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·无知缺德者当权必然造成人为灾难--正视科学尊重科学
·我们要说真话-答红旗生的蛋 郭国汀
·出身论,成份论应当休矣!
·民族败类!你是否中国人?
·说句心里话
·孔子当然伟大.郭国汀
·时代不同了! 郭国汀
·可敬的国安公安或网警请自重!
·我们决不再沉默! 郭国汀
·秋池君倡议创立中共中国律师网上支部有感/南郭
·我有罪,我可以再作一次自我辩护吗?
·错兄你该醒醒了!
·给某北大高材生的公开函
·答"语文大师"之指责
·答错别字的终结者/南郭
·吾不同意你的观点,但捍卫阁下的自由表达权。错兄的贴还是应当保留
·答龙吟君/南郭
·答紫兄质疑/南郭
·答醉翁
·答迷风先生/南郭
·驳上海当局特务造谣抵毁郭国汀律师的谎言/南郭
·答紫兄质疑/南郭
·吾不同意你的观点,但坚决捍卫阁下的自由表达权。
·郭国汀:我向错兄致歉--同时为错兄说句公道话
·我的观点与立场--驳非法入侵
·郭国汀 汝吹牛!
·南郭不但会骂人而且必将把“乡愿,德之贼”型的小人骂得狗血喷头!
·纯属多余的担忧
·伟大的中华文明博大精深的中华文化---答孟庆强
·我看郭国汀律师
·剥放屁狗们的皮----公安国安网警与郑恩宠
·亦曰将无同,兼斥郭国汀、刘路之类,并向相关版主求教
·对内直不起腰者别指望其对外挺身而出
·南郭/对周树人的评价吾深以为然
·世上最美丽者莫过于大自然——人的本质、伟大
·令郭国汀律师老泪纵横的真情
·南郭:为当代中国人的幸福而努力奋斗
·心里话三步曲/郭国汀
·致刘路及中律网友们新春祝福/郭国汀
·驳上海当局特务造谣抵毁郭国汀律师的谎言/南郭
·我的声明与立场------南郭与中律网友们的对话
·语言与民族密不可分——奉旨答复小C:/南郭
·致刘路及中律网友们新春祝福/郭国汀
·学习方法与读书计划答小C网警同志/南郭
·英雄伟人与超人/郭国汀
·中共党奴的“学术”
·我倒宁可相信李洪东仅仅是因为无知/南郭
·愿王洪民先生的在天之灵安息!/郭国汀
·堂堂正正做个真正的中国人!/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/北郭
·令我感动的赞美!/南郭
·谢谢网友们关注天易律师事务所的命运
·公开论战化敌为友——新年致词/新南郭
·中国涉外案件没有一起获得执行 郭国汀
·宣战演讲名篇
·中共外逃贪官大多是政治斗争牺牲品问 采访郭国汀
·就宗教论坛封郭国汀笔名事致小溪的公开信
***(51)国际人权法律与实务
(A)***国际人权公约(中英文本)
·国际人权法律资料 世界人权宣言
·国际人权法律资料 公民权利和政治权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 法国人权与公民权宣言[人权宣言]
·国际人权法律资料 美国独立宣言
·国际人权法律资料 经济 、社会 、文化权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 保护人人不受酷刑和其他残刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚宣言
·禁止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约
·联合国有关健康保健人员尤其是医护人员在保护和防止囚犯和被拘禁人员不受酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的医疗伦理原则(1982)
·国际人权法律资料 囚犯待遇最低限度标准规则
·国际人权法律资料 国际刑事法院罗马规约
·消除基于宗教或信仰原因的一切形式的不容忍和歧视宣言
·联合国囚犯最低标准待遇规则
·联合国囚犯待遇基本原则(1990年)
·联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)
·结社自由和组织权利保护公约
·联合国反腐败公约
·联合国发展权利宣言
·促进和保护普遍公认的人权和基本自由的权利和义务宣言
·中国已签国际人权公约联合国人员和有关人权安全公约
·联合国律师职责的基本原则
·联合国司法独立的基本原则(1985年)
·联合国检察官的职责准则
·世界人权公约英文版Universal Declaration of Human Rights
·犯罪及权力滥用受害者恢复正义基本原则
·国际刑事法院规约(1998)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)规约
·起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
·国际人权法律资料 取缔教育歧视公约
·关于就业及职业歧视的公约
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
·联合国防止和惩罚种族灭绝罪的公约(1951)
·联合国有关难民身份的国际公约1954
·儿童权利国际公约1990
·起诉和惩罚欧洲轴心国主要战争罪犯的国际军事法庭协议(纽伦堡宪章)
***区域性国际人权法律文件
·1996年欧洲反破坏性异端决议及其邪教定义
·非洲人权和人民权利公约(1981)
·美洲人的权利与义务宣言(1948)
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人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)

