йɴͳɡʵǡǡ෴йоĻΪʵ˼Ļרƣƴвҷ񶨴ͳĻǡǡй̨壬ձͳĻʵǡǡǵרơ
   
   ˵Ըӵ˸ӣ˵֪ô˵Ĵˣܺһ˵ҪС˵ҷϼѡ
   
   ӵĻʵʾһҪǣκηԣûеĸеûеĸԽࡣʳ滹ϵȵһЩ棬Ӣ﷢Ӣ﷭еķӢȺ﷢ŵ㣬ӢдûеĸﶼܽãԼֲ´ʷƼ棬ĴúͷûжѡЩʣ缤ʣʼ룬䣬Ѿкﺺֵŵ㣬Ŀǰ̨廹á䡱úԼʣ⣬ͱиŵ㣬һЩƴ߱ġ
   
   ӣ˵ɵģӦ¼壬ǺֺƴֵҪ𡱡
   
   ˵һش˵ⲻ⣬Ǵʺ͸⡣κηԣûеĸֻû﷨ȻҲԵĹҪأַչ֡
   
   Դֻش˵˵Ĵʺ͸ҲȻѵäͲ֪𣿡
   
   ೣʶھУȻҪšӾšʵϣǸʲô޹ء˵ȫԣµڱҪıҪ硰ҡǧ𣬵ȴһ
   
   ӵ˼ǣЩܷḻӢûͬȸ벻ˣ֪йسʶҪӦ˵
   
   1ӢиûУ벻
   
   2ûа취ӡŷһʣߴ´ʣЩӢ
   
   ڶ˵ӡŷиԣһʡΪʲôܽʣֻҪܹãͲ˵෴ʵǿǡǡǸԹܵһҪ
   
   ԱȽҪһָꡣֿԣѱȽϡҾӦ÷һָȽϡһԣܹ׷һԣܹüŵɷ룬ôͱʾԺױһԱݣ׽ڱ֮У㣬׺һԣȽȽͷ෴һ޷ߺѷͱһԵݣ˵һв࣬խ޷һԣһһɱ˵в㣬ڷﲻIJ֣в㡣ijIJԽ࣬˵ȱԽ
   
   ˵һԵռܷ׿ٵɺʹµĸעȷ˵Ӧøijɡ塱)һԣ׷һ֡׿ٵɺʹµĸһԣôپбͬȵġ׿ٵɺʹµĸҲиǿֺܱ׷һԵ
   
   ҿҲû취֤ͲСƽҲ֤ΪһӢﲻܷ룬ڶӢﺺֲܽã´ʼԷ롣
   
   ҲǻǰҸ˵IJ㡣һԣӡڱʱȺкܴƣò롣ʵǰǰû֣ӡֱй˺ࣩܶ磬ǰû֣ӡԿڿഫĺܶ伮ԣ񶼺ѷ롣ϺķӺĵǵԭʼ̣ʼҲû֣ڿഫġϧһЩӡԣҲûиӡȴô޴ĽƶȡģԼǰϵԱҲˣɼƶԹϵ

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ΪȺ壬ʱʱ˼룬ͼ࣬ʱҪжϣӦʿȻְ𣬿С߼ֹĺжȴȻ˵

   塣

   һʿʢеа磬ȴûСκι

   ԭġ˵֤ҪǮô֮й򳪸ǷҲ۾ҪйǮһʵҲһ߼⡣˭˵ΪҪ˭Ǯ߼ҲĻΪȨ˵ҲҪȨǮ𣿻һ˼·ΡΪйȨҵ̨˵Ǯã̫˵Ǯã˵Ǯãй˵Ǯã⽫й˵ҪԴ

   ע7ָǮãطǾ߿߼ˡ߿ǺϷģǵµġǣעԼĻ󲻺õ˵ľҲҪ߿һܾ½˹ĴʾΪ󲻺á

   ʿҪҪɵߣεߣµߣ

   ˿Զ𣿶о

   ԭġƶԭһзɰ

   

