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   ⲻڲȨƶҪҪģôġǰģ򷴶ģǸӷķΪȨƶȵȻҪģڿֵĸķǽҲһĴһ˲ӶᣬǷdzַΪϷйľúΣйδҪľú򣬾һҪйԺӶḻˣٸƶ㡰廯ȵڵһϵνĸԼڶԹң񣬶˽Ӷᣬɱƶøνĸǵľú졣ҲζδһҪĿǰνġĸֿ϶̬ȵۼҵۡ

   

    ˮ 2004-9-24

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Ŀ߻רԱѶ    ʣãDZѧ봫ѧԺѧǾжо֪ʶӣڴýĺǷӰ쵽˼Ķԣлл

   ˭Ӱ˭Һ˼Һ˼һչˣ˫ʱῼǶԷDZ˵Ǹˣкһ죬Ҵһ򣬾Ǻܶ໰Ϊ˵ģܼɵ˵ȥ£˲ġҸߴңȡɾҪַҪ˵˵ܹýȥйоϻţɣóģǴɣЩʵʱҪʵӲģ˵򵹹

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p;ǧտţ̨еսƣʦĸݣ˵
   Ϊˡһй̱Ͼܾ˵£οֶ
   ǡйˡ֮࣬ҾΪйй
   ͬǷбҪΪһɱ䡣
   조С֣Ȼǡָ¡ڹ͡Ǹϵ
   ⡱Χġ򡱣ͨ,ϵվرø
   ֮ˣȦ֮⡣ָǣǣӼ
   ¡ָάġ˼ʫ춹Ϲ
   DZȦĵָĺأ
   飮־¡
   ƫһΪйԭΪ׶ԭ
   ֮⡣˽ͨϢ飬汻ԭһ򺣣
   ԼΨһƽԭ֣ԭôԡԲ
   롱йʦҲ۱֣͡ݡ
   йķĽ֣й΢ӡʫС
   šйʩǡ
   ġ飮Ң䡷֣עģйҲ
   Աй顷顷ϴ
   DZͼйָκʵ¼άϸԭ
   ԥΪ֮Уʳԭʦԭ
   伮ɿ֤ʱνйԭޡġ
   ֮⣬ʵָΪɣǽġҡ֮
   ν
   ʣԴ̹ſأ۵һȫơС
   ĹûСơΪйģһȫ
   Ϊл񹲺͹һȫΪǰû֣ӡֱй˺ࣩܶ磬ǰû֣ӡԿڿഫĺܶ伮ԣ񶼺ѷ롣ϺķӺĵǵԭʼ̣ʼҲû֣ڿഫġϧһЩӡԣҲûиӡȴô޴ĽƶȡģԼǰϵԱҲˣɼƶԹϵ

20060502޸

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ΪȺ壬ʱʱ˼룬ͼ࣬ʱҪжϣӦʿȻְ𣬿С߼ֹĺжȴȻ˵

   塣

   һʿʢеа磬ȴûСκι

   ԭġ˵֤ҪǮô֮й򳪸ǷҲ۾ҪйǮһʵҲһ߼⡣˭˵ΪҪ˭Ǯ߼ҲĻΪȨ˵ҲҪȨǮ𣿻һ˼·ΡΪйȨҵ̨˵Ǯã̫˵Ǯã˵Ǯãй˵Ǯã⽫й˵ҪԴ

   ע7ָǮãطǾ߿߼ˡ߿ǺϷģǵµġǣעԼĻ󲻺õ˵ľҲҪ߿һܾ½˹ĴʾΪ󲻺á

   ʿҪҪɵߣεߣµߣ

   ˿Զ𣿶о

   ԭġƶԭһзɰ

   

