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   һëеġ塱塷һĽġ塱һҷ壬åͷӼйڰеġ塱ǿ԰Ϊåеġ塱֡塱ͳй˵ͷԼʮꡣǣ֡塱Dzѧåԡɡ͡塱⣬ûжѧֵ˱Ĵۡ

   ѧе塣

   ǰ죬ƽժ¼ѧʵжĽͣ˵

   Ƕļ˵Ǹѧǵдġ

   һ൱ʡΪһִ˼ѧ˵IJͷչͽʷԻȨȷصġˡϵ˹姬¡ߡգҲӦϽܸѷѷΪDz˼Ĵʦ˵νѧ˵¼:

    1.ŸɼȨ߼ֵ

    2.Ÿ塣

    3.Ÿ˾ȻȨԻ츳ȨӦܵıͷַֹ

    4.ĹܱܵƣԱȷɡھܵչÿɡ

    5.⣬忴ȡѧĽǶȶѧĽǶȣŸȨξгԽʱյձ壬ڵڽ̵ϹĴݵ̬ȡ˵ȵȡ

   壬ڲжɱ𣬹۵Ҳв졣ϴһοг⡣ڵߴΪ:˽ӵвƲԼɽȨ˵IJöɵɡ˹۵㣬гƺһ߼ϱȻIJݡ˼ǡʲ׼ʶ̬Ҫɼг༴ͨνʱϵйϵijЩΪᵼ˵ȨͽĺʶŶƸٷʵṫ

   ʵƶȷ棬߻Ĺһ㶼ŷȨƺ⡣

   ΪзȨķʽ

   룬Dzѧ߷ΧеĹŵ䣨ͳ壬ӦóԳѧǵͬҲ֪19Ϊ塱ɳǰʷЩѧ߻롰塱Χжٺԣж̼еƵļС

   ʹϵġʷμ̬Ⱥֵġ塱

   ǽڱ壨ɣ壨ɣ֮䣬º壨ɣҲеġ塱

   йٿȫ˵һԴliberales19ͳ״ɵƣʾõȲҲص̬ȡ룬۴ӴԴѧǴʵʵʹ˵ȲֲصмºʵϾǡ塱һȫ类ϵı塣йٿȫӰ죬イһʵԨԴӦûд˵ĽͷչԱ壬ҲԼ˼塣˵Ҳʷʵ

   бȽȨIJе߰ٿȫĽͣܶ鼮ĽͣӰ죬潲йٿȫĽͣҲԲ˲е߰ٿȫ顣е߰ٿȫĽͣǵڶָ߻ϡͬԾ˼徭ûϲ㽨֮۵ۡɫʣ˵岻򵥵Ķ塣Ҫ⣬ȡʵĴִ壬ȹŵִ͡ͳҴ״̬ɺֻʹܵйı仯仯߿Խ췴Խ̻ᣬӵ̻᣻һʱڣϣԾٸԤһʱڣϣʣĺô˵һֻῼǹĻͻȻľ޴䶯ʹ뼤ͬ˼롣һҪΪ˱壬ҲֻһַDZġ˱塱

   й˱˼룬˼Ϊľþ۵Ļϲġ̳еո㴫ͳȻͬʱйͳĻе㾫ȻҲDzɵġ

   ʵĿǰǿ˼룬ھѧѧ۽磬ҲǾþ˼롣ΪʵģȻҲ˼֮۵Ӱ졣ո˱ijѬգӵԱԣԼ˱ûйë˼룬Сƽۣȸȫ桰ϴԡϴƻȻǶԿྭ컯Կ۱־þۣͽǮݷΪǿȫоþۣγȫ˼塢ΪϵͳϵϵйڵйܾþΪݱңܺʶԵʡʮĿǰ˼ѾΪ½Ϊ˼룬˵йϲ㣬ҲòʼΪ˺˵ķչΪģȫЭƽⷢչˡ۲赲

