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·郭国汀 美國言論自由发展簡史 [1]
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起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)

起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
   Statute of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, U.N. Doc. S/25704 at 36, annex (1993) and S/25704/Add.1 (1993), adopted by Security Council on 25 May 1993, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1993).
   

   
   Having been established by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (hereinafter referred to as "the International Tribunal") shall function in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute.
   Article 1
   Competence of the International Tribunal
   The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991 in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute.
   Article 2
   Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949
   The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons committing or ordering to be committed grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely the following acts against persons or property protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva Convention:
   (a) wilful killing;
   (b) torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments;
   (c) wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health;
   (d) extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly;
   (e) compelling a prisoner of war or a civilian to serve in the forces of a hostile power;
   (f) wilfully depriving a prisoner of war or a civilian of the rights of fair and regular trial;
   (g) unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a civilian;
   (h) taking civilians as hostages.
   Article 3
   Violations of the laws or customs of war
   The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons violating the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to:
   (a) employment of poisonous weapons or other weapons calculated to cause unnecessary suffering;
   (b) wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity;
   (c) attack, or bombardment, by whatever means, of undefended towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings;
   (d) seizure of, destruction or wilful damage done to institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, historic monuments and works of art and science;
   (e) plunder of public or private property.
   Article 4
   Genocide
   1. The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons committing genocide as defined in paragraph 2 of this article or of committing any of the other acts enumerated in paragraph 3 of this article.
   2. Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
   (a) killing members of the group;
   (b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
   (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
   (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
   (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
   3. The following acts shall be punishable:
   (a) genocide;
   (b) conspiracy to commit genocide;
   (c) direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
   (d) attempt to commit genocide;
   (e) complicity in genocide.
   Article 5
   Crimes against humanity
   The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for the following crimes when committed in armed conflict, whether international or internal in character, and directed against any civilian population:
   (a) murder;
   (b) extermination;
   (c) enslavement;
   (d) deportation;
   (e) imprisonment;
   (f) torture;
   (g) rape;
   (h) persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds;
   (i) other inhumane acts.
   Article 6
   Personal jurisdiction
   The International Tribunal shall have jurisdiction over natural persons pursuant to the provisions of the present Statute.
   Article 7
   Individual criminal responsibility
   1. A person who planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted in the planning, preparation or execution of a crime referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute, shall be individually responsible for the crime.
   2. The official position of any accused person, whether as Head of State or Government or as a responsible Government official, shall not relieve such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment.
   3. The fact that any of the acts referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute was committed by a subordinate does not relieve his superior of criminal responsibility if he knew or had reason to know that the subordinate was about to commit such acts or had done so and the superior failed to take the necessary and reasonable measures to prevent such acts or to punish the perpetrators thereof.
   4. The fact that an accused person acted pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior shall not relieve him of criminal responsibility, but may be considered in mitigation of punishment if the International Tribunal determines that justice so requires.
   Article 8
   Territorial and temporal jurisdiction
   The territorial jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including its land surface, airspace and territorial waters. The temporal jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to a period beginning on 1 January 1991.
   Article 9
   Concurrent jurisdiction
   1. The International Tribunal and national courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction to prosecute persons for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1 January 1991.
   2. The International Tribunal shall have primacy over national courts. At any stage of the procedure, the International Tribunal may formally request national courts to defer to the competence of the International Tribunal in accordance with the present Statute and the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Tribunal.
   Article 10
   Non-bis-in-idem
   1. No person shall be tried before a national court for acts constituting serious violations of international humanitarian law under the present Statute, for which he or she has already been tried by the International Tribunal.
   2. A person who has been tried by a national court for acts constituting serious violations of international humanitarian law may be subsequently tried by the International Tribunal only if:
   (a) the act for which he or she was tried was characterized as an ordinary crime; or
   (b) the national court proceedings were not impartial or independent, were designed to shield the accused from international criminal responsibility, or the case was not diligently prosecuted.
   3. In considering the penalty to be imposed on a person convicted of a crime under the present Statute, the International Tribunal shall take into account the extent to which any penalty imposed by a national court on the same person for the same act has already been served.
   Article 11
   Organization of the International Tribunal
   The International Tribunal shall consist of the following organs:
   (a) The Chambers, comprising two Trial Chambers and an Appeals Chamber;
   (b) The Prosecutor, and
   (c) A Registry, servicing both the Chambers and the Prosecutor.
   Article 12
   Composition of the Chambers
   The Chambers shall be composed of eleven independent judges, no two of whom may be nationals of the same State, who shall serve as follows:
   (a) Three judges shall serve in each of the Trial Chambers;
   (b) Five judges shall serve in the Appeals Chamber.

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