问：什么是民族自决权self determination ?
At its most basic, the principle of self-determination can be defined as a community's right to choose its political destiny. This can include choices regarding the exercise of sovereignty and independent external relations (external self-determination) or it can refer to the selection of forms of government (internal self-determination).
约翰 洛克（John Locke，1632年-1704年）是英国的大思想家，哲学家。他的最重要的著作《政府论Two Treatises of Government》是针对欧洲皇权法统之要义“君权神授”观点的强烈反驳。
Nationalism was an important factor in the development of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the European continent, transforming its countries. Some newly formed countries, such as Germany, Italy and Romania were formed by uniting various regional states with a common "national identity". Others, such as Greece, Poland and Bulgaria, were formed by winning their independence.
The French Revolution paved the way for the modern nation-state and also had a big part in the birth of nationalism. Across Europe radical intellectuals, influenced by Napoleon and the Napoleonic Code, promoted political transformation of Europe. Revolutionary armies carried the slogan of "liberty, equality and brotherhood" and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism. National awakening also grew out of an intellectual reaction to the Enlightenment that emphasized national identity and developed a romantic view of cultural self-expression through nationhood. The key exponent of the modern idea of the nation-state was the German G. W. Friedrich Hegel. He argued that a sense of nationality was the cement that held modern societies together in the age when dynastic and religious allegiance was in decline.