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·我的声明与立场------南郭与中律网友们的对话
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·学习方法与读书计划答小C网警同志/南郭
·英雄伟人与超人/郭国汀
·中共党奴的“学术”
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·愿王洪民先生的在天之灵安息!/郭国汀
·堂堂正正做个真正的中国人!/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/北郭
·令我感动的赞美!/南郭
·谢谢网友们关注天易律师事务所的命运
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·中国涉外案件没有一起获得执行 郭国汀
·宣战演讲名篇
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***(51)国际人权法律与实务
(A)***国际人权公约(中英文本)
·国际人权法律资料 世界人权宣言
·国际人权法律资料 公民权利和政治权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 法国人权与公民权宣言[人权宣言]
·国际人权法律资料 美国独立宣言
·国际人权法律资料 经济 、社会 、文化权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 保护人人不受酷刑和其他残刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚宣言
·禁止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约
·联合国有关健康保健人员尤其是医护人员在保护和防止囚犯和被拘禁人员不受酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的医疗伦理原则(1982)
·国际人权法律资料 囚犯待遇最低限度标准规则
·国际人权法律资料 国际刑事法院罗马规约
·消除基于宗教或信仰原因的一切形式的不容忍和歧视宣言
·联合国囚犯最低标准待遇规则
·联合国囚犯待遇基本原则(1990年)
·联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)
·结社自由和组织权利保护公约
·联合国反腐败公约
·联合国发展权利宣言
·促进和保护普遍公认的人权和基本自由的权利和义务宣言
·中国已签国际人权公约联合国人员和有关人权安全公约
·联合国律师职责的基本原则
·联合国司法独立的基本原则(1985年)
·联合国检察官的职责准则
·世界人权公约英文版Universal Declaration of Human Rights
·犯罪及权力滥用受害者恢复正义基本原则
·国际刑事法院规约(1998)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)规约
·起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
·国际人权法律资料 取缔教育歧视公约
·关于就业及职业歧视的公约
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
·联合国防止和惩罚种族灭绝罪的公约(1951)
·联合国有关难民身份的国际公约1954
·儿童权利国际公约1990
·起诉和惩罚欧洲轴心国主要战争罪犯的国际军事法庭协议(纽伦堡宪章)
***区域性国际人权法律文件
·1996年欧洲反破坏性异端决议及其邪教定义
·非洲人权和人民权利公约(1981)
·美洲人的权利与义务宣言(1948)
·美洲人权公约(1969)
·美洲防止和禁罚酷刑的公约
·防止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的欧洲公约1989
·欧洲保护人权和基本自由公约(1950)
·欧洲社会宪章1961
·建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990
(B)***美国人权法律文件
·美国1620年“五月花号”公约(The Mayflower Compact)
·美国1786年弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令
·美国1776年弗吉尼亚权利法案
·美国1862年解放黑奴宣言
·美国1777年邦联条款
·美国1776年维吉尼亚权利法案
(C)***英国人权法律文件
·英国1998年人权法案
·英国1676年人身保护令
·英国1689年权利法案
·英国1628年权利请愿书
·英国1215年自由大宪章
***(52)郭国汀论法官与律师
·悼念前最高法院大法官冯立奇教授逝世四周年
·法官律师与政党 郭国汀
·尊敬的法官大人你值得尊敬吗?!
·郭国汀与中国律师网友论法官
·法官的良心与良知/南郭
·法官!这是我法律生涯的终极目标! 郭国汀
·律师与法官之间究竟应如何摆正关系?
·从 “中国律师人”说开去
·唯有科班出身者才能当律师?!答王靓华高论/南郭
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Terrorism and state terrorism studying

by Thomas Guoting Guo

   

   Terrorism has become one of the hottest topic in both academic and practice sphere, since 911 atrocity. Between 1968 to 2003 there weremore than 6100 transnational terrorist attacks, causing more than 36000 deathsand injuries.[1]In 2001, the year of the 9/11 atrocity, there were 1,732 recorded incidents worldwide;five years later 、、. the annual figure had risen to 6,659 (English 2010, 77)[2].anew book on terrorism appears nearly every six hours, and Richard Jackson notesthat, during this period, peer-reviewed papers have increased by approximately300% (Guardian Weekly, 21 September 2007, 44).

   

   

   [1]Kristopher K.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies ofViolence: The Social Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism2006, p.1.

   [2]Matt Haunstrup Qvortrup, Terrorism and Political Science, BJPIR: 2012 VOL 14, p.503

   

   the earliest actsof terrorism to have started in ancient Palestine during the first century CE,when Jewish citizens sought freedom from Roman occupation by engaging inassassinations of Romans and suspected Jewish collaborators. One group wascalled the Sicari because of their favored use of the sica orshort dagger to murder Jewish collaborators. Another group, led by Simon BenKoseba, exhibited intense fanaticism by killing mainly Romans and Greeks, oftenin open displays of violence similar to those seen today. This group was calledthe Zealots, and it is from them that we derive the present meaning ofthe word for individuals who are fanatics (CDI, 2003).[1]By the early middle ages, a radical Muslim group in the Middle East began tokill those who failed to follow fundamentalist versions of Islam. It wasrumored that these killers used hashish prior to their killings and it is fromthe term “hashish” that the modern word “assassin” is derived (CDI, 2003).Another group in India that functioned between the 7th and the 19th centuries,the Thugees (it is from them that we derive the word “thug”), strangledtheir victims as an offering to the Hindu goddess of terror and violence (CDI,2003).