   ע8ƶ๫⡣

   ͳʶۣоﻹϵ¡ˣƶԭһԭһһϳ򣬰ϳļͲ죬ƶԭ򣬼ϳĽ˵һа֪ݺڣҲ֪Щڹİӹϵ֮࣬ôƶ

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   ѧûԭIJԣûзĵ·ûйͷ壬

   Ǵģסŵġ

   ˼ɵԭȨԭ֮һǰƽ

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ŷɻ˵
   ʲ׼ɻҽ࣬֡Ϊʲô
   һȺУУһ˼˼
   ڶñ߹ĵģһЩ۵̨ۣۣ    ǵ۹߼ȫ˼룬ɱǵĴԡ
   ר߲òԼäĿܣԤ²
   Ϲʯͷ·(ʯͷӡ)İ취·
   Ҵ£ʮ˵ĴϷѾŰʮƽij
   һ˹Сӵġʯͷ취ʻʡäĿϦ
   ġҡڲ(ͬ־żȻ˵һĻĸǡʯ
   ͷӡרߵڸԼ֪ܡäĿ
   Ԥ߲)(޸հԶԤ쵼β
   ְ)
   ˣǻǿʮ񼰾Űʮƽľְ
   Եķʻ(ַʹֳ뺣)˭Ҫһ
   ԤָδӦߵĺߣͰ
   £ιˮƽĵ£ʯͷֶɴ

