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·中越關係破裂十八年大事記 ( 1972 – 1990 )
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·十九世紀清越外交關係之演變
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·六十年中國對越南的影響
·中國永遠都是對的?
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·為免受中國之危害,越南與多國交好
·越中邊界談判(1974-1978)
·越南自古即屬中國?:談研究者與常民知識的斷裂
·中國外交反攻:習近平訪越之行與其意義
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·越中關係裡的美國角色
·金庸、馬援、二徵王、胡志明
·越軍前高官眼中的解放軍,越戰和中越衝突
·越中貿易:愈增加就愈失平衡?
·我的父親黎筍以及對中國的記憶
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·成都秘密會議資料之疑惑
·成都會議:原因、過程與其災害後果
·中國和越南還會是「同志」嗎?
·越中“從未恢復”互信
·越南軍隊比“中國低20級”
·中國為北越的反美言辭消音
·越柬邊界緊張與中國因素
·越南應重審閱南中國海戰略
·越南會像菲律賓那樣倒向中國嗎?
·越南能否徹底“去中國化”?
·周恩來與黃沙群島問題
【 領土領海主權爭端 】
·越南西貢再次發生短暫反中國侵略示威
·視頻﹕越南人反對中國侵犯主權的示威
·評析中越領海開發石油之主權爭執
·中國對越南威脅語言之背後
·為海域主權爭議尋找解決方法
·南中國海再起‘風暴’---中越關係新局勢
·領土主權爭議激化 中越關係面臨考驗 \zt
·南海之爭與民族主義
·南中國海的不穩定
·海底下的武力競爭
·北京對其主權領土的問題
·南中国海岛屿主权争执 越南对中国的态度
·东盟、中国和南中国海
·南中國海上的“長篇劇”
·民主可作為南中國海問題的解決方法
·中美在南中國海問題上的立場
·中越秘密舉行關於南中國海問題的談判
·金蘭灣是解決东海問題的鎖匙 ?
·中越北部灣的麻煩和出路
·臺灣劉必榮教授談南海主權爭議中臺灣所扮角色
·切缆是為施壓
·中國與華东东海劃界案
·怨恨深植於亞洲
·南中國海主權糾紛大事記
·兩個越南和黃沙、長沙群島主權
·CIA密切關注1974年之黃沙海戰
·越南紀念兩場與中國軍事衝突的事件嗎?
·為何中國在1974佔領黃沙群島?
·东海矛盾又被烘熱起來?
·從黃沙想起东海的未來
·中國新捕魚法:政府海盜行為?
·中越領土爭議:版鬱瀑布的歷史證據
·菲律賓指控中國加緊建造礁島
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中印衝突無必要!

作者:劉山青 (香港)

   
   2017/7/31
   
   

   中印衝突是一重要事件。中國王毅外長在6月24,25日訪問了阿富汗和巴基斯坦;26日印度總理莫迪會見美國總統特朗普;同日發生了錫金段越過邊界線衝突。中國同時切斷了印度官方香客經乃堆拉山口赴藏朝聖的路段。
   
   大部份傳媒報導此事帶有政治目的,不符合“邏輯、細節和資料”的要求(註一)。沒有人問:中國為什麼要建這條道路?和不丹的角色。
   
   網誌上沒有文章討論此事。有些黃絲幻想印度打到北京,方便其建國;有些藍絲希望中共打鳩印度。總之,雙方都想打仗,冇想過戰爭的野蠻。
   
   印度外交部
   
   印度政府在6月30日的聲明(註二)很詳細。它指出:
   
   中國工程人員在不丹邊境強行搬走兩塊不丹基石;
   
   不丹提出抗議;
   
   印度人員一向有駐守那裡,要求中方停止行動;
   
   三方在2012年同意以聯絡小組方式商討那地段的現狀改變。
   
   印度不想激怒中方,它在7月17日的新聞發佈會用“鄰國”字眼,並表示沒有人員傷亡。
   
   不丹外交部
   
   不丹外交部聲稱(註三):中國的武裝人員在不丹土地興建一條軍事用行車道,通往不丹的軍營附近。不丹對此抗議。其聲明簡短,用詞不想得罪中國。
   
   On 16th June 2017, the Chinese Army started constructing a motorable road from Dokola in the Doklam area towards the Bhutan Army camp at Zompelri.
   
