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郭国汀律师专栏
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·陈泱潮精评毛泽东 郭国汀
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·共产党官员为什么普遍腐化堕落?郭国汀
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·对抗性的社会基本矛盾 郭国汀
·为何中共官员多具有奴隶主和奴仆的双重人格? 郭国汀
·共产专制特权等级制 郭国汀
·人民“公仆”是如何变成骑在人民头上作威作福的老爷的? 郭国汀
·神化首要分子神化党与邪教 郭国汀
·宗教政治与人权灵本主义 郭国汀
·陈尔晋论今日中国社会主要矛盾及前途与命运
·陈泱潮先生在当代中国思想史上的地位 作者:曾节明
***(44)反中共极权专制暴政争自由宪政人权民主绝食抗暴民权运动
·南郭致涵习近平先生
·郭律师致高智晟女儿格格的公开信
·福布斯报导高智晟失踪事件
·胡锦涛必须对高智晟受酷刑负直接罪责!
·郭国汀 高智晟律师为何不发声?
·我眼中的高智晟
·郭国汀 从我的经历看中共当局诽谤高智晟的下流
·所谓高智晟公开声明及悔罪书肯定是伪造的
·真正的中国人的伟大怒吼!
·加拿大著名人权律师安世立支持声援全球绝食抗暴的声明
·闻律师英雄高智晟再遇车祸有感 郭国汀
·呼吁全球万人同步大绝食宣言
·全球接力绝食抗暴运动的伟大意义 郭国汀
·郭国汀声援和平抗暴 呼吁抛弃中共
·中国律师界应全力声援高智晟
·专家剖析高智晟煽动颠覆国家政权案
·抓捕关押高智晟的整个过程都是违法的/郭国汀
·中共迫害高智晟亲人丧心病狂,中共党魁胡锦涛难辞其咎
·绝食维权抗暴日记
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·告全体中国律师及法律人书----闻高智晟被秘密绑架感言
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·给真正的中国女人的公开信
·郭国汀:驳刘荻的非理性投射说
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·将接力绝食抗暴运动进行至最后胜利
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·郭国汀向老戚致敬
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·责令中共当局立即无条件释放兰州大学学生刘西峰!郭国汀
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***(45)人权研究
***中国人权律师基金会
·郭国汀推荐黄金秋竞选[第三届中国自由文化运动政论奖]推荐函
·郭国汀提名陈泱潮为2009中国自由文化奖之文化成就奖获奖候选人
·郭国汀提名张博树为2009中国自由文化奖之法学奖获奖候选人
·推荐郭国汀先生参选2009年台湾民主人权奖书
·letter of recommendation of Guoting for 2008 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award
·提名郭國汀律師作為[第三屆亞洲民主與人權獎]候選人的推薦函
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·推荐郭国汀先生参选第三届「亞洲民主人權獎」推荐书
·Letter of recommendation of Guoting Guo for 2008 The Third Asian Democracy and Human Rights Award
***(46)关注西藏新疆少数民族人权
·解决西藏问题的最佳方案--宪政联邦体制
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·达赖啦嘛论西藏文明文化和历史
·达赖啦嘛论解决西问题的原则
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·布什总统决意出席奥运开幕式并非仅由于他性格顽固
***(47)人权律师法律实务
·郭国汀:中国人没有基本人权——2008年加拿大国会中国人权研讨会专稿
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维吉尼亚权利法案1776

   维吉尼亚权利法案1776
   
   Virginia Bill Of Rights, 1776
   A Strong Current In The Evolution
   Of Written Constitutions In The US

   
   
   Written by George Mason (1725-1792) for his native Virginia, this Bill Of Rights was adopted by Virginia state government in early 1776. Its statements of civic freedoms, civic rights, as well as governmental and public servant obligations, appear in the Declaration Of Independence's first two paragraphs and the Constitution's first ten amendments, our national Bill Of Rights -- given below below for comparison. It also shows that the separation of powers between branches of government, another main current in the evolution of US constitutions, was already extant in 1776, not something newly propounded by the founders in 1787.
   George Mason studied history, law, and political philosophy across the ages and was revered by his peers in Virginia government as having clear and profound understandings about the nature of government. Although Mason was an opinion leader in such matters, this document reflects what can be presumed to be the majority sentiments of the times throughout the Colonies. It's an authentic American document and a large part of the mainstream thinking on bills of rights that informed Thomas Jefferson's rights writing in the Declaration of Independence -- and that ultimately overwhelmed the founders' rejection of a bill of rights for the Constitution.
   
   
   
   
   
   Virginia Bill Of Rights, 1776
   A declaration of rights made by the representatives of the good people of Virginia, assembled in full and free convention; which rights do pertain to them and their posterity, as the basis and foundation of government.
   
   SECTION 1.
   That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
   SECTION 2.
   That all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people; that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and at all times amenable to them.
   SECTION 3.
   That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community; of all the various modes and forms of government, that is best which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happiness and safety, and is most effectually secured against the danger of maladministration; and that, when any government shall be found inadequate or contrary to these purposes, a majority of the community hath an indubitable, inalienable, and indefeasible right to reform, alter, or abolish it, in such manner as shall be judged most conducive to the public weal.
   SECTION 4.
   That no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services; which, not being descendible, neither ought the offices of magistrate, legislator, or judge to be hereditary.
   SECTION 5.
   That the legislative and executive powers of the State should be separate and distinct from the judiciary; and that the members of the two first may be restrained from oppression, by feeling and participating the burdens of the people, they should, at fixed periods, be reduced to private station, return into that body from which they were originally taken, and the vacancies be supplied by frequent, certain, and regular elections, in which all, or any part of the former members, to be again eligible, as the laws shall direct.
   SECTION 6.
   That elections of members to serve as representatives of the people, in assembly, ought to be free; and that all men, having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attachment to, the community, have the right of suffrage, and cannot be taxed or deprived of their property for public uses, without their own consent, or that of their representatives so elected, nor bound by any law to which they have not, in like manner, assented, for the public good.
   SECTION 7.
   That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.
   SECTION 8.
   That in all capital or criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of twelve men of his vicinage, without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that no man be deprived of his liberty, except by the law of the land or the judgment of his peers.
   SECTION 9.
   That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
   SECTION 10.
   That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or whose offence is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are grievous and oppressive, and ought not to be granted.
   SECTION 11.
   That in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the ancient trial by jury is preferable to any other, and ought to be held sacred.
   SECTION 12.
   That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic governments.
   SECTION 13.
   That a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free State; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided, as dangerous to liberty; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.
   SECTION 14.
   That the people have a right to uniform government; and, therefore, that no government separate from, or independent of the government of Virginia, ought to be erected or established within the limits thereof.
   SECTION 15.
   That no free government, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people, but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, and virtue, and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.
   SECTION 16.
   That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practise Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other.
   

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