   ˼룬ۡѧ罫ʲô仯

    ۣ˼ʵΨ۵ѧһ𣬴˼롢ۡѧ缫ľ޴仯Щ仯 1Ծþۺͽ׼Ϊʷѧѧ۽ȫд

    Ӧۺ;ѧۣҲȫд

    2Ծûϲ㽨ͽ׼͵ѧۣҲȫд

    Ӧķѧۺ͹ѧ˵Ҳȫд

    3º淶ۣΡõȷۣҲҪд

    4ͻα׼α׼һȵȣ±׼˼׼ʫ־ȣպѧۣҲдĹɺ׼ۡ

    5˼壬;ûϲ㽨֮Ӱ죬Լܹҵͷ컯ӰĻѧۣд½

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Դ׼̫̫Ҳἰλҽ̵ϢҲϢҶ׷ɲЩϢ֮෴ǴְᣬȻͳս壬ʾҵ⣬ԽոߵȷԺң˵յͳսģҲôȥġ˵֪Ҳ֮ͬ

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ʮת䣿ԶԡưȫļίԱĿںÿ˷˷ԣѦΰͣݼС̡ࡣʾԵˮưţҦܣȺ塢̹⣬¡Ԫ̷йȨһԱʼûзڣЭ飬ij໥֧֣áͬʱͨʽȷԱԼʽΪίԱ

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   ְ)
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зеġɻйͬƾշ ڣʮһ͵йѲͬͣй̫ƽʽڽ̵ĸҲйʽũݺͻսϢʱйֻ֡ҪDZǷԡ͡ΪںţΪйƶֻķʽ˱;ڡģвҲھвͳһйвڶʮһ͵Ľ죬Ʒķ⽨ƺһ͵۷йͨƽķʽʵ֡ƽתһģι̣õĵ·Ƿֹרεĵ·εĵһѧϰۣΰѺƽ顢ƽʾģĶ йֻܺƽ ԴССĿɧңйĵطԱֻšйԸͨſƵİ취жϹҵġо񾭡͡񾭡ôȫش˷Ŀ顢ʾɧƱһģ޴ĶҡֻҪһδѾȡѵѵˡġѵйҪپһδѲȡѵһ£ﲻƾնΪûձʶҪȻˡġҵйӦһͷԣڰѡƽʾ롸ҡǰһ֡ƽ项롸ҡġһŰ˾찲źƽ鲻ǡҡϵ˵ķ˱ҡǻԣΪֹĴҵҪһֻҪйᶨšŶ׵һйпһκƽת͵IJ׳˶ͬʱΪйĺƽͳһٵ·йпĺƽͳһͬСֻй½ĺƽͳһʮһ͵йܺƽ ʮաŦԼ ԭء20059º