   ע8ƶ๫⡣

   ͳʶۣоﻹϵ¡ˣƶԭһԭһһϳ򣬰ϳļͲ죬ƶԭ򣬼ϳĽ˵һа֪ݺڣҲ֪Щڹİӹϵ֮࣬ôƶ

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Ŀ߻רԱѶ ˼ߡ˼Լ˼壬ô

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   ֹѧԱţαѧ

   ѧûԭIJԣûзĵ·ûйͷ壬

   Ǵģסŵġ

   ˼ɵԭȨԭ֮һǰƽ

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Ŀ߻רԱѶ йء
   
    ֱ롰IJ߷㹻ӣǴũͳлָɶԪ
   ⣬ǵ߲Ǵַָǿַ
   ȫġ
   Ϊ˴ַָȱȡũһϵ
   ȡũ廧ںͳлڡũҵںͷũҵڵΪƺ͹̶
   ֣ʵҵǨɣȡΪѹũƷ۸
   ߹ҵƷ۸ȡũһϵơũ幫ͳ
   ΡáĻһƽȡ
   ƳָĶԪᣬǾ޷ִᡣˣ
   ϵǹҺ˵һش⣬㹻ӡ
   עԭ⼸֣ʱδ
   19889д򽭽ն
(Ϊɻƽ ȫѶwww.peacehall.com)

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˹ָɹǴѹԵģ蹫Ѿ
   DZϵĹˡˣǽ׼еңȻ

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¶ưţҪԴŦԼ

   ôǼ򵥵ˣСƢأ

   Ÿư˵뼯ĸ

   

   

   ŦԼ

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Ŀ߻רԱѶ йӦһͷԣڰѡƽʾ롸ҡǰһ֡ƽ项롸ҡġһŰ˾찲źƽ鲻ǡҡϵ˵ķ˱ҡǻԣΪֹĴҵҪһֻҪйᶨšŶ׵һйпһκƽת͵IJ׳˶ͬʱΪйĺƽͳһٵ·йпĺƽͳһͬСֻй½ĺƽͳһʮһ͵йܺƽ ʮաŦԼ ԭء20059º