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ܾʹܹΪijһַڵǶԵģҲǹġҶΪǹʱijԱͻһҲʹܹΪһŽ(solidarity)ԼʹȨĻҲ(legitimacy)͸ѵµķΧСԼĹתṩͳһĻġһԪתΪԪͬʱͳһĻҲڽ̼תΪԭˡ޶˹˵ģὨƵҪ¡ 仰ֱ˹ǶԪĻ塣ġԭ򡡡ڼֵԪУ뷨ԹΪͳһĻǣô취һֲֵͬ۵˶ܽܵĹϵأųǿƵҪǽijֵּ֮⣬Ψһʣµİ취ǰеļֵ۶ΪͬҲDzǷֱ¡ǽ㣬ԭ(The Principle ofNeutrality)ԵǹԭΪĻˡĪָ屾ԵԸһȻĹԡԭ徿ôô˭ӦüαЩκڽԭʱ봦ġ͵Ӧóǵʱȡһָֿܵľǵ߶˵鲻ϼԤκһûƫ̻⡣ҷʱȡֳЩص㡣˵һϵҪʱҲDzƫ̻⡣ԭôƫ̻أڹԭǴֵͬ۵ijߵķˣǶԸ໥ǻݵļֵ֮䱣˼ҲDz¡ùԭԵʱȻǣ˭ôӦñ⡣˵ǹԭģҲ˵ԭӦöκμֵƫ̻ǣ˹ԭ֮⣬Ӧñȣּ֮һ̷롣Ҳǹڼֵ۵ϲӦöκһƫ̻Ӧñ̵ķҲǹŴִмΪIJͬҽںԹҹܵ뷨ʱּΪϸķ˹빫ԭ֮⣬һԡָľҪ֤ԵĺԵʱDzκһֵּۻڽ̡ҲĪ˵֤֮(a neutral justifica-tion of neutrality)ô֤ɣָľԭݲӦõκμֵ֮ϡ֤ݱ˶Ըֵּ۲ƫеȻҪһ⣬ֵܷر֤һܿɵ⡣޶˹ġԭ(The Liberal Principle of Ligitimacy)˹DԭԼĪ˵ͬȵ(equal respect)ԭƺȫġ̸Ե弰˭Ӧñ֮DZٿࡣ޶˹(Josep Raz )֣гԡԹΪӦñԵ壬˵(1)һ֤(ensure)й񶼾ͬĻʵǵļֵۡ(2)һ²ͼȥ(not intended)ƫᳫijȫ(comprehensive doctrine)(3) һȥκ£ʹ(make)Ǹ׽ijֵּۣͬʱҲȡһЩʩԵ顣޶˹˵ȫۣһֵѧۻڽϵ(1)(3)ܽܡ(1)֮ԲܱڹҲһֵּļֵκͻļֵ۶Ӧñų⡣(3)ӳʶԵѧǾͿ˽⵽κι۶޿ɱػٻǵʽӰ죻ˣΨ(2)ǿԱܵġҪҪֻDzҪͼȥᳫٽijһֵּۡԵ壬Լ˭Ӧñ֮󣬹δԵĴ𰸾൱ֳˡԵڼֵԪУ޷жһֵּ۽ΪԽôҪһʹóֲֵͬ۵˶ܽܵĹϵõİ취ǶDzҪﵽҶܽĿ꣬ȻģԭרijЩڽֵ̻ϵһݣΪĻЩֲֵͬ۵˲ҲȻһֵּڽ̡еļֵĹϵΪΣÿ˵ȫֵϵĹϵģһΪѼҪĿ⣬дȥ̽֡ΪǿԽֵڸֿΪ˴һҶܽܵĹϵϵܹκڽֵ̼ϡڽϵʱӦðѼֵһ޶˹˵Ļرܷ(method of avoidance)ǷڣȥõǡĹԭҲͲκμֵƫ̻Ҳ˵ԭôһ̬ȡȡֻرܷǷеͨ¼ֵǷԱֿһֹϵǷ޿ɷָijһֵּۻϵϵЩǶ弫ΪҪ⡣ǣǽֵֿʱƺûܺõ֤еͨϣɵǣڼֵУһ׿͹۲ձЧĹϵǣDzûΪԼֹ۵뷨ĿԣôָҲֵ޷Ŀ͹ԡ塢ɣȨޡ̩գCharles Taylorһƪۿµ۵Уһʼָڽ֮ڣǻһֽ˶ʱʾǵҪԡֶɵӣԼΪִѧŲɷָĹϵʹüֵɥʧ˿͹ԣԴӿ͹۵ڽ̼ζʵڣתΪ۵ѡ㣬ļֵ֮ԳΪԵĴڵĻ㣬ѡֶ˵Ŀ־ߵΪԵıʵĵλ¶ԵߵļֵӦԶΪĿģֶεĿֳִܱ˶Ϊɶڵ˼롣½Ե壨rational agent־ԼɵһֻеɵĶȻڵڵģ£ΪˣԵԡҲ˵ֻеɵʱΪʡɣautonomyڿµʵѧռĵĵλڿ°һĽǿԽȵΪ֮¡The Morality of FreedomֶΪֻһ־ԼѡӸԣindividuality־Լѡһ˵֮ǷмֵѡôѡĽ˵֪жϡʶ֮Уdiscriminitive feelingֻѡʱűʹΪ׶µ˲ûκѡ...һӵκпɱ̶ܳȵijʶ뾭ĻΪԼĴƵģʽõģⲢãΪԼģʽڿѧУɣheteronomyɵ֮ԲΪɵԣֶָԵ׷ڵűϵIJֻͬǰ߲ʾΪɵĴԡĿһѧѧphilosophical anthropologyѧѧҪΪˣͱȥԼѡ񡣡ǣֵֶּۣΪһ־п͹ԵĶˡɼ֮мֵѡĽǵϵĿ͹ʵκһ˵ѡԼԺκѡɵĻᣬ磬Ըȥ˵ū͵ǰԼԷ񶨵ˡֶָΪԵʣֹūǣһDzòмֵ۵⣬Ϊһֵּ˵ѡ񩤩ǿ͹۵ġǿ϶ֵȻĺڼֵ۵ģɼԵļֵŲòᵽߵĵλΪ˸ԣҲǵڷΪԼƶĿȨ֮ԣDZ͸ѡʵֵġȻֵּп͹㣬ҲԼֵ̫Ӱ졣ɾп͹ۼֵŻԳֵ֮ԳΪֵѡĽֵ֮мֵѡĽôʾǵļֵǶ˶ڵģǿ͹۵ģǶֻȥ֣ȥѡ񼰴졣ЩǿԿóɻֵ֮ǿ͹۵ģһмֵ۵һ֮棬еһּͲܾܾһֶּ뿵µۣʹǵѧΪһ޶˹˵ȫ壨comprehensive liberalismȫ۶ڼֵԴԼôĿֶΪһԼѡǣҪΪԪĻѧҰģȴһĴΪ޳ˣвͬѧۣԺΪôǵһεתpolitical turnΪȫĵˡΪһмֵĻֵ뷨ŲɺӰ졣ڸѡһмֵȪԴһĹܣӦõڱ֤ĵĿϡΪ֯ĻԭӦɶҸ׷ϣΪЧȫˡεҪԭôҵĹܣȻӦñֻҹ˵ĵλͶȵŵˣRobert NozickĻ˵ֹֻթ͵ԼȹֻΪṩһܹʹܹУܹ׷ʵԼѡĽΪֶڡɡĵָĿľҪȥ֤ǸػأֻΪұself-protection£ɶԱ˵Ϊи档һȺκγԱΥ־֮£ʹȨΨһĿģΪ˷ֹ˵˺˵,κĿģǸжԼ棬ԹɶɽƵɡ˺ԭԭ򼸺ѾִεĹֻаְ𼰹Ƽ涨˵ɲܵõ㹻ıϡѧݵľǿֶԵĿԼصļֵ塣Щּı֮һ̵ķ롣Ϊҹͳ̶ȵȨô⣬κε๡ŴܵĿΪһĶԱȡ󴫡˵ġ֮£֡ɹʮ꣩ʾĹŴιۣΪԹڽϵרҲΪôйС֮֮ʦִͳˡйˣŴҲ޶żһ̺һĴͳͼеֵ̺һĴͳȡ󴫡˵ĻҪΪ忪̷룬Ϊִ춨һλУϵ۵ĹϵۣĹ鿭ᡡΪִԵһڣΪִĶԪṩ˸֯ԭȨɡƽЩĸֵΪһǷı׼ȨΪ׼һЩʱЩĹӦͨǣڹ鼰ĻIJ죬ȨҲвͬı׼ʾǣЩĹҲĬȨмߵļֵûȨǸĶȨ˵ʾΣЩ廹ûгʵֵУ˶ˣõԴҲȫǴDZߵġЩֱֳִʶ̬ûκִĵλȻ岻ϵܵû˿бۣȡִеĵλ˵ֻҪִһ죬ͻĻѧעͣ ƪΤ1920ȥ֮ǰΪġڽѧļ(Collected Essays in the Sociology of Religion)дĵԡɭ˼(Talcott Parsons)ΤTheProtestant and the Spirit of Capitalism(New York: Scribner's,1958)йΤۣWolfgang Schlucter, TheRise of Western Rationalism, tr. G. Gerth (Berkeley: University ofCali-fornia