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建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990

建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990
   Charter of Paris for a New Europe
   PARIS 1990
   
   Contents

   · Charter of Paris for a New Europe
   o A new era of Democracy, Peace and Unity
   § Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law
   § Economic Liberty and Responsibility
   § Friendly Relations among Participating States
   § Security
   § Unity
   § The CSCE and the World
   o Guidelines for the future
   § Human Dimension
   § Security
   § Economic Co-operation
   § Environment
   § Culture
   § Migrant Workers
   § Mediterranean
   § Non-governmental Organizations
   § New structures and institutions of the CSCE Process
   o Signatures
   · Supplementary document to give effect to certain provisions contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe
   o I. Institutional arrangements
   § A. The Council
   § B. The committee of senior officials
   § C. Emergency mechanism
   § D. Follow-up meetings
   § E. The CSCE Secretariat
   § F. The Conflict Prevention Centre (CPC)
   § G. The office for free elections
   § H. Procedures and modalities concerning CSCE Institutions
   § I. Communications
   § J. Application of CSCE rules of procedure
   o II. Meetings of experts
   § A. Seminar of experts on democratic institutions
   § B. Meeting of experts on national minorities
   o III. Financial arrangements of the CSCE and cost-effectiveness
   o Annex I
   o Annex II Seminar of experts on democratic institutions
   § I. Agenda
   § II. Timetable and other organizational modalities
   o Annex III Meeting of experts on national minorities
   § I. Agenda
   § II. Timetable and other organizational modalities
   
   Charter of Paris for a New Europe
   Meeting of the Heads of State or Government of the participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy-European Community, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, United States of America and Yugoslavia
   Paris, 19 - 21 November 1990
   A new era of Democracy, Peace and Unity
   We, the Heads of State or Government of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, have assembled in Paris at a time of profound change and historic expectations. The era of confrontation and division of Europe has ended. We declare that henceforth our relations will be founded on respect and co-operation.
   Europe is liberating itself from the legacy of the past. The courage of men and women, the strength of the will of the peoples and the power of the ideas of the Helsinki Final Act have opened a new era of democracy, peace and unity in Europe.
   Ours is a time for fulfilling the hopes and expectations our peoples have cherished for decades : steadfast commitment to democracy based on human rights and fundamental freedoms; prosperity through economic liberty and social justice; and equal security for all our countries.
   The Ten Principles of the Final Act will guide us towards this ambitious future, just as they have lighted our way towards better relations for the past fifteen years. Full implementation of all CSCE commitments must form the basis for the initiatives we are now taking to enable our nations to live in accordance with their aspirations.
   Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law
   We undertake to build, consolidate and strengthen democracy as the only system of government of our nations. In this endeavour, we will abide by the following:
   Human rights and fundamental freedoms are the birthright of all human beings, are inalienable and are guaranteed by law. Their protection and promotion is the first responsibility of government. Respect for them is an essential safeguard against an over-mighty State. Their observance and full exercise are the foundation of freedom, justice and peace.
   Democratic government is based on the will of the people, expressed regularly through free and fair elections. Democracy has as its foundation respect for the human person and the rule of law. Democracy is the best safeguard of freedom of expression, tolerance of all groups of society, and equality of opportunity for each person.
   Democracy, with its representative and pluralist character, entails accountability to the electorate, the obligation of public authorities to comply with the law and justice administered impartially. No one will be above the law.
   We affirm that, without discrimination,
   · every individual has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief,
   · freedom of expression,
   · freedom of association and peaceful assembly,
   · freedom of movement;
   no one will be:
   · subject to arbitrary arrest or detention,
   · subject to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
   everyone also has the right :
   · to know and act upon his rights,
   · to participate in free and fair elections,
   · to fair and public trial if charged with an offence,
   · to own property alone or in association and to exercise individual enterprise,
   · to enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights.
   We affirm that the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities will be protected and that persons belonging to national minorities have the right freely to express, preserve and develop that identity without any discrimination and in full equality before the law.
   We will ensure that everyone will enjoy recourse to effective remedies, national or international, against any violation of his rights.
   Full respect for these precepts is the bedrock on which we will seek to construct the new Europe.
   Our States will co-operate and support each other with the aim of making democratic gains irreversible.
   Economic Liberty and Responsibility
   Economic liberty, social justice and environmental responsibility are indispensable for prosperity.
   The free will of the individual, exercised in democracy and protected by the rule of law, forms the necessary basis for successful economic and social development. We will promote economic activity which respects and upholds human dignity.
   Freedom and political pluralism are necessary elements in our common objective of developing market economies towards sustainable economic growth, prosperity, social justice, expanding employment and efficient use of economic resources. The success of the transition to market economy by countries making efforts to this effect is important and in the interest of us all. It will enable us to share a higher level of prosperity which is our common objective. We will co-operate to this end.
   Preservation of the environment is a shared responsibility of all our nations. While supporting national and regional efforts in this field, we must also look to the pressing need for joint action on a wider scale.
   Friendly Relations among Participating States
   Now that a new era is dawning in Europe, we are determined to expand and strengthen friendly relations and co-operation among the States of Europe, the United States of America and Canada, and to promote friendship among our peoples.
   To uphold and promote democracy, peace and unity in Europe, we solemnly pledge our full commitment to the Ten Principles of the Helsinki Final Act. We affirm the continuing validity of the Ten Principles and our determination to put them into practice. All the Principles apply equally and unreservedly, each of them being interpreted taking into account the others. They form the basis for our relations.
   In accordance with our obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and commitments under the Helsinki Final Act, we renew our pledge to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or from acting in any other manner inconsistent with the principles or purposes of those documents. We recall that non-compliance with obligations under the Charter of the United Nations constitutes a violation of international law.

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