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郭国汀律师专栏
·权欲知识分子与苏俄革命
***(29)《基督教与人类文明》郭国汀编译
·《基督教与文明》
·基督教是自由资本主义之母
·基督教与共产党暴政
·天主教皇与犹太人
·纳粹和法西斯极权主义与基督教及罗马教皇
·极权主义是基督教文化的产物吗?
·纳粹决非极左而是极右也非国家社会主义而是国家资本主义
·恐怖主义与反犹太主义
·纳粹极权兴亡简史
·进化论与基督教信仰
·西班牙宗教法庭
·中国基督教发展简史
·基督教与现代语言
·基督教与理性
·基督教的慈善爱与大学文化教育
·罗马帝国为何迫害基督教?
·基督教与诗歌文学音乐绘画建筑艺术文化美学
·基督教与科学和利玛窦
·基督教与法学
·基督教与哲学
·基督教与自然科学和人文教育体制
·基督教的人人平等和反奴隶制
***(30)《近现当代真实的中国历史》郭国汀译著
·为抗日救亡战争血洒长空的美国空军飞虎队
·蒋介石打输国共内战的七大原因
·西安事变真相
·宛南事变真相:毛想迫斯大林支持他与蒋介石争权同时借刀杀项英
·史迪威与蒋介石的命运
·腐败无能的满清屈辱史
·宛南事变真相
·西安事变真相
·到底是谁领导了抗日救亡战争?
·抗日救亡战争简史
·毛泽东再批判
·郭国汀 毛泽东批判
·国民党比共产党好得多,蒋介石比毛泽东高贵得多
·文革是人类历史上最荒唐最愚蠢最无知最残暴之举/郭国汀
·老毛和中共是中华民族的千古罪犯
·赫鲁晓夫评论毛泽东
***(31)《孙文传奇》郭国汀译著
·南郭:关于孙文评价与网友们的争论
·有关孙中山评价的争论
·孙中山、蒋介石与苏俄
·孙中山蒋介石与苏俄的原则性区别
·《孙中山传奇》郭国汀编译
·《共和革命之父孙中山》
·《共和革命之父孙中山》郭国汀编译
·《共和革命之父孙中山》1、身世
·《共和革命之父孙中山》3、孙文共和民主革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》6、日本政要支持孙文
·《共和革命之父孙中山》8、义和拳乱
·《共和革命之父孙中山》9、革命派与改良派
·《共和革命之父孙中山》10、孙文革命与华侨和留学生
·《共和革命之父孙中山》11、晚清的改革
·《共和革命之父孙中山传奇》12、四处筹资促革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》13、黄花岗起义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》14、保路运动
·《共和革命之父孙中山》15、武昌起义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》16、袁世凯趁虚劫权
·《共和革命之父孙中山》17、辛亥革命的意义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》18、捍卫革命精神
·《共和革命之父孙中山》19、宋教仁遇刺
·《共和革命之父孙中山》20、二次革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》21、袁世凯破坏共和体制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》22、中华革命党
·《共和革命之父孙中山》23、袁世凯称帝闹剧
·《共和革命之父孙中山》24、袁世凯众叛亲离
·《共和革命之父孙中山》25、张勋复辟帝制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》26.孙文护宪
·《共和革命之父孙中山》27.著书立说
·《共和革命之父孙中山》28.新文化运动和五四运动
·29.新文化及五四期间的孙文
·《共和革命之父孙中山》30.东山再起
·《共和革命之父孙中山》31、孙文为何联俄容共?
·《共和革命之父孙中山》32.孙越上海宣言
·《共和革命之父孙中山》33.阴差阳错 逼上梁山
·《共和革命之父孙中山》34.以俄为师
·《共和革命之父孙中山》35.反帝遵儒
·《共和革命之父孙中山》36.关税事件
·《共和革命之父孙中山》37.国民党一大
·《共和革命之父孙中山》38.三民主义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》39.屡战屡北
·《共和革命之父孙中山》40.最后岁月
·《共和革命之父孙中山》41.壮志未酬身先死
·国际权威专家对孙文的客观公正评价
·辛亥革命重大历史与现实意义
***(32)《还原蒋介石》郭国汀译著
·郭国汀谈论毛泽东和蒋介石
·我为何研究孙文,蒋介石及中华民国史?
·《民族英雄蒋介石》
·《还原蒋介石》:身世
·《还原蒋介石》:辛亥革命中的蒋介石
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欧洲社会宪章1961