   中國外交部
   
   中方的立場(註四)是:“洞朗地區歷來屬於中國,不屬於不丹,與印度更沒有任何關係”。王毅的答覆是:“解決這個問題也很簡單,那就是,老老實實地退出去。”
   
   中方所持的是1890年《中英會議藏印條約》和1998年簽訂的《關於在中不(中國,不丹)邊境地區保持和平與安寧的協定》。它避談2012年的三方商議解決問題。
   
   two Governments had in 2012 reached agreement that the tri-junction boundary points between India, China and third countries will be finalized in consultation with the concerned countries
   
   第二大經濟實體
   
   習近平沙場閱兵(註5),表示「有能力打敗一切來犯之敵」。印度那裡敢來犯呢?印度國家安全顧問多瓦希望在出席金磚安代會期間與中國國務委員楊潔篪討論解決方法。
   
   在洞朗地區的道路施工沒有實質需要,若用來打仗則太少,平常用途則太多,而且那地方如一布袋,只能指向不丹的軍營,和“牧民每年均在此巡邏放牧”似乎無關。
   
   今次事件的目的只有宣示主權。但印度的邊防人員一向在那裡遊走,為何今天才進入中國領士呢?
   
   .In coordination with the RGOB, Indian personnel, who were present at general area Doka La
   
   習近平似乎喜歡用建築物做成既成事實,遠的有在具主權爭議的南沙群島「永暑礁」填海造陸,飛機跑道和停機坪;近的有今次事件。中國作為第二大經濟實體,本應待人以寬。主動挑起事端只會讓鄰國抱介心,不利一帶一路的進展。
   
   
   
   附錄
   註一
   
   東方
   
   印度軍隊試圖阻止中方人員進入所謂「印度領土」內,組起人牆阻擋;解放軍官兵則錄影現場情況,並拍攝照片。
   
   明報
   
   中國國防部發言人任國強26日晚表示,近日中方在洞朗地區進行道路施工時,遭到印軍越線阻攔。國防部又稱,中印邊界錫金段已由歷史條約劃定,中方修建上述道路完全是在自己領土上的主權行為,印方無權干涉。外交部發言人耿爽當晚亦稱,印度邊防人員在中印邊界錫金段越過邊界線進入中方境內,阻撓中國邊防部隊在洞朗地區的正常活動,中方已採取相應應對措施。
   
   美國之音
   
   截止記者發稿之時,印度官方尚未對中國的抗議作出回應。然而,印度媒體已經發表了大量為政府出謀劃策的文章,一些人要求以制裁中國產品的經濟手段回應中國的邊境“入侵”,也有人希望政府重新審視印度的“西藏政策”,更有人建議加強與美國、日本等國的軍事聯繫,希望印度購置或研發更強大的武器,同時做好邊境衝突進一步升級的準備。
   
   中時
   
   《不丹新聞網》的報導則表示,對於此次衝突,不丹官方一直沒有作出任何表態。
   
   環球網
   
   隨著北京將不惜“任何代價”保護國家利益,一場戰爭隱約來臨。印度也在加強戰備,但中國顯然在幾乎所有軍事領域都佔有優勢。美國軍控協會近期估計,中國的核武是印度的兩倍以上。若巴基斯坦再加入中國一方,就將演變為印度的災難。從目前情況來看,中國將在這場中印邊境爭端中堅決採取任何措施捍衛主權和領土完整。(作者珀林納·提克霍諾瓦,丁雨晴譯)
   