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Dzκһֵּۻڽ̡ҲĪ˵֤֮(a neutral justifica-tion of neutrality)ô֤ɣָľԭݲӦõκμֵ֮ϡ֤ݱ˶Ըֵּ۲ƫеȻҪһ⣬ֵܷر֤һܿɵ⡣޶˹ġԭ(The Liberal Principle of Ligitimacy)˹DԭԼĪ˵ͬȵ(equal respect)ԭƺȫġ̸Ե弰˭Ӧñ֮DZٿࡣ޶˹(Josep Raz )֣гԡԹΪӦñԵ壬˵(1)һ֤(ensure)й񶼾ͬĻʵǵļֵۡ(2)һ²ͼȥ(not intended)ƫᳫijȫ(comprehensive doctrine)(3) һȥκ£ʹ(make)Ǹ׽ijֵּۣͬʱҲȡһЩʩԵ顣޶˹˵ȫۣһֵѧۻڽϵ(1)(3)ܽܡ(1)֮ԲܱڹҲһֵּļֵκͻļֵ۶Ӧñų⡣(3)ӳʶԵѧǾͿ˽⵽κι۶޿ɱػٻǵʽӰ죻ˣΨ(2)ǿԱܵġҪҪֻDzҪͼȥᳫٽijһֵּۡԵ壬Լ˭Ӧñ֮󣬹δԵĴ𰸾൱ֳˡԵڼֵԪУ޷жһֵּ۽ΪԽôҪһʹóֲֵͬ۵˶ܽܵĹϵõİ취ǶDzҪﵽҶܽĿ꣬ȻģԭרijЩڽֵ̻ϵһݣΪĻЩֲֵͬ۵˲ҲȻһֵּڽ̡еļֵĹϵΪΣÿ˵ȫֵϵĹϵģһΪѼҪĿ⣬дȥ̽֡ΪǿԽֵڸֿΪ˴һҶܽܵĹϵϵܹκڽֵ̼ϡڽϵʱӦðѼֵһ޶˹˵Ļرܷ(method of avoidance)ǷڣȥõǡĹԭҲͲκμֵƫ̻Ҳ˵ԭôһ̬ȡȡֻرܷǷеͨ¼ֵǷԱֿһֹϵǷ޿ɷָijһֵּۻϵϵЩǶ弫ΪҪ⡣ǣǽֵֿʱƺûܺõ֤еͨϣɵǣڼֵУһ׿͹۲ձЧĹϵǣDzûΪԼֹ۵뷨ĿԣôָҲֵ޷Ŀ͹ԡ塢ɣȨޡ̩գCharles Taylorһƪۿµ۵Уһʼָڽ֮ڣǻһֽ˶ʱʾǵҪԡֶɵӣԼΪִѧŲɷָĹϵʹüֵɥʧ˿͹ԣԴӿ͹۵ڽ̼ζʵڣתΪ۵ѡ㣬ļֵ֮ԳΪԵĴڵĻ㣬ѡֶ˵Ŀ־ߵΪԵıʵĵλ¶ԵߵļֵӦԶΪĿģֶεĿֳִܱ˶Ϊɶڵ˼롣½Ե壨rational agent־ԼɵһֻеɵĶȻڵڵģ£ΪˣԵԡҲ˵ֻеɵʱΪʡɣautonomyڿµʵѧռĵĵλڿ°һĽǿԽȵΪ֮¡The Morality of FreedomֶΪֻһ־ԼѡӸԣindividuality־Լѡһ˵֮ǷмֵѡôѡĽ˵֪жϡʶ֮Уdiscriminitive feelingֻѡʱűʹΪ׶µ˲ûκѡ...һӵκпɱ̶ܳȵijʶ뾭ĻΪԼĴƵģʽõģⲢãΪԼģʽڿѧУɣheteronomyɵ֮ԲΪɵԣֶָԵ׷ڵűϵIJֻͬǰ߲ʾΪɵĴԡĿһѧѧphilosophical anthropologyѧѧҪΪˣͱȥԼѡ񡣡ǣֵֶּۣΪһ־п͹ԵĶˡɼ֮мֵѡĽǵϵĿ͹ʵκһ˵ѡԼԺκѡɵĻᣬ磬Ըȥ˵ū͵ǰԼԷ񶨵ˡֶָΪԵʣֹūǣһDzòмֵ۵⣬Ϊһֵּ˵ѡ񩤩ǿ͹۵ġǿ϶ֵȻĺڼֵ۵ģɼԵļֵŲòᵽߵĵλΪ˸ԣҲǵڷΪԼƶĿȨ֮ԣDZ͸ѡʵֵġȻֵּп͹㣬ҲԼֵ̫Ӱ졣ɾп͹ۼֵŻԳֵ֮ԳΪֵѡĽֵ֮мֵѡĽôʾǵļֵǶ˶ڵģǿ͹۵ģǶֻȥ֣ȥѡ񼰴졣ЩǿԿóɻֵ֮ǿ͹۵ģһмֵ۵һ֮棬еһּͲܾܾһֶּ뿵µۣʹǵѧΪһ޶˹˵ȫ壨comprehensive liberalismȫ۶ڼֵԴԼôĿֶΪһԼѡǣҪΪԪĻѧҰģȴһĴΪ޳ˣвͬѧۣԺΪôǵһεתpolitical turnΪȫĵˡΪһмֵĻֵ뷨ŲɺӰ졣ڸѡһмֵȪԴһĹܣӦõڱ֤ĵĿϡΪ֯ĻԭӦɶҸ׷ϣΪЧȫˡεҪԭôҵĹܣȻӦñֻҹ˵ĵλͶȵŵˣRobert NozickĻ˵ֹֻթ͵ԼȹֻΪṩһܹʹܹУܹ׷ʵԼѡĽΪֶڡɡĵָĿľҪȥ֤ǸػأֻΪұself-protection£ɶԱ˵Ϊи档һȺκγԱΥ־֮£ʹȨΨһĿģΪ˷ֹ˵˺˵,κĿģǸжԼ棬ԹɶɽƵɡ˺ԭԭ򼸺ѾִεĹֻаְ𼰹Ƽ涨˵ɲܵõ㹻ıϡѧݵľǿֶԵĿԼصļֵ塣Щּı֮һ̵ķ롣Ϊҹͳ̶ȵȨô⣬κε๡ŴܵĿΪһĶԱȡ󴫡˵ġ֮£֡ɹʮ꣩ʾĹŴιۣΪԹڽϵרҲΪôйС֮֮ʦִͳˡйˣŴҲ޶żһ̺һĴͳͼеֵ̺һĴͳȡ󴫡˵ĻҪΪ忪̷룬Ϊִ춨һλУϵ۵ĹϵۣĹ鿭ᡡΪִԵһڣΪִĶԪṩ˸֯ԭȨɡƽЩĸֵΪһǷı׼ȨΪ׼һЩʱЩĹӦͨǣڹ鼰ĻIJ죬ȨҲвͬı׼ʾǣЩĹҲĬȨмߵļֵûȨǸĶȨ˵ʾΣЩ廹ûгʵֵУ˶ˣõԴҲȫǴDZߵġЩֱֳִʶ̬ûκִĵλȻ岻ϵܵû˿бۣȡִеĵλ˵ֻҪִһ죬ͻĻѧעͣ ƪΤ1920ȥ֮ǰΪġڽѧļ(Collected Essays in the Sociology of Religion)дĵԡɭ˼(Talcott Parsons)ΤTheProtestant and the Spirit of Capitalism(New York: Scribner's,1958)йΤۣWolfgang Schlucter, TheRise of Western Rationalism, tr. G. Gerth (Berkeley: University ofCali-fornia Press, 1981), Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality(London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984) David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1978), p.415. David