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ȫġ̸Ե弰˭Ӧñ֮DZٿࡣ޶˹(Josep Raz )֣гԡԹΪӦñԵ壬˵(1)һ֤(ensure)й񶼾ͬĻʵǵļֵۡ(2)һ²ͼȥ(not intended)ƫᳫijȫ(comprehensive doctrine)(3) һȥκ£ʹ(make)Ǹ׽ijֵּۣͬʱҲȡһЩʩԵ顣޶˹˵ȫۣһֵѧۻڽϵ(1)(3)ܽܡ(1)֮ԲܱڹҲһֵּļֵκͻļֵ۶Ӧñų⡣(3)ӳʶԵѧǾͿ˽⵽κι۶޿ɱػٻǵʽӰ죻ˣΨ(2)ǿԱܵġҪҪֻDzҪͼȥᳫٽijһֵּۡԵ壬Լ˭Ӧñ֮󣬹δԵĴ𰸾൱ֳˡԵڼֵԪУ޷жһֵּ۽ΪԽôҪһʹóֲֵͬ۵˶ܽܵĹϵõİ취ǶDzҪﵽҶܽĿ꣬ȻģԭרijЩڽֵ̻ϵһݣΪĻЩֲֵͬ۵˲ҲȻһֵּڽ̡еļֵĹϵΪΣÿ˵ȫֵϵĹϵģһΪѼҪĿ⣬дȥ̽֡ΪǿԽֵڸֿΪ˴һҶܽܵĹϵϵܹκڽֵ̼ϡڽϵʱӦðѼֵһ޶˹˵Ļرܷ(method of avoidance)ǷڣȥõǡĹԭҲͲκμֵƫ̻Ҳ˵ԭôһ̬ȡȡֻرܷǷеͨ¼ֵǷԱֿһֹϵǷ޿ɷָijһֵּۻϵϵЩǶ弫ΪҪ⡣ǣǽֵֿʱƺûܺõ֤еͨϣɵǣڼֵУһ׿͹۲ձЧĹϵǣDzûΪԼֹ۵뷨ĿԣôָҲֵ޷Ŀ͹ԡ塢ɣȨޡ̩գCharles Taylorһƪۿµ۵Уһʼָڽ֮ڣǻһֽ˶ʱʾǵҪԡֶɵӣԼΪִѧŲɷָĹϵʹüֵɥʧ˿͹ԣԴӿ͹۵ڽ̼ζʵڣתΪ۵ѡ㣬ļֵ֮ԳΪԵĴڵĻ㣬ѡֶ˵Ŀ־ߵΪԵıʵĵλ¶ԵߵļֵӦԶΪĿģֶεĿֳִܱ˶Ϊɶڵ˼롣½Ե壨rational agent־ԼɵһֻеɵĶȻڵڵģ£ΪˣԵԡҲ˵ֻеɵʱΪʡɣautonomyڿµʵѧռĵĵλڿ°һĽǿԽȵΪ֮¡The Morality of FreedomֶΪֻһ־ԼѡӸԣindividuality־Լѡһ˵֮ǷмֵѡôѡĽ˵֪жϡʶ֮Уdiscriminitive feelingֻѡʱűʹΪ׶µ˲ûκѡ...һӵκпɱ̶ܳȵijʶ뾭ĻΪԼĴƵģʽõģⲢãΪԼģʽڿѧУɣheteronomyɵ֮ԲΪɵԣֶָԵ׷ڵűϵIJֻͬǰ߲ʾΪɵĴԡĿһѧѧphilosophical anthropologyѧѧҪΪˣͱȥԼѡ񡣡ǣֵֶּۣΪһ־п͹ԵĶˡɼ֮мֵѡĽǵϵĿ͹ʵκһ˵ѡԼԺκѡɵĻᣬ磬Ըȥ˵ū͵ǰԼԷ񶨵ˡֶָΪԵʣֹūǣһDzòмֵ۵⣬Ϊһֵּ˵ѡ񩤩ǿ͹۵ġǿ϶ֵȻĺڼֵ۵ģɼԵļֵŲòᵽߵĵλΪ˸ԣҲǵڷΪԼƶĿȨ֮ԣDZ͸ѡʵֵġȻֵּп͹㣬ҲԼֵ̫Ӱ졣ɾп͹ۼֵŻԳֵ֮ԳΪֵѡĽֵ֮мֵѡĽôʾǵļֵǶ˶ڵģǿ͹۵ģǶֻȥ֣ȥѡ񼰴졣ЩǿԿóɻֵ֮ǿ͹۵ģһмֵ۵һ֮棬еһּͲܾܾһֶּ뿵µۣʹǵѧΪһ޶˹˵ȫ壨comprehensive liberalismȫ۶ڼֵԴԼôĿֶΪһԼѡǣҪΪԪĻѧҰģȴһĴΪ޳ˣвͬѧۣԺΪôǵһεתpolitical turnΪȫĵˡΪһмֵĻֵ뷨ŲɺӰ졣ڸѡһмֵȪԴһĹܣӦõڱ֤ĵĿϡΪ֯ĻԭӦɶҸ׷ϣΪЧȫˡεҪԭôҵĹܣȻӦñֻҹ˵ĵλͶȵŵˣRobert NozickĻ˵ֹֻթ͵ԼȹֻΪṩһܹʹܹУܹ׷ʵԼѡĽΪֶڡɡĵָĿľҪȥ֤ǸػأֻΪұself-protection£ɶԱ˵Ϊи档һȺκγԱΥ־֮£ʹȨΨһĿģΪ˷ֹ˵˺˵,κĿģǸжԼ棬ԹɶɽƵɡ˺ԭԭ򼸺ѾִεĹֻаְ𼰹Ƽ涨˵ɲܵõ㹻ıϡѧݵľǿֶԵĿԼصļֵ塣Щּı֮һ̵ķ롣Ϊҹͳ̶ȵȨô⣬κε๡ŴܵĿΪһĶԱȡ󴫡˵ġ֮£֡ɹʮ꣩ʾĹŴιۣΪԹڽϵרҲΪôйС֮֮ʦִͳˡйˣŴҲ޶żһ̺һĴͳͼеֵ̺һĴͳȡ󴫡˵ĻҪΪ忪̷룬Ϊִ춨һλУϵ۵ĹϵۣĹ鿭ᡡΪִԵһڣΪִĶԪṩ˸֯ԭȨɡƽЩĸֵΪһǷı׼ȨΪ׼һЩʱЩĹӦͨǣڹ鼰ĻIJ죬ȨҲвͬı׼ʾǣЩĹҲĬȨмߵļֵûȨǸĶȨ˵ʾΣЩ廹ûгʵֵУ˶ˣõԴҲȫǴDZߵġЩֱֳִʶ̬ûκִĵλȻ岻ϵܵû˿бۣȡִеĵλ˵ֻҪִһ죬ͻĻѧעͣ ƪΤ1920ȥ֮ǰΪġڽѧļ(Collected Essays in the Sociology of Religion)дĵԡɭ˼(Talcott Parsons)ΤTheProtestant and the Spirit of Capitalism(New York: Scribner's,1958)йΤۣWolfgang Schlucter, TheRise of Western Rationalism, tr. G. Gerth (Berkeley: University ofCali-fornia Press, 1981), Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality(London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984) David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1978), p.415. David Hume, Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. Henry