欧洲社会宪章1961
   European Social Charter 1961
   Preamble

   The governments signatory hereto, being members of the Council of Europe,
   Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the achievement of greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and of facilitating their economic and social progress, in particular by the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms;
   Considering that in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Rome on 4th November 1950, and the Protocol thereto signed at Paris on 20th March 1952, the member States of the Council of Europe agreed to secure to their populations the civil and political rights and freedoms therein specified;
   Considering that the enjoyment of social rights should be secured without discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin;
   Being resolved to make every effort in common to improve the standard of living and to promote the social well-being of both their urban and rural populations by means of appropriate institutions and action,
   Have agreed as follows:
   Part I
   The Contracting Parties accept as the aim of their policy, to be pursued by all appropriate means, both national and international in character, the attainment of conditions in which the following rights and principles may be effectively realised:
   1. Everyone shall have the opportunity to earn his living in an occupation freely entered upon.
   2. All workers have the right to just conditions of work.
   3. All workers have the right to safe and healthy working conditions.
   4. All workers have the right to a fair remuneration sufficient for a decent standard of living for themselves and their families.
   5. All workers and employers have the right to freedom of association in national or international organisations for the protection of their economic and social interests.
   6. All workers and employers have the right to bargain collectively.
   7. Children and young persons have the right to a special protection against the physical and moral hazards to which they are exposed.
   8. Employed women, in case of maternity, and other employed women as appropriate, have the right to a special protection in their work.
   9. Everyone has the right to appropriate facilities for vocational guidance with a view to helping him choose an occupation suited to his personal aptitude and interests.
   10. Everyone has the right to appropriate facilities for vocational training.
   11. Everyone has the right to benefit from any measures enabling him to enjoy the highest possible standard of health attainable.
   12. All workers and their dependents have the right to social security.
   13. Anyone without adequate resources has the right to social and medical assistance.
   14. Everyone has the right to benefit from social welfare services.
   15. Disabled persons have the right to vocational training, rehabilitation and resettlement, whatever the origin and nature of their disability.
   16. The family as a fundamental unit of society has the right to appropriate social, legal and economic protection to ensure its full development.
   17. Mothers and children, irrespective of marital status and family relations, have the right to appropriate social and economic protection.
   18. The nationals of any one of the Contracting Parties have the right to engage in any gainful occupation in the territory of any one of the others on a footing of equality with the nationals of the latter, subject to restrictions based on cogent economic or social reasons.
   19. Migrant workers who are nationals of a Contracting Party and their families have the right to protection and assistance in the territory of any other Contracting Party.
   Part II
   The Contracting Parties undertake, as provided for in Part III, to consider themselves bound by the obligations laid down in the following articles and paragraphs.
   Article 1 – The right to work
   With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to work, the Contracting Parties undertake:
   1. to accept as one of their primary aims and responsibilities the achievement and maintenance of as high and stable a level of employment as possible, with a view to the attainment of full employment;
   2. to protect effectively the right of the worker to earn his living in an occupation freely entered upon;
   3. to establish or maintain free employment services for all workers;
   4. to provide or promote appropriate vocational guidance, training and rehabilitation.
   Article 2 – The right to just conditions of work
   With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to just conditions of work, the Contracting Parties undertake:
   1. to provide for reasonable daily and weekly working hours, the working week to be progressively reduced to the extent that the increase of productivity and other relevant factors permit;
   2. to provide for public holidays with pay;
   3. to provide for a minimum of two weeks annual holiday with pay;
   4. to provide for additional paid holidays or reduced working hours for workers engaged in dangerous or unhealthy occupations as prescribed;
   5. to ensure a weekly rest period which shall, as far as possible, coincide with the day recognised by tradition or custom in the country or region concerned as a day of rest.
   Article 3 – The right to safe and healthy working conditions
   With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to safe and healthy working conditions, the Contracting Parties undertake:
   1. to issue safety and health regulations;
   2. to provide for the enforcement of such regulations by measures of supervision;
   3. to consult, as appropriate, employers' and workers' organisations on measures intended to improve industrial safety and health.
   Article 4 – The right to a fair remuneration
   With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to a fair remuneration, the Contracting Parties undertake:
   1. to recognise the right of workers to a remuneration such as will give them and their families a decent standard of living;
   2. to recognise the right of workers to an increased rate of remuneration for overtime work, subject to exceptions in particular cases;
   3. to recognise the right of men and women workers to equal pay for work of equal value;
   4. to recognise the right of all workers to a reasonable period of notice for termination of employment;
   5. to permit deductions from wages only under conditions and to the extent prescribed by national laws or regulations or fixed by collective agreements or arbitration awards.
   The exercise of these rights shall be achieved by freely concluded collective agreements, by statutory wage-fixing machinery, or by other means appropriate to national conditions.
   Article 5 – The right to organise
   With a view to ensuring or promoting the freedom of workers and employers to form local, national or international organisations for the protection of their economic and social interests and to join those organisations, the Contracting Parties undertake that national law shall not be such as to impair, nor shall it be so applied as to impair, this freedom. The extent to which the guarantees provided for in this article shall apply to the police shall be determined by national laws or regulations. The principle governing the application to the members of the armed forces of these guarantees and the extent to which they shall apply to persons in this category shall equally be determined by national laws or regulations.
   Article 6 – The right to bargain collectively
   With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to bargain collectively, the Contracting Parties undertake:
   1. to promote joint consultation between workers and employers;
   2. to promote, where necessary and appropriate, machinery for voluntary negotiations between employers or employers' organisations and workers' organisations, with a view to the regulation of terms and conditions of employment by means of collective agreements;

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