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·Why Federalism?Dose Federal system better to protect minority rights?
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·论质、量互变关系
·学习与开放
·无产阶级领袖有感
·无产阶级领袖的重大作用
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·南郭点评
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·An top important massage sent by the Holy Spirit
·My special experience help me build up my faith to the God
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《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险

第四编 对船东的附加保险
   (Additional Insurances For Shipowners)
   第1章历史沿革
   海上保险的一个最古老的领域,人们可以合乎逻辑地认为,乃是承保当风险开始时保险标的的价值。早期在Edward Lloyd’s(爱德华劳矣德)咖啡馆,保险人会要求证明向他投保的价值是真实的,比船东披露他为购船已支付的帐单金额更佳的证明,在于其装备、及他为预期的冒险项目已花费的金钱。
   1906年《海上保险法》第16.1款重申了这一古老的规则:
   “ Subject to any express provision or valuation in the policy, the insurable value of the subject-matter insured must be ascertained as follows:-
   (1) In insurance on ship, the insurable value is the value at the commencement of the risk, of the ship, including her outfit, provisions and stores for the officers and crew, money advanced for seamen’s wages, and other disbursements (if any )incurred to make the ship fit for the voyage or adventure contemplated by the policy, plus the charges of insurance upon the whole:”
   “除保险单的任何明文规定或定值外,保险标的的保险价值必须按下列规定确定:
   (1)在船舶保险中,保险价值是风险开始时的船舶价值,包括其装备、船员和高级船员的食物、饮料和储备、预付给船员的工资,以及为使船舶适合于保险单预期的航程或冒险须垫付的其他费用加上全部保险费用:”
   基于此项原则,在航程开始时花费的开支(船东期望据此赢利)有保险利益,显而易见,在航程期间,通过重新装备船舶,雇用新船员,添加食物和饮料,船东不得不支付额外的费用,这些开支亦可成为适当的保险标的。
   因此,需要对“费用”获得附加的保险,或者,若船舶由于被用于某一特殊的运输,应拥有某种增强价值(enforced value),则应基于船舶的“增加价值”(increased value)办理此种附加保险。
   至19世纪中叶,为保险的目的,与保险人约定船舶的价值已成为惯例,这解决了许多难题,特别在发生全损时,有助于保险人确定理赔金额。尽管如此,约定价值的金额可能无法适当地赔偿在航程期间已支付额外费用的船东,因此,当必要时,船东通过对费用或增加的价值乐于拥有获得进一步保险的便利。
   至于目前的保险实务,请阅下述
   第2章 额外责任
   (Excess Liability)
   在讨论主条款时我们已了解到,对于救助、共同海损及施救费用的索赔均受有关任何不足额保险及仅承保保险价值3/4的碰撞责任的制约。因此,船东为“额外责任”办理附加保险相当普遍。
   在船舶保险单中万一出现船舶不足额保险时,使他们能够获得高于船舶保险单下可获赔金额的任何特定分摊或责任的附加额外保险。
   在Holman & Sons v. Merchants’ Marine Insurance Company案中, 一艘船按39000英镑的价值投保船舶保险,此外,船东还对船体和机器办理了1855年英镑的增值附加保险,承保风险包括“船体和机器应分摊的超过(在船舶保险单中)保险价值的共同海损和救助费用,船舶应负的任何责任”。由于船舶在船舶保险单中不足额保险的事实,船东无法根据该保险单全额索赔船舶应分摊的共同海损和救助费用。被保险人的律师辩称:根据增值和额外责任保险单,他们有权索赔全部亏损,直至全部保险金额。法院判决被保险人只能索赔该1855英镑分别除以全部超额救助价值和全部超额分摊价值的额外价值的保险金额的比例部分(such proportion of the sum insured against excess liability as the £1855 bore to the total excess valuation for salvage and the total excess contributory value respectively.)。
   某些简单的数字可以说明根据额外责任保险单评估索赔的正确方法。
   获救价值 10000镑 支付了2000镑的救助费
   船壳保险单中的保险价值 10000镑
   扣除损害 2000镑
    8000镑 支付1600镑
   额外价值 2000镑 支付400镑
   额外责任保险金额1800镑 应支付
   1800/2000×400= 360镑
   现行的条款是:
   A.协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款1/11/95(Institute Time Clauses, Hulls: Excess Liabilities)
   This insurance is subject to English law and practice
   本保险受英国法律和惯例制约
   第1条
   1.1 This insurance covers only:
   1.1.1 General Average, Salvage and Salvage Charges recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of the difference between the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein (or any reduced value arising from the deduction therefrom in process of adjustment of any claim which law or practice or the terms of the insurance covering hull and machinery may have required) and the value of the Vessel adopted for the purpose of contribution to general average, salvage or salvage charges, the liability under this insurance being for such proportion of the amount not recoverable as the amount insured hereunder bears to the said difference or to the total sum insured against excess liabilities if it exceed such difference.
