THE ORIENTAL UNIVERSAL VALUES DERIVED FROM CHINESE CIVILIZATION HAS BE
THE ORIENTAL UNIVERSAL VALUES DERIVED FROM CHINESE CIVILIZATION HAS BEEN TURNED INTO A CHALLENGE TO THE WESTERN UNIVERSAL VALUAS
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According to universal values, it seems so far only one is accepted that is the western popular democracy and freedom known as the Western universal values in today’s world. Beyond that ,there are no second universal values. Chinese thinker Xuan Changwei offers a proposal via his research: the oriental universal values derived from Chinese civilization compares with the Western universal values based on the foundation of the Western civilization.
The main content of the oriental universal values and its eleven major sources are as follow:
I. the eleven main sources of the oriental universal values:
1. the philosophies come from:
(1) Lao Tzu’s “man follows the earth, earth follows the universe, universe follows the Tao, Tao follows only itself”
(2) the philosophy of "harmony between man and nature" in Chinese traditional culture
(3) the heavenly paradise world and the ideas to Purdue sentient beings based on the deductive evolution from “anuttara-samyak-sambodhi” of Shakyamuni Buddha. The religious wisdom “anuttara-samyak-sambodhi” of the Shakyamuni Buddha and his successors are the most important philosophical sources of the oriental universal values.
2.social, political, and ethical thoughts come from:
(4)the philosophy of the world integration and courtesy of Confucius
(5)Liang Qichao’s thoughts of altruism, Liang Qichao's thoughts of private and morality, Liang Qichao says: "everyone make self good is the private virtue, everyone make good to the group is the morality virtue”
(6)the philosophy of Shakyamuni Buddha's compassion, sentient beings, and hell is not empty until Buddha
(7) the construction of the pure land on the earth and the way to Bodhisattva Maitreya Bodhisattva (sentient beings, benefit others and the world, the interests of heaven and earth; it is a kind of new Maitreya Bodhisattva advocated by Sade, rather than the way of Bodhisattva Shakyamuni's Buddhist teachings)
(8) Kang Youwei’s thoughts of the world integration society
(9) the Communist Party of Chinese socialist and communist ideologies
(10) new ideas of contemporary Chinese folk thinkers
(11) besides, the Oriental universal values also have a complete set of superior social systems, social politics, legal system, and other aspects of thoughts. Excluding in the text above, hereby explain.
II. the following are the Western universal values and their Western civilization characteristics:
The main contents of the Western universal values:
There are democracy, protection of human rights, constitutionalism, separation of the three powers and checks and balances of power, fraternity, judicial independence, among the thoughts of human rights include: individual freedom, personal property, personal security, the whole resistance to oppression is a natural and inalienable human right that affirms speech, faith, and writings, and the freedom of the press, including the separation of powers, equality before the law, and the sanctity of private property and inviolable principle.
The philosophical foundations of the Western universal values derive from western philosophies and Christianity. The social and ethical thoughts come from Spinoza, Rock, Montesquieu, Rousseau and other previous philosophers.
III.the comparative analysis of the Western universal values and the oriental universal values are as follow:
1. the comparative analysis of the Western universal values of and the Oriental universal values:
The oriental universal values respect “the interests of all sentient beings, benefit others and the world, and the interests of heaven and the earth”, therefore, the oriental universal values are collectivism, righteousness and cosmopolitanism. These are closely related to Aristotle’s thoughts and Liang Qichao’s development and exploration of human beings should benefit others and the world.
In contrast, the Western universal values are surrounded by personal interests, such as democracy, human rights protection, constitutionalism and three powers in the Western universal Values, the balance of power and judicial independence and the individual freedom in human rights protection, human property, personal security and resistance to oppression are natural and inalienable human rights, affirmed freedom of speech, belief, writing and the press, the separation of powers and the equality of legal system, private property is sacred and inviolable Principles. These values entirely put personal interests and rights first rather than call a person should "for others, for the collective, for society, and for the world".
2. the differences between the Western universal values and the oriental universal values:
The Western universal values seem everything is dominated by individual interests first. However, the oriental universal values concern about social, collective, world, universal and sentient beings interests first. These are absolutely different from each other. So, in nature, the Western universal values are "individualism" and "selfishness" concerns, while the Oriental universal values are "collective"and "selfless".
Due to these fundamental differences, the western world is not interested in unified the world and the comprehensive commonwealth. Britain is now breaking up with the European Union, the former president of the United States also clamoring to shoulder the responsibility of the world, and putting American interests first.
In fact, these events of the Western universal values are based on their inner characteristics. These are due to the Western universal values’ "individualism" and "selfishness".
3. the Western universal values and the oriental universal values reveal deep effects in Chinese and Western societies:
Now the Britain and the United States preferentially considering themselves and ignoring the whole world are influenced by their civilization characteristics. On the contrary, as a representative birthplace of the oriental universal values, China has always been the responsibility of the world with extreme efforts ( supports of Afro Asia people in the age of Mao Zedong, supports Vietnam, North Korea, Albania and so on, Chinese culture plays an important role because of its deep oriental universal values). Chinese civilization shows great interests of collectivism, cosmopolitanism, universality, and sentient beings. These have been act in the core position for a long time.
The oriental universal values "for others, for society, for the world, for all beings" are significantly implanted in its body and manifested in the past history and today. If you ignore the reasons of their deep-seated performance derived from their values, you would never understand the Chinese history and what are the underlying causes of the present major issues ?
In another words, the Western universal values are individualism and self-centered which are respected as the “universal values”: so the aggression and plunder of wars are common in the western history. However, the Oriental universal values are “social morality” in nature, “selfless”, “ interests of all sentient beings, benefit others and the world, and the interests of the heaven and the earth. These are the pursuits of human ideal destination, and human ultimate civilization of the universal values.
Therefore, Confucius’ philosophy of the world integration, and Liang Qichao’s thought of altruism, private and morality, and "everyone make self good is private virtue, everyone make good to the group is smorality virtue”, and the philosophy of Shakyamuni Buddha's compassion, sentient beings, hell is not empty until Buddha, and Kang Youwei’s thoughts of the world integration society, and the construction of the pure land on the earth and the way to Bodhisattva Maitreya Bodhisattva (sentient beings, benefit others and the world, interests of the heaven and the earth; these are the new Maitreya Bodhisattva advocated by Sade, rather than the way of Bodhisattva Shakyamuni's Buddhist teachings), and the Communist Party of Chinese socialist and communist ideologies and so on. These thoughts and philosophies can grow up, bloom, and stand everlasting in China. However, socialism and communism are easy to fail in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. This is because that in the land of China has been turned out something of the “Oriental universal values”. Without these main reasons, the internal logic of human civilization would has not yet been understood!