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郭国汀律师专栏
·联合国发展权利宣言
·促进和保护普遍公认的人权和基本自由的权利和义务宣言
·中国已签国际人权公约联合国人员和有关人权安全公约
·联合国律师职责的基本原则
·联合国司法独立的基本原则(1985年)
·联合国检察官的职责准则
·世界人权公约英文版Universal Declaration of Human Rights
·犯罪及权力滥用受害者恢复正义基本原则
·国际刑事法院规约(1998)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)规约
·起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
·国际人权法律资料 取缔教育歧视公约
·关于就业及职业歧视的公约
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
·联合国防止和惩罚种族灭绝罪的公约(1951)
·联合国有关难民身份的国际公约1954
·儿童权利国际公约1990
·起诉和惩罚欧洲轴心国主要战争罪犯的国际军事法庭协议(纽伦堡宪章)
***区域性国际人权法律文件
·1996年欧洲反破坏性异端决议及其邪教定义
·非洲人权和人民权利公约(1981)
·美洲人的权利与义务宣言(1948)
·美洲人权公约(1969)
·美洲防止和禁罚酷刑的公约
·防止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的欧洲公约1989
·欧洲保护人权和基本自由公约(1950)
·欧洲社会宪章1961
·建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990
(B)***美国人权法律文件
·美国1620年“五月花号”公约(The Mayflower Compact)
·美国1786年弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令
·美国1776年弗吉尼亚权利法案
·美国1862年解放黑奴宣言
·美国1777年邦联条款
·美国1776年维吉尼亚权利法案
(C)***英国人权法律文件
·英国1998年人权法案
·英国1676年人身保护令
·英国1689年权利法案
·英国1628年权利请愿书
·英国1215年自由大宪章
***(52)郭国汀论法官与律师
·悼念前最高法院大法官冯立奇教授逝世四周年
·法官律师与政党 郭国汀
·尊敬的法官大人你值得尊敬吗?!
·郭国汀与中国律师网友论法官
·法官的良心与良知/南郭
·法官!这是我法律生涯的终极目标! 郭国汀
·律师与法官之间究竟应如何摆正关系?
·从 “中国律师人”说开去
·唯有科班出身者才能当律师?!答王靓华高论/南郭
·律师的责任——再答李洪东/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/南郭
·我为北京16位律师喝彩!郭国汀
·郭国汀律师与网上警官的交锋
·我是中国律师我怕谁?!
·郭国汀 好律师与称职的律师
·温柔抗议对郭律师的ID第二次查封
·第五次强烈抗议中国律师网无理非法封杀郭律师的IP
·中国律师网为何封杀中国律师?
·中律网封杀删除最受网友们欢迎的郭国汀律师
·最受欢迎的写手却被中共彻底封杀
·我为何暂时告别中国律师网?
·南郭:律师的文学功底
·中国最需要什么样的律师?
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!
·将律师协会办成真正的民间自治组织
·强烈挽留郭国汀律师/小C
·the open letter to Mr.Hu Jintao from Lawyers' Rights Watch Canada for Gao Zhisheng
·自宫与被阉割的中国律师网 /南郭
·做律师首先应当做个堂堂正正的人——南郭与王靓华的论战/南郭
·呵!吉大,我心中永远的痛!
·再答小C君/南郭
·凡跟郭国汀贴者一律入选黑名单!
·历史不容患改!历史专家不敢当,吾喜读中国历史是实
·思想自由的益处答迷风先生
·答迷风先生
·答经纬仪之民族败类之指责,汝不妨教教吾辈汝之哲学呀?
·南郭曾是"天才"但一夜之间被厄杀成蠢才,如今不过是个笨蛋耳!
·答时代精英,
·长歌独行至郭国汀律师公开函
***(53)大学生\知识分子与爱国愤青研究
·春寒料峭,公民兀立(南郭强烈推荐大中学生及留学生和所有关心中国前途的国人精读)
·大中学生及留学生必读:胡锦涛崇尚的古巴政治是什么玩意?!
·是否应彻底否定中华传统文
·向留学生及大中学生推荐一篇好文
·向留学生大学生强烈推荐杰作驳中共政权威权化的谬论
·强烈谴责中共党控教育祸国殃民的罪孽!--闻贺卫方教授失业有感
·學術腐敗是一個國家腐敗病入膏肓的明證
·中共专制暴政长期推行党化奴化教育罪孽深重
·教育国民化、私有化而非政治化党化是改革教育最佳途径之一
·论当代中国大学生和爱国愤青的未来
·给中国大学生留学生及爱国愤青们开书单
·中国知识分子死了!
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消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000

   消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
   
   Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 2000
   
   The preamble is the introductory part of the Protocol which sets out the object and purpose of the Protocol. It refers to the principles of equality and non-discrimination as embodied in the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and other international human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. It reaffirms the determination of States parties which adopt the protocol to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by women of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and to take effective action to prevent violations of these rights and freedoms.