D.Aiken (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1948), p.43 йؼֵԭ֮Ĺϵڡ֮Լ֤ɡһ꾡() (I. Berlin)ԶԪĶ˲ͬΪԪֵָ಻ͬԴȪ(sources)The Crooker Timberof Humanity (New York: Knoft, 1991), pp11-14, 79-80, 87-89Ķ壬κᶼǶԪġ Charles Larmore, The Morals of Modernity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996), p.122 Jurgen Habermas, The Legitimation Problem in theModern State", Communication and the Evolution ofSociety, tr. Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978),pp.183-5 Iris Murdoch, The Sovereignty of Good (London && NewYork: Routledge, 1981), pp.47-9Murdoch˲ûᵽ߼ֻۣᵽӢľۼѧHilary PutnamתMurdochĹ۵ʱἰ弰߼ʵ֤ۣReason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1981), p.154 Henry Sidgwick, Methods of Ethics, 7th ed. (New York:Dover Publications, Inc., 1966), pp.105-610 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 1st edition (Cambridge:Harvard University Pres, 1971), p.311 Larmore, Political Liberalism, The Morals ofModernity Уp.12512 Rawlsԭ򣬼Political Liberalism(New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), pp.137, 217Habermas Dԭ򣬼Moral Consciousness andCommunicative Action tr. Christian Lenhardt && Shierry WeberNicholsen (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990), pp.66, 93,121LarmoreͬȵأMorals of Modernity, pp.134-4113 John Rawls, Political Liberalism, pp.192-3Ե֣Josep Raz, The Morality of Freedom (Oxford:Clarendon press, 1986), pp.114f14 Charles Taylor, Kant's Theory of Freedom, Philosophy and Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, 2(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p.31815 µĵۣGroundwork of the Metaphysic ofMorals, tr. H. J. Paton (New York: Harper && Row, Publishers,1964)йؿµɼĿTaylorǰ£ԼCharles Larmore , Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 76-84ɲοMichaelSandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (Cambridge:Cambridge Uni-versity Press, 1982), pp.1-1416 J. S. Mill, On Liberty, The Philosophy of J. S. Mill(New York: The Modern Library, 1961), pp. 253, 26217 Mill, On Liberty, p.30418 й壬RawlsPolitical LiberalismLarmoreThe Morals of Modernity 19 Mill, On Liberty, p.197

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