   1.1.2 Sue and Labour Charges recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of the difference between the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein and the value of the Vessel adopted for the purpose of ascertaining the amount recoverable under the insurance on hull and machinery, the liability under this insurance being for such proportion of the amount not recoverable as the amount insured hereunder bears to the said difference or to the total sum insured against excess liabilities if it exceed such difference.
   1.1.3 Collision liability(three-fourths) recoverable under the Institute 1/4ths Collision Liability and Sistership Clauses in the insurances on hull and machinery but not recoverable in full by reason of such three-fourths liability exceeding three-fourths of the insured value of the Vessel as stated therein, in which case the amount recoverable under this insurance shall be such proportion of the difference so arising as the amount insured hereunder bears to the total sum insured against excess liabilities.
   1.2 The Underwriters’ liability under 1.1.1, 1.1.2 and 1.1.3 separately, in respect of any one claim, shall not exceed the amount insured hereunder.
   1.1 本保险只承保:
   1.1.1 共同海损、救助和救助费用根据本船体和机器保险可以获得补偿但未获全额补偿,是由于船舶的保险价值(或在理赔过程中按承保船体和机器保险的法律、惯例或条款要求予以扣减后减少了的价值)与船舶分摊了共同海损、救助或救助费用之后的价值之间存在差额,根据本保险的责任,按照本保险的保险金额与该差额的比例,或当承保额外责任的保险金额总和超过该差额时,按本保险的保险金额与该保险金额的总和的比例,承担责任。
   1.1.2 施救费用根据本船体和机器保险可以获得补偿,但未获全额补偿,是由于船舶的保险价值与为确定根据船体和机器保险的补偿额采用的船舶价值之间存在差额,本保险下的责任为按照本保险的保险金额与该差额的比例,或当承保额外的保险金额总和超过该差额时,按本保险的保险金额与该保险金额的总和的比例,承担责任。
   1.1.3 (3/4)碰撞责任根据协会船体和机器3/4碰撞责任条款和姐妹船条款可以获得补偿,但未获全额补偿,是由于此种3/4碰撞责任超过了保险船舶的3/4保险金额而存在差额,本保险下可获补偿的金额,按本保险的保险金额与承保额外责任的保险金额的总和的比例计算。
   1.2 保险人分别根据上述1.1.1, 1.1.2和1.1.3项的责任,有关任何一次索赔,不得超过本保险的保险金额。
   第2条 退费条款
   2 RETURNS
   To return pro rata monthly net for each uncommenced month if this insurance be cancelled by agreement.
   2 退费
   若本保险经协议解除,每一未开始的月份的净保险费按月比例退还。
   The following clauses shall be paramount and shall override anything contained in this insurance inconsistent therewith.
   下述条款为首要条款,任何与本保险规定不一致者均以本保险规定为准。
   第3条 战争除外条款
   3 WAR EXCLUSION
   In no case shall this insurance cover loss damage liability or expense caused by
   3.1 war civil war revolution rebellion insurrection, or civil strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act by or against a belligerent power
   3.2 capture seizure arrest restraint or detainment (barratry and piracy excepted), and the consequences thereof or any attempt thereat
   3.3 derelict mines torpedoes bombs or other derelict weapons of war.
   3 战争除外
   在任何情况下,本保险不承保由下列原因引起的灭失、损害、责任和费用。
   3.1 战争、内战、革命、叛乱、暴动或由此引起的内乱、或任何交战团体之间的敌对行为
   3.2 捕获、扣押、扣留、管制或拘押(船长、船员的欺诈恶行和海盗除外)及这些行为的后果或进行这些行为的任何企图
   3.3 遗弃的水雷、鱼雷、炸弹或其他遗弃的战争武器。
   第4条 罢工除外条款
   4 STRIKES EXCLUSION
   In no case shall this insurance cover loss damage liability or expense caused by
   4.1 strikers, lock-out workmen, or persons taking part in labour disturbances, riots or civil commotions
   4.2 any terrotist or any person acting from a political motive.
   4 罢工除外
   在任何情况下,本保险不承保由下列原因引起的灭失、损害、责任和费用

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