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郭国汀律师专栏
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·全球最自由的爱莎尼亚互联网自由评价
***(22)《仗剑走天涯》郭国汀著
·我的真实心声
·面对十八层地狱,我的真情告白 /南郭 网友评论
·《仗剑微言—我的四十自述>
·相信生命—郭国汀律师印象
·赵国君 做一名人权律师——访郭国汀律师
·申请任专兼职教授与评审一级律师的故事
·志当存高远-我的理想与追求/南郭
·我的知识结构与思想/南郭
·汝凭什么任教授?!/郭国汀
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·法律人的历史使命---郭国汀答《北大法律人》主编采访录
·法律人的历史使命 网友评论
·如何成为一名伟大的,优秀的法律人?
·如何成为一名伟大的律师?网友评论
·为当代中国人的幸福而努力奋斗
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***(23)《郭国汀自传》郭国汀著
·《郭国汀自传》第一章:阴错际差(1)
·《郭国汀自传》第二章:灭顶之灾
·《郭国汀自传》第三章:奋力拚搏
·《郭国汀自传》第四章:东山再起
·《郭国汀自传》第五章:山重水复
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·南郭谈论习近平
·南郭谈论习近平秘信
·马克思恩格斯列宁之无产阶级专政辩析
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·郭国汀:批驳体制内文人俞可平严重误导国人的谬论
·父权政治公民政治及专制政治
·什么是我们为之奋斗牺牲的正义和自由?
·什么是自由主义?新自由主义?改革自由主义?
·《匪首毛泽东》20.野心恶性膨胀的邪恶致极的毛泽东
·中共政权的性质与现状
·Politics and truth
·Justice and pursuit of truth
·God and modern politics
·Why Federalism?Dose Federal system better to protect minority rights?
·Injustice as the root of terrorism: Social political and economic fact
·列宁之“无产阶级专政”批判
·ompare Analysisof Marx and Lenin’s Theory of the Dictatorship of the
·我的坎坷律师生涯(9):孤独的长跑者
·《我的坎坷律师生涯《我的坎坷律师生涯》(7):知青岁月》(7):知青岁月
·有关圣经翻译的若干问题
·郭国汀:论爱情
·錯帐俏曳傅模珨凳旰笥H自糾錯我還不偉大嗎?!
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·论质、量互变关系
·学习与开放
·无产阶级领袖有感
·无产阶级领袖的重大作用
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!
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·律師的文學功底
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美洲人权公约(1969)

美洲人权公约(1969)
   American Convention on Human Rights (1969)
   