   Article 1
   Establishes that States who become parties to the optional protocol recognise the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications under the protocol.
   Article 2
   Provides a Communications Procedure which allows either individuals or groups of individuals to submit individual complaints to the Committee. Communications may also be submitted on behalf of individuals or groups of individuals, with their consent, unless it can be shown why that consent was not received.
   Article 3
   Establishes that a communication will only be considered by the Committee if it concerns a acountry that has become party to the protocol. In addition, a communication must be submitted in writing and may not be anonymous.
   Article 4
   Stipulates admissibility criteria of communications. Before a complaint is considered, the Committee must determine that all available domestic remedies have been exhausted and the complaint is not, nor has been examined by the Committee or has been or is being examined under another procedure of international investigation or settlement. In addition, a complaint will only be admissible provided the complaint is compatible with the provisions of the Convention; is not an abuse of the right to submit a communication; the claimants' allegations can be substantiated, and the facts presented occurred after the State party ratified the Protocol.
   Article 5
   After receipt of a communication and prior to its final decision, the Committee has the option of contacting the State Party with an urgent request that the State Party take steps to protect the alleged victim or victims from irreparable harm.
   Article 6
   Establishes the communications procedure. Where a communication has been found admissible, the Committee will confidentially bring a communication to the attention of the State Party, provided the complaint has consented to disclosure of their identity to the State Party. The State Party is given six months to provide a written explanation or statement to the complaint.
   Article 7
   Outlines the process of complaint consideration. The Committee will examine and consider all information provided by a complaint in closed meetings. The Committee's views and recommendations will be transmitted to the parties concerned. The State Party has six months to consider the views of the Committee and provide a written response, including remedial steps taken. The Committee may request further information from the State Party, including in subsequent reports.
   Article 8
   Establishes an inquiry procedure that allows the Committee to initiate a confidential investigation by one or more of its members where it has received reliable information of grave or systematic violations by a State Party of rights established in the Convention. Where warranted and with the consent of the State Party, the Committee may visit the territory of the State Party. Any findings, comments or recommendations will be transmitted to the State Party concerned, to which it may respond within six months.
   Article 9
   Establishes a follow-up procedure for the Committee. After the six-month period referred to in article 8, the State Party may be invited to provide the Committee with details of any remedial efforts taken following an inquiry. Details may also be provided in the State Party report to the Committee under article 18 of the Convention.
   Article 10
   Provides an opt-out clause. At ratification of the Optional Protocol, a State Party has the option of refusing to recognize the competence of the Committee to initiate and conduct an inquiry as established under articles 8 and 9. However, this declaration may be withdrawn at a later time.
   Article 11
   Requires a State Party to ensure the protection of those submitting communications.
   Article 12
   A summary of the Committee's activities relating to the Protocol will be included under article 21 of the Convention.
   Article 13
   Establishes a requirement that States Parties widely publicize the Convention and its Protocol and provide access to the views and recommendations of the Committee.
   Article 14
   Requires the Committee to develop its own rules of procedure when dealing with communications and inquiries considered in accordance with the Optional Protocol.
   Article 15
   Governs eligibility for States to sign, ratify or accede to the Protocol. Any State Party that is party to the Convention may become party to the Protocol.
   Article 16
   Establishes that a minimum of ten countries must have ratified or acceded to the Protocol before the Protocol enters into force. The Protocol will enter into force three months after the 10th ratification or accession.
   Article 17
   Provides that there shall be no reservations to the Protocol.
   Article 18
   Establishes procedures for amending the Protocol. Any State Party may suggest amendments to be sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations to be communicated to all States Parties to the Protocol. If requested by a minimum of one-third of States Parties, a conference may be convened to discuss and vote on any amendments. With the support of a two-thirds majority and the General Assembly, an amendment comes into force and is binding on States that have accepted the amendments.
   Article 19
   Provides for a State Party to withdraw from the Protocol by written notification to the Secretary-General. Withdrawal will not impact any communications submitted prior to the effective date of withdrawal.
   Article 20
   States that the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inforrn States of signatures, ratifications and accessions, the date the Protocol comes into force and any amendments and withdrawals.
   Article 21
   Provides that the Protocol will be deposited in the United Nations archives, made available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish and sent to all States Parties by the Secretary General.

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