Hume, Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. Henry D.Aiken (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1948), p.43 йؼֵԭ֮Ĺϵڡ֮Լ֤ɡһ꾡() (I. Berlin)ԶԪĶ˲ͬΪԪֵָ಻ͬԴȪ(sources)The Crooker Timberof Humanity (New York: Knoft, 1991), pp11-14, 79-80, 87-89Ķ壬κᶼǶԪġ Charles Larmore, The Morals of Modernity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996), p.122 Jurgen Habermas, The Legitimation Problem in theModern State", Communication and the Evolution ofSociety, tr. Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978),pp.183-5 Iris Murdoch, The Sovereignty of Good (London && NewYork: Routledge, 1981), pp.47-9Murdoch˲ûᵽ߼ֻۣᵽӢľۼѧHilary PutnamתMurdochĹ۵ʱἰ弰߼ʵ֤ۣReason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1981), p.154 Henry Sidgwick, Methods of Ethics, 7th ed. (New York:Dover Publications, Inc., 1966), pp.105-610 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 1st edition (Cambridge:Harvard University Pres, 1971), p.311 Larmore, Political Liberalism, The Morals ofModernity Уp.12512 Rawlsԭ򣬼Political Liberalism(New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), pp.137, 217Habermas Dԭ򣬼Moral Consciousness andCommunicative Action tr. Christian Lenhardt && Shierry WeberNicholsen (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990), pp.66, 93,121LarmoreͬȵأMorals of Modernity, pp.134-4113 John Rawls, Political Liberalism, pp.192-3Ե֣Josep Raz, The Morality of Freedom (Oxford:Clarendon press, 1986), pp.114f14 Charles Taylor, Kant's Theory of Freedom, Philosophy and Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, 2(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p.31815 µĵۣGroundwork of the Metaphysic ofMorals, tr. H. J. Paton (New York: Harper && Row, Publishers,1964)йؿµɼĿTaylorǰ£ԼCharles Larmore , Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 76-84ɲοMichaelSandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (Cambridge:Cambridge Uni-versity Press, 1982), pp.1-1416 J. S. Mill, On Liberty, The Philosophy of J. S. Mill(New York: The Modern Library, 1961), pp. 253, 26217 Mill, On Liberty, p.30418 й壬RawlsPolitical LiberalismLarmoreThe Morals of Modernity 19 Mill, On Liberty, p.197

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