大家
[发表评论] [查看此文评论]    郭国汀律师专栏
[主页]->[大家]->[郭国汀律师专栏]->[人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)]
郭国汀律师专栏
·为自由而战,为正义事业献身,死得其所无尚光荣
·言论自由受到了严重威胁
·思想自由的哲学基础/郭国汀
·冲破精神思想的牢狱--自由要义/郭国汀
·我们为什么要争言论自由权?/南郭
***(38)思想自由与宗教信仰自由
·郭国汀论宗教信仰
·神学与哲学的异同
·宗教的思索
·爱因斯坦信犹太教和贵格教也信上帝
·信神是愚昧吗?!基督教义反人性吗?!谁在大规模屠杀婴儿?!
·爱因斯坦宗教信仰上帝相关言论选译
·爱因斯坦宗教上帝相关言论第二集
· 爱因斯坦原信的准确译法
·大哲大师大思想家大政治家论宗教上帝
·哲学家的前提与基础
·宗教是统治阶级麻醉人民的鸦片吗?
·为什么说爱才是宇宙的本质?
·宗教起源的根源何在?
·圣父圣子圣灵三位一体论的由来
·人民圣殿教真相
·质疑东海一枭良知大法兼驳良知宇宙本体论
·自然科学与宗教哲学灵魂
·读东海兄批判美国神话有感
·郭国汀为上帝信仰辩护
·驳东海之糊涂上帝观
·四海之内皆兄弟人类本是一家人
·推荐陈尔晋先生之《圣灵福音》
·质疑东海君之《良知大法》
·祝愿祖国早日实现真正的自由!
·关于司法公正的讨论郭国汀律师在北大法律信息网上发表了非常危险的错误观点应该予以驳斥!
·中共当局封杀言论为那般?
·六四的记忆
·谈中华文化与道德重建(四)
·中国百年最伟大的文字!
·郭国汀:为刘荻女英雄辩护吾当仁不让!
·只有思想言论出版新闻舆论的真正自由能够救中国!
·只有说真话的民族才有前途
·一个能思想的人才是力量无边的人/南郭
·思想之可贵在于其独立性
·独立思想是最美的
·思想的高度统一是人类社会之大敌
·统一思想之谬误由来已久矣/南郭
·我的心里话--有感于杜导斌先生被捕
***中共专制暴政政治迫害郭国汀律师实录
·郭国汀律师遭遇黑色元宵节
·中共对我的八次政治迫害--在温哥华告别恐惧讨共诉苦座谈会上的发言(上)
·中共暴政对我的八次政治迫害(中)
·中共暴政对我的八次政治迫害(下)
·If You Really Want Control Lock up Their Lawyers
·Anti-communist sentiments landed Chinese lawyer in an asylum
·我的思想认识与保证/郭国汀
·郭国汀律师的[悔罪][悔过]与[乞求]
·郭国汀因言论“违宪”行政处罚听证案代理词
·我推崇的浦志强大律师/郭国汀
·我被中共当局非法剥夺执业资格的真实原因
***(24)《共产主义黑皮书》郭国汀编译
·共产党皆变成杀人犯罪团伙的历史与理论分析
·朝鲜的罪恶与恐怖和秘密:共产党暴政罪恶批判系列之一
·古巴共产极权政权的罪恶:共产党暴政罪恶批判之二
·越南共产党暴政罪恶昭彰:共产党极权暴政罪恶实录之三
·中欧和东南欧共产党暴政的深重罪孽: 共产党极权暴政罪恶批判之四
·埃塞俄比亚共产党政权的罪孽: 共产党政权罪恶实录之五
·安哥拉和莫桑比克共产党政权的血腥暴力:共产党政权罪恶实录之六
·阿富汉共产党暴政罪大恶极:共产党极权暴政罪恶实录之七
·尼加拉瓜共产党政权的罪孽:共产党暴政罪恶实录之八
·秘鲁共产党的血腥残暴:共产党暴政罪恶实录之九
·虐杀成性的柬普寨共产党暴政:共产党暴政罪恶实录评论系列之十
·波兰共产党政权的罪孽:共产党暴政罪恶实录系列评论之十一
·苏联共产党暴政的滔天罪行:共产党暴政罪恶实录系列评论之十二
·中国共产党极权流氓暴政的滔天罪孽:共产党暴政罪恶实录系列评论之十三
·论共产党极权暴政的归宿-- 2010年全球支持中國和亞洲民主化斯特拉斯堡大會专稿
·金正日真面目
·韩战真相
***(25)《苏联东欧天鹅绒革命》郭国汀编译
·东欧天鹅绒革命导论
·苏联政治民主革命:共产党国极权暴政崩溃原因分析系列评论之一
·罗马尼亚暴力革命:共产党国极权暴政崩溃原因分析系列评论之二
·匈牙利静悄的革命:共产党国极权暴政崩溃原因分析之三
·捷克戏剧性革命:共产党国极权暴政崩溃原因分析之四
·东德和平革命:共产党国极权暴政崩溃原因分析之五
·波兰自我限制的革命:共产党极权暴政崩溃原因分析之六
·罗马尼亚35天革命成功真相
·社会转媒(国际互联网)对阿拉伯之春革命的巨大作用
·郭国汀:苏共政权垮台的根本原因
·阿拉伯之春埃及部分成功的革命
·阿拉伯之春:突尼斯成功的革命
·觉醒的人民粉碎专制体制:阿拉伯革命
·民主革命决非恐怖主义
·东欧各国追究共产党罪犯的罪责概况
·共产党专制暴政皆依赖秘密政治警察实行极权恐怖统治
·共产党极权暴政利用强制劳改劳教集中营野蛮残暴迫害人民
·共产党极权专制暴政实质上皆与人民为敌
·共产党极权专政暴政的大清洗
·共产党极权专制暴政皆利用强制劳改集中营野蛮迫害人民
·共产党极权专制暴政皆践踏法律司法暗无天日
·共产党极权专制暴政皆疯狂迫害宗教信仰者
***(26)《共产主义的历史》郭国汀编译
·序《共产主义的历史》
·共产主义的理论与实践批判
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)