   

   [1]Anthony J. Marsella PhD, DHC& Fathali M. Moghaddam (2004)The Origins and Nature of Terrorism, Journalof Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma,9:1-2, 19-31, DOI: 10.1300/J146v09n01_02To link to this article:http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J146v09n01_02

   Osama Bin Laden, Al Queda and 911 terrorists attacks

   

   The 1993 attack onthe World Trade Center (WTC) led by Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, in which six peoplewere killed and hundreds injured. In 2001, September 11 attacks, as well as theothers around the globe, were part of a larger master plan guided by aninternational terrorist group known as Al Qaeda, a well organized andrichly-funded Muslim fundamentalist group headed by an educated and wealthySaudi Arabian citizen, Osama Bin Laden. In the words of Osama Bin Laden, he andAl Qaeda [translation: The Source or Base] were seeking revenge for whatthey viewed as America’s many economic, political, and cultural exploitationsof Islamic people and cultural traditions.[1]

   

   . . . The people ofIslam had suffered from aggression, iniquity, and injustice imposed on them bythe Zionist-Crusaders’ alliance . . . the latest of these aggressions incurredby the Muslims since the death of the Prophet is the occupation of the land ofthe two Holy Places . . . by the armies of the American Crusaders and theirallies. . . . For over seven years the United States has been occupying the landsof Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches,dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, andturning its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight theneighboring Muslim people. (Osama Bin Laden, 1998; Source: Strategic StudiesInstitute,www.army.mil.usassi)

   

   Osama Bin Ladencommented on the attack of September 11,2001: What America is tasting now issomething insignificant compared to what we have tasted for scores of years.Our nation [the Islamic World] has been tasting this humiliation and thisdegradation for more than 80 years, its sons are killed, its blood is shed, itssanctuaries are attacked, and no one hears and no one heeds. (Osama Bin Laden,October 8, 2001; Source: Associated Press)

   

   America was to bepunished for its many offenses against the Muslim people and Islam. Revengewould be had and it would be meted out in destructive scenarios designed tobring the Al Qaeda cause to people around the world. Osama Bin Ladenknew very well that his destructive acts would bring cheers from many whoshared his views of America’s perceived role as “Satan,” and not all among themwould be Muslims. Others who perceive America to be the source of theirproblems would use this opportunity to condemn America’s foreign and economicpolicies. For example, Arundhati Roy, a popular English journalist with theManchesterGuardian, likened Osama Bin Laden to America itself. He wrote:

   

   What is Osama binLaden? He’s America’s family secret. He is the American President’s dark“doppelganger.” The savage twin of all that purports to be beautiful andcivilized. He has been sculpted from the spare rib of a world laid to waste byAmerica’s foreign policy: its gunboat diplomacy, its nuclear arsenal, itsvulgarly stated policy of “full-spectrum dominance,” its chilling disregard fornon-American lives, its barbarous military interventions, its support fordespotic and dictatorial regimes, its merciless economic agenda that hasmunched through the economies of poor countries like a cloud of locusts. Itsmarauding multinationals who are taking over the air we breathe, the ground westand on, the water we drink. The thoughts we think. Now the family secret hasbeen spilled, the twins are blurring into one another and gradually becominginterchangeable. (Roy, 2001, p. 1)

   

   the actions of AlQaeda on September 11, 2001 constitute a crime of mass murder anddestruction and demand punishment and retribution. The acts meet the criterianeeded to define terrorism and as such are subject to international legalaction. Murder of innocent civilians to promote political, economic, or socialaims is a horrendous crime, and cannot be justified by cries of oppression orabuse. Efforts to alter political, economic, or social conditions bysub-national groups are not crimes in themselves, but the efforts must beconducted within the constraints of law and morality as codified in local,national, and international systems.[2]

   

   [1] KristopherK.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies of Violence: TheSocial Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism 2006, p.3

   [2] KristopherK.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies of Violence: TheSocial Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism 2006, p.12

   The definition of terrorism

   

   There are manydefinitions of terrorism (see Burgess, 2003; Hallett, 2003; Moghaddam &Marsella, 2003),many legal and scholarly experts accept the definition used bythe United States Department of State in Title 22 of the United States Code,Section 2656f(d): “ . . . premeditated, politically-motivated violenceperpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestineagents, usually intended to influence an audience”. The essential elements ofterrorism are thus: (a) The use of force or violence; (b) by individuals orgroups; (c) directed toward innocent civilians; (d) intended to influence orcoerce changes in political or social decisions and policies; (e) by instillingfear and terror. broader definition, which would include state-sponsoredterrorism and state terrorism.

   Dose any reasons justify political violence?

   

   There are numerousother struggles between governments and disaffected minority groups who seekindependence. Consider the situations between the Israelis and thePalestinians, Spain and the Basques, England and the IRA in Northern Ireland,China and the Tibetans, and, of course, the Shiite and Kurdish efforts againstthe former government of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. But what is it that justifiesthe use of violence and the label guerilla, insurgent, or freedom fighterrather than terrorist? Many unresolved issues remain surrounding the nature,definition, meaning, and legal implications of terrorist acts (e.g., Burgess,2003).

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