EXTRACTS FROM THE FAIR TRIAL MANUAL
   The Fair Trial Manual (a reference manual on international and regional standards for fair trial, published by Amnesty International in 1998) cites the names of human rights standards and bodies in an abbreviated form. We list below the full names of those cited in the extracts of the Manual presented here, with their abbreviated form given first:
   ABBREVIATED FORM FULL NAME

   African Charter African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
   African Commission African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
   American Convention American Convention on Human Rights
   American Declaration American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
   Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Body of Principles Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment (United Nations)
   Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Committee against Torture Committee against Torture (United Nations)
   Convention against Torture Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration against Torture Declaration on the Protection of All Persons From Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration on Disappearance Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (United Nations)
   European Commission European Commission of Human Rights
   European Convention (European) Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
   European Court European Court of Human Rights
   European Prison Rules European Prison Rules
   Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors (United Nations)
   Human Rights Committee Human Rights Committee (United Nations)
   ICC Statute Statute of the International Criminal Court (United Nations)
   ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (United Nations)
   Inter-American Commission Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
   Inter-American Convention on Disappearance Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons
   Inter-American Convention on Torture Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture
   Principles of Medical Ethics Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Rwanda Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence, International Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Rwanda Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers (United Nations)
   Standard Minimum Rules Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Universal Declaration Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   EXTRACTS FROM CHAPTER 5 (Fair Trial Manual)
   The right to be brought promptly before a judge or other officer
   Anyone deprived of their liberty has the right to be brought promptly before a judge or other judicial officer, so that their rights can be protected.
   5.1 The right to be brought promptly before a judge or judicial officer
   In order to safeguard the right to liberty and freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, and in order to prevent violations of fundamental human rights, all forms of detention or imprisonment must be ordered by or subject to the effective control of a judicial or other authority. [Principle 4 of the Body of Principles.]
   Anyone arrested or detained must be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power. [Article 9(3) of the ICCPR, Article 10(1) of the Declaration on Disappearance, Paragraph 2(C) of the African Commission Resolution, Article 7(5) of the American Convention, Article XI of the Inter-American Convention on Disappearance, Article 5(3) of the European Convention, Article 59(2) of the ICC Statute, Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles.]
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR applies to people arrested or detained on a criminal charge, but the other standards apply more broadly to all people deprived of their liberty.
   The purposes of the review before a judge or judicial authority include:
   - to assess whether sufficient legal reason exists for the arrest;
   - to assess whether detention before trial is necessary;
   - to safeguard the well-being of the detainee;
   - and to prevent violations of the detainee's fundamental rights.
   Relevant Standards
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR:
   "Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release..."
   Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles:
   "A person shall not be kept in detention without being given an effective opportunity to be heard promptly by a judicial or other authority. A detained person shall have the right to defend himself or to be assisted by counsel as prescribed by law."
   This procedure often provides the detained person with their first opportunity to challenge the lawfulness of their detention and to secure release if the arrest or detention violated their rights.
   The Inter-American Commission has stated that if a court is not officially informed of a detention or is informed only after significant delay, the rights of a detainee are not protected. It pointed out that such situations lend themselves to other types of abuses, erode respect for the courts and their effectiveness and lead to the institutionalization of lawlessness. (12)
   In view of the importance of this right in protecting detainees against serious violations of human rights, including "disappearances", Amnesty International, in its 14-Point Program for the Prevention of "Disappearances", calls for all prisoners to be brought before a judicial authority without delay after being taken into custody.
   5.1.1 Officers authorized to exercise judicial power If the detained person is brought before an officer other than a judge, the officer must be authorized to exercise judicial power and must be independent of the parties. All those exercising judicial authority must be independent -- they must fulfil the criteria set out in the Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary (see Chapter 12.4 The right to be heard by an independent tribunal).
   For example, the European Court held that there was a violation of Article 5(3) of the European Convention when the ''other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial authority'' was an auditeur militaire or a public prosecutor who could intervene in subsequent proceedings as a representative of the prosecuting authority. (13)
   5.2 What does "prompt" mean?
   International standards require that this hearing take place promptly after detention. While no time limits are expressly stated within the standards themselves, and they are to be determined on a case by case basis, the Human Rights Committee has stated that "...delays should not exceed a few days". (14)
   Members of the Human Rights Committee have questioned whether detention for 48 hours without being brought before a judge is not unreasonably long. (15)
    In a death penalty case, the Committee ruled that a delay of one week from the time of arrest before the detainee was brought before a judge was incompatible with Article 9(3) of the ICCPR. (16)

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