EXTRACTS FROM THE FAIR TRIAL MANUAL
   The Fair Trial Manual (a reference manual on international and regional standards for fair trial, published by Amnesty International in 1998) cites the names of human rights standards and bodies in an abbreviated form. We list below the full names of those cited in the extracts of the Manual presented here, with their abbreviated form given first:
   ABBREVIATED FORM FULL NAME

   African Charter African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
   African Commission African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
   American Convention American Convention on Human Rights
   American Declaration American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
   Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Body of Principles Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment (United Nations)
   Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Committee against Torture Committee against Torture (United Nations)
   Convention against Torture Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration against Torture Declaration on the Protection of All Persons From Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration on Disappearance Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (United Nations)
   European Commission European Commission of Human Rights
   European Convention (European) Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
   European Court European Court of Human Rights
   European Prison Rules European Prison Rules
   Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors (United Nations)
   Human Rights Committee Human Rights Committee (United Nations)
   ICC Statute Statute of the International Criminal Court (United Nations)
   ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (United Nations)
   Inter-American Commission Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
   Inter-American Convention on Disappearance Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons
   Inter-American Convention on Torture Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture
   Principles of Medical Ethics Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Rwanda Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence, International Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Rwanda Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers (United Nations)
   Standard Minimum Rules Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Universal Declaration Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   EXTRACTS FROM CHAPTER 5 (Fair Trial Manual)
   The right to be brought promptly before a judge or other officer
   Anyone deprived of their liberty has the right to be brought promptly before a judge or other judicial officer, so that their rights can be protected.
   5.1 The right to be brought promptly before a judge or judicial officer
   In order to safeguard the right to liberty and freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, and in order to prevent violations of fundamental human rights, all forms of detention or imprisonment must be ordered by or subject to the effective control of a judicial or other authority. [Principle 4 of the Body of Principles.]
   Anyone arrested or detained must be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power. [Article 9(3) of the ICCPR, Article 10(1) of the Declaration on Disappearance, Paragraph 2(C) of the African Commission Resolution, Article 7(5) of the American Convention, Article XI of the Inter-American Convention on Disappearance, Article 5(3) of the European Convention, Article 59(2) of the ICC Statute, Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles.]
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR applies to people arrested or detained on a criminal charge, but the other standards apply more broadly to all people deprived of their liberty.
   The purposes of the review before a judge or judicial authority include:
   - to assess whether sufficient legal reason exists for the arrest;
   - to assess whether detention before trial is necessary;
   - to safeguard the well-being of the detainee;
   - and to prevent violations of the detainee's fundamental rights.
   Relevant Standards
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR:
   "Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release..."
   Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles:
   "A person shall not be kept in detention without being given an effective opportunity to be heard promptly by a judicial or other authority. A detained person shall have the right to defend himself or to be assisted by counsel as prescribed by law."
   This procedure often provides the detained person with their first opportunity to challenge the lawfulness of their detention and to secure release if the arrest or detention violated their rights.
   The Inter-American Commission has stated that if a court is not officially informed of a detention or is informed only after significant delay, the rights of a detainee are not protected. It pointed out that such situations lend themselves to other types of abuses, erode respect for the courts and their effectiveness and lead to the institutionalization of lawlessness. (12)
   In view of the importance of this right in protecting detainees against serious violations of human rights, including "disappearances", Amnesty International, in its 14-Point Program for the Prevention of "Disappearances", calls for all prisoners to be brought before a judicial authority without delay after being taken into custody.
   5.1.1 Officers authorized to exercise judicial power If the detained person is brought before an officer other than a judge, the officer must be authorized to exercise judicial power and must be independent of the parties. All those exercising judicial authority must be independent -- they must fulfil the criteria set out in the Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary (see Chapter 12.4 The right to be heard by an independent tribunal).
   For example, the European Court held that there was a violation of Article 5(3) of the European Convention when the ''other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial authority'' was an auditeur militaire or a public prosecutor who could intervene in subsequent proceedings as a representative of the prosecuting authority. (13)
   5.2 What does "prompt" mean?
   International standards require that this hearing take place promptly after detention. While no time limits are expressly stated within the standards themselves, and they are to be determined on a case by case basis, the Human Rights Committee has stated that "...delays should not exceed a few days". (14)
   Members of the Human Rights Committee have questioned whether detention for 48 hours without being brought before a judge is not unreasonably long. (15)
    In a death penalty case, the Committee ruled that a delay of one week from the time of arrest before the detainee was brought before a judge was incompatible with Article 9(3) of the ICCPR. (16)

[下一页]

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场