   Preamble

   The American states signatory to the present Convention,
   Reaffirming their intention to consolidate in this hemisphere, within the framework of democratic institutions, a system of personal liberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man;
   Recognizing that the essential rights of man are not derived from one's being a national of a certain state, but are based upon attributes of the human personality, and that they therefore justify international protection in the form of a convention reinforcing or complementing the protection provided by the domestic law of the American states;
   Considering that these principles have been set forth in the Charter of the Organization of American States, in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and that they have been reaffirmed and refined in other international instruments, worldwide as well as regional in scope;
   Reiterating that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free men enjoying freedom from fear and want can be achieved only if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his economic, social, and cultural rights, as well as his civil and political rights, and
   Considering that the Third Special Inter-American Conference (Buenos Aires, ~967) approved the incorporation into the Charter of the Organization itself of broader standards with respect to economic, social, and educational rights and resolved that an inter-American convention on human rights should determine the structure, competence, and procedure of the organs responsible for these matters,
   Have agreed upon the following:
   Signed at Inter-American Specialized Conference on Human Rights, San Jose, Costa Rica.
   Part I. State Obligations and Rights Protected
   CHAPTER I. GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
   ARTICLE I. OBLIGATION TO RESPECT RIGHTS
   1. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to respect the rights and freedoms recognized herein and to ensure to all persons subject to their jurisdiction the free and full exercise of those rights and freedoms, without any discrimination for reasons of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic status, birth, or any other social condition.
   2. For the purposes of this Convention, "person" means every human being.
   ARTICLE 2. DOMESTIC LEGAL EFFECTS
   Where the exercise of any of the rights or freedoms referred to in Article ''is not already ensured by legislative or other provisions, the States Parties undertake to adopt, in accordance with their constitutional processes and the provisions of this Convention, such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to those rights or freedoms.
   CHAPTER II. CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
   ARTICLE 3. RIGHT TO JUDICIAL PERSONALITY
   Every person has the right to recognition as a person before the law.
   ARTICLE 4. RIGHT TO LIFE
   T. Every person has the right to have his life respected. This right shall be protected by law and, in general, from the moment of conception. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
   2. In countries that have not abolished the death penalty, it may be imposed only for the most serious crimes and pursuant to a final judgment rendered by a competent court and in accordance with a law establishing such punishment, enacted prior to the commission of the crime. The application of such punishment shall not be extended to crimes to which it does not presently apply.
   3. The death penalty shall not be reestablished in states that have abolished it.
   4. In no case shall capital punishment be inflicted for political offenses or related common crimes.
   5. Capital punishment shall not be imposed upon persons who, at the time the crime was committed, were under ~ 8 years of age or over 70 years of age; nor shall it be applied to pregnant women.
   6. Every person condemned to death shall have the right to apply for amnesty, pardon, or commutation of sentence, which may be granted in all cases. Capital punishment shall not be imposed while such a petition is pending decision by the competent authority.
   ARTICLE 5. RIGHT TO HUMANE TREATMENT
   1. Every person has the right to have his physical, mental, and moral integrity respected.
   2. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment or treatment. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
   3. Punishment shall not be extended to any person other than the criminal.
   4. Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons, and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons.
   5. Minors while subject to criminal proceedings shall be separated from adults and brought before specialized tribunals, as speedily as possible, so that they may be treated in accordance with their stems as minors.
   6. Punishment consisting of deprivation of liberty shall have as an essential aim the reform and social readaptation of the prisoners.
   ARTICLE 6. FREEDOM FROM SLAVERY
   1. No one shall be subject to slavery or to involuntary servitude, which are prohibited in all their forms, as are the slave trade and traffic in women.
   2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labor. This provision shall not be interpreted to mean that, in those countries in which the penalty established for certain crimes is deprivation of liberty at forced labor, the carrying out of such a sentence imposed by a competent court is prohibited. Forced labor shall not adversely affect the dignity or the physical or intellectual capacity of the prisoner.
   3. For the purposes of this article, the following do not constitute forced or compulsory labor:
   a. work or service normally required of a person imprisoned in execution of a sentence or formal decision passed by the competent judicial authority. Such work or service shall be carried out under the supervision and control of public authorities, and any persons performing such work or service shall not be placed at the disposal of any private party, company, or juridical person;
   b. military service and, in countries in which conscientious objectors are recognized, national service that the law may provide for in lieu of military service;
   c. service exacted in time of danger or calamity that threatens the existence or the well-being of the community; or
   d. work or service that forms part of normal civic obligations.
   ARTICLE 7. RIGHT TO PERSONAL LIBERTY
   1. Every person has the right to personal-liberty and security.
   2. No one shall be deprived of his physical liberty except for the reasons and under the conditions established beforehand by the constitution of the State Party concerned or by a law established pursuant thereto.
   3. No one shall be subject to arbitrary arrest or imprisonment.
   4. Anyone who is detained shall be informed of the reasons for his detention and shall be promptly notified of the charge or charges against him.
   5. Any person detained shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to be released without prejudice to the continuation of the proceedings. his release may be subject to guarantees to assure his appearance for trial.
   6. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty shall be entitled to recourse to a competent court, in order that the court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his arrest or detention and order his release if the arrest or detention is unlawful. In States Parties whose laws provide that anyone who believes himself to be threatened with deprivation of his liberty is entitled to recourse to a competent court in order that it may decide on the lawfulness of such threat, this remedy may not be restricted or abolished. The interested party or another person in his behalf is entitled to seek these remedies.

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