Press, 1981), Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality(London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984) David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1978), p.415. David Hume, Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. Henry D.Aiken (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1948), p.43 йؼֵԭ֮Ĺϵڡ֮Լ֤ɡһ꾡() (I. Berlin)ԶԪĶ˲ͬΪԪֵָ಻ͬԴȪ(sources)The Crooker Timberof Humanity (New York: Knoft, 1991), pp11-14, 79-80, 87-89Ķ壬κᶼǶԪġ Charles Larmore, The Morals of Modernity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996), p.122 Jurgen Habermas, The Legitimation Problem in theModern State", Communication and the Evolution ofSociety, tr. Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978),pp.183-5 Iris Murdoch, The Sovereignty of Good (London && NewYork: Routledge, 1981), pp.47-9Murdoch˲ûᵽ߼ֻۣᵽӢľۼѧHilary PutnamתMurdochĹ۵ʱἰ弰߼ʵ֤ۣReason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1981), p.154 Henry Sidgwick, Methods of Ethics, 7th ed. (New York:Dover Publications, Inc., 1966), pp.105-610 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 1st edition (Cambridge:Harvard University Pres, 1971), p.311 Larmore, Political Liberalism, The Morals ofModernity Уp.12512 Rawlsԭ򣬼Political Liberalism(New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), pp.137, 217Habermas Dԭ򣬼Moral Consciousness andCommunicative Action tr. Christian Lenhardt && Shierry WeberNicholsen (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990), pp.66, 93,121LarmoreͬȵأMorals of Modernity, pp.134-4113 John Rawls, Political Liberalism, pp.192-3Ե֣Josep Raz, The Morality of Freedom (Oxford:Clarendon press, 1986), pp.114f14 Charles Taylor, Kant's Theory of Freedom, Philosophy and Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, 2(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p.31815 µĵۣGroundwork of the Metaphysic ofMorals, tr. H. J. Paton (New York: Harper && Row, Publishers,1964)йؿµɼĿTaylorǰ£ԼCharles Larmore , Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 76-84ɲοMichaelSandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (Cambridge:Cambridge Uni-versity Press, 1982), pp.1-1416 J. S. Mill, On Liberty, The Philosophy of J. S. Mill(New York: The Modern Library, 1961), pp. 253, 26217 Mill, On Liberty, p.30418 й壬RawlsPolitical LiberalismLarmoreThe Morals of Modernity 19 Mill, On Liberty, p.197

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