   香港01
   
   此次印度官員訪華,被看作是中印對峙以來,高層的一個溝通交流機制。但訪華能否達到印度期待的效果,仍有待觀察。目前中方並沒有透露哪位領導人將與其會面。印度方面希望中印雙方同時撤兵,最終實現邊境地區的穩定
   
   註二
   
   Ministry of External Affairs
   
   Government of India
   
   Recent Developments in Doklam Area
   
   June 30, 2017
   
   The Chinese made a statement on 26 June 2017 alleging that Indian border troops crossed the boundary line in the Sikkim sector of the China-India boundary and entered Chinese territory. This has been reiterated since then in other Chinese official briefings.
   
   The facts of the matter are as follows:
   
   i.On 16 June, a PLA construction party entered the Doklam area and attempted to construct a road. It is our understanding that a Royal Bhutan Army patrol attempted to dissuade them from this unilateral activity. The Ambassador of the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGOB) has publicly stated that it lodged a protest with the Chinese Government through their Embassy in New Delhi on 20 June.
   
   ii.Yesterday, the Foreign Ministry of Bhutan has also issued a statement underlining that the construction of the road inside Bhutanese territory is a direct violation of the 1988 and 1998 agreements between Bhutan and China and affects the process of demarcating the boundary between these two countries. They have urged a return to the status quo as before 16 June 2017.
   
   iii.In keeping with their tradition of maintaining close consultation on matters of mutual interest, RGOB and the Government of India have been in continuous contact through the unfolding of these developments.
   
   iv.In coordination with the RGOB, Indian personnel, who were present at general area Doka La, approached the Chinese construction party and urged them to desist from changing the status quo. These efforts continue.
   
   v.The matter has been under discussion between India and China at the diplomatic level in the Foreign Ministries since then, both in New Delhi and Beijing. It was also the subject of a Border Personnel Meeting at Nathu La on 20 June.
   
   India is deeply concerned at the recent Chinese actions and has conveyed to the Chinese Government that such construction would represent a significant change of status quo with serious security implications for India.
   
   In this context, the Indian side has underlined that the two Governments had in 2012 reached agreement that the tri-junction boundary points between India, China and third countries will be finalized in consultation with the concerned countries. Any attempt, therefore, to unilaterally determine tri-junction points is in violation of this understanding.
   
   Where the boundary in the Sikkim sector is concerned, India and China had reached an understanding also in 2012 reconfirming their mutual agreement on the "basis of the alignment”. Further discussions regarding finalization of the boundary have been taking place under the Special Representatives framework.
   
   It is essential that all parties concerned display utmost restraint and abide by their respective bilateral understandings not to change the status quo unilaterally. It is also important that the consensus reached between India and China through the Special Representatives process is scrupulously respected by both sides.
   
   India has consistently taken a positive approach to the settlement of its own boundary with China, along with the associated issue of the tri-junctions.
   
   India cherishes peace and tranquillity in the India-China border areas. It has not come easily. Both sides have worked hard to establish institutional framework to discuss all issues to ensure peace and tranquillity in the India-China border areas. India is committed to working with China to find peaceful resolution of all issues in the border areas through dialogue.
   
   New Delhi
   
   30 June 2017
   
   Official Spokesperson's response to a query about reports emanating from a neighbouring country about casualties of Indian soldiers in the Indian state of Sikkim due to military action with another country(link)
   
   July 17, 2017
   
   Responding to a query about reports emanating from a neighbouring country about casualties of Indian soldiers in the Indian state of Sikkim due to military action with another country, the Official Spokesperson said that such reports are utterly baseless, malicious and mischievous. No cognisance should be taken of them by responsible media.
   
   New Delhi
   
   17 July 2017
   
   註三
   
   Press Release
   
   June 29, 2017
   
   In view of the many queries raised recently in the media regarding the Bhutan – China boundary in the Doklam area the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would like to convey the following:

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