谐,天下一统,岂不快哉?

   于是,好端端的奥运,搞成如此死气沉沉。偌大京城,鬼城一座,一幅末日景象。难怪京人悲壮地称自己是去“共赴国难”了。 这就是清场,一次最大规模的清场——北京全城清场。

   这不由使人想起1976、1989、2008在北京与拉萨的清场。同样是汹汹公众聚集,同样是全球媒体聚焦,最后,同样是血迹斑斑。

   于是,我们看到了一个共产党定律: 凡是非官方组织的、群情亢奋的公众浩大集会,尤其倘有国际媒体聚焦,往下的结果不问可知:清场。无论是危机还是盛会,无论是国内示威还是国际大典。

   这就是共产党的“清场定律”。当然,清场不是没有前奏的,正如我们在上篇“真理部出场”所提到的,“真理部(中宣部)”的号角,就是其前奏。无论1976、1989的北京,还是2008拉萨的清场,都是如此。出场与清场,宣传部和国安部,它们的出现,其先后次序是不会变的。正如蚊子叮人之前总要嗡嗡嗡在耳边盘旋,以论证其“叮人清场”的合理性一样,中共的清场程序是其老规矩,也是不变的。

   在这个意义上,虽然北京已经与日俱进,已气粗到与列强平起平坐,并可主办奥运的份上了,但在骨子里,毛泽东那“(笔枪)两杆子”的遗传基因,却顽强地支配着北京一次又一次清场的行为模式。

State Security Clears the Hall -- The Olympics Syndrome (2)

Chen Kuide

   At certain critical historical junctures, China is prone to a phenomenon known as "clearing the hall."

   Late at night on April 5, 1976, during a large gathering of Beijing residents laying wreaths at Tiananmen Square for deceased Premier Zhou Enlai, the authorities suddenly switched on the floodlights and announced a clearing of the area. More than 10,000 police and troops rushed in and began beating, driving out and detaining citizens.

   A similar sequence of events transpired at Tiananmen Square in the early hours of June 4, 1989, with hundreds of students and citizens falling before tanks and troops.

   On March 14, 2008, tens of thousands of police and soldiers moved in on protesters in Lhasa, beating and detaining protesting citizens and lamas, and harassing and driving out foreign journalists.

   Now, on the eve of the Olympics, a similar clearing of the hall is taking place on an even larger scale as the entire city of Beijing is relieved of its undesirables. The clearance this time is being driven by the State Security Bureau and the People's Armed Police. Beijing's streets are festooned with banners proclaiming, "Employ extraordinary measures to ensure the security of the Olympics." The slogan brings to mind the notorious book "Unrestricted Warfare," published by two PLA colonels in 1999. A grand sports occasion is leading to a period of martial law and wartime atmosphere similar to that experienced in Beijing in 1989.

   It looks as if the Chinese Communist Party members are made of "special stuff" that leads them to do things in just the opposite way to normal people. We notice that 2008 has presented the Chinese government with the opportunity to demonstrate its special talent for "turning mourning into celebration" and "turning joyous occasions into times of mourning," first with the Wenchuan earthquake and now with the Olympics.

   The international community has taken to describing the atmosphere preceding the Beijing Olympics with the terms "jitters and qualms." In order to ensure a safe and stable Olympics, the authorities have deployed 11 regiments of People's Armed Police, more than 60,000 Beijing police officers, and on concerns that even these forces might prove inadequate, tens of thousands more police officers and soldiers from outside provinces, under three levels of command. They have formulated detailed plans and preparations for a "peaceful Olympics operation" in three stages. The first stage, from January to May, was designated for improvement and rectification. June and July make up the consolidation and prevention stage, and the third stage from July to August, while the Olympics are actually ongoing, is dedicated to strict precautions and unyielding defense. Even the terms used suggest the language of war.

   Since the beginning of the year, the authorities have been rounding up and expelling hundreds of thousands of penniless petitioners and migrant workers. They have used coercive methods such as cutting off water and electricity and even physical abuse to accomplish their goal, and have destroyed all kinds of underground structures and shacks. At the same time, they have detained, banished or controlled dissidents, Christians and Falun Gong practitioners. Notable examples include the imprisonment of Hu Jia, the permanent expulsion of Li Jianhong, taking Du Daobin back into custody, restricting Wen Kejian and deporting Zhao Dagong.

   The authorities act as if confronting a mortal enemy in fierce battle. Three "lines of defense" have been erected within Beijing, and the city has been placed under full surveillance since July 20. Other measures include restricting operation of motor vehicles with odd and even license numbers on alternate days, setting up special Olympics motorways, halting operation of cement work and other engineering projects, banning flights in and out of Beijing during the Olympics opening ceremony, implementing "blue sky" days in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai, double security checks at the airports, checking names of ticketed passengers on vehicles and vessels entering Beijing, police vehicular spot checks, and large-scale interrogation and examination of passengers and staff of vehicles entering Beijing. Non-Beijing residents are obliged to carry at least two forms of identification on their persons at all times. Even on the outskirts of Beijing, teams of villagers wearing red security armbands are stationed at the entrance to each village, with ropes drawn across the road to stop vehicles and pedestrians for questioning before admittance. Beijing's electrical power suppliers have stationed personnel on 24-hour watch beneath each high-voltage electrical tower to ensure there is no interruption of the power supply.

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