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郭国汀律师专栏
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第九章:合同的履行:装船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十章:提单作为物权凭证
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十一章:船东对承运贷物的灭失或损坏之责任
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十二章:合同的履行:航次租船
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十三章:合同的履行:卸货
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十四章:滞期费
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十五章:运费
·《SCRUTTON租船合同与提单》郭国汀译、朱曾杰校 第十六章:定期租船
·《Scrutton on 租船合同与提单》郭国汀译朱曾杰校 第十七章:联运提单,联合运输,集装箱
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十八章:留置权
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第十九章:损害赔偿
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第二十章:1971年〈海上货物运输法〉
·〈SCRUTTON 租船合同与提单〉郭国汀译 朱曾杰校 第二十一章:管辖权与诉讼时效
***(7)《Omay 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译校
·王海明序《Omay 海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》序
·《Omay 海上保险:法律与保险单》译后记
·朱曾杰序《OMAY海上保险的法律与保险单》
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第一章:导论
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第二章:海上保险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第三章:船舶险I
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第四章:船舶险II
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第五章:货物风险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第六章:货物除外责任
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第七章:碰撞责任
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第八章:战争险
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第九章:罢工、暴乱和民事骚乱
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十章:近因
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十一章:施救费用
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十二章:共同海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十三章:救助
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十四章:全损\实际全损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十五章:单独海损
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十六章:代位追偿权
·《OMAY 海上保险:法律与保险单》郭国汀主译 冯立奇校 第十七章:重复保险与分摊
***(8)《郭国汀辩护词代理词自选集》郭国汀著
·《郭国汀辩护词、代理词自选》
·“五懂”律师多多益善--《郭国汀律师辩护词、代理词精选》序
·张思之 他扬起了风帆——序《郭国汀辩护词代理词自选集》
·张凌序《郭国汀辩护词、代理词自选》
***(9)《郭国汀海事海商论文自选》郭国汀著
·《郭国汀海商法论文自选》
***(10)《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能译郭国汀审校
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译郭国汀审校 第一章:当事人的目标
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第六章:保险问题
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第四章:信用(融资)协议
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第十章:未来
·《项目融资》郭国汀 许兆宁 高建平 王崇能 译 第八章:其他法律问题
***(11)《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译
·《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译 第三编:油污 第十一章:导论
·《油污和碰撞责任》郭国汀译 第三编:油污 第十二章:船舶油污及国际公共卫生法的调整
***(12)《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译
·《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译 第六章:国际技术转让
·《国际贸易法》郭国汀、陆怡、李涛译 第七章:外国投资
***(13)《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第一章:海事海商法的简明历史
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第五章:拖航
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十章:管辖及程序
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十一章:海洋污染
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十二章:特别法定权利、海上留置权、抵押权及其他请求权
·《国际海事海商法》郭国汀、沈军、王崇能、冯敏译 第十三章:旅客运输
***(14)《现代提单的法律与实务》郭国汀/赖民译
·《现代提单的法律与实务》译者的话/郭国汀译
***(15)《审判的艺术》郭国汀译
·《审判的艺术》译者的话/郭国汀
***(16)《国际经济贸易法律与律师实务》郭国汀/高子才合著
·《国际经济贸易法律与律师实务》作者的话/郭国汀
***(17)《当代中国涉外经济纠纷案精析》郭国汀主编
·《当代中国涉外经济纠纷案精析》主编的话/郭国汀
***(18)《国际海商法律实务》郭国汀主编
·《国际海商法律实务》主编前言/郭国汀
***(19)《南郭独立评论》郭国汀著
·【郭國汀評論】第一集我為什麼要為法輪功辯護
·【郭国汀评论】第二集从自焚伪案看中共的邪教本质
·《郭国汀评论》第三集国际专家学者如何看待法轮功?
·【郭國汀評論】第四集:中共為何懼怕曾節明
·【郭國汀評論】第五集:憶通律師事務所遭遇停業的真正原因
·《郭国汀评论》第七集:江泽民是货真价实的汉奸卖国贼
·《郭国汀评论》第八集:从陈世忠的“第二种忠诚”看中共司法黑暗
·【郭國汀評論】第九集-苏家屯事件(盗卖法轮功学员人体器官)是中共的滑鐵盧
·《郭国汀评论》第十集:蘇家屯事件(活体盗卖法轮功学员人体器官)是中共的滑鐵盧(下集)
·《郭国汀评论》:第十二集:爱中华必须反共!
·《郭国汀评论》第十三集:为六四“反革命暴徒”抗辩
·《郭国汀评论》第十四集:什么是我们为之奋斗的民主?
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人性论:人性本恶或人性本善? 郭国汀

   

   儒家主张“人之初,性本善”;基督教则认为人皆有原罪,“没有一个义人(道德完人),一个也没有”!那么,什么是人的本质?人的本质属性只有一种还是多种?如果只有一种是私性吗?假如有多种,有哪些?何谓本质?本质是某事物内在的,天然的,必然的,永恒不变的性质;人的本质首先是其爱和恨的性质;其次是其公心与私心的性质;再次,人是社会动物,也是政治动物,故人类的群体性质也是人的本质属性。但人类最本质的属性显然是爱,亦即爱是最高等级也是最本质的人类属性。因为没有爱就没有生命,没有爱也就没有一切。质言之,同属本质,却有层次高低的区别。这就是我为何特别推崇基督教的原因,因为基督教义最核心的内容即是爱,而宇宙的本质正是爱,人作为宇宙之子,其最本质的属性当然只能是爱.

   

   吾以为人的本性有善有恶,每个人天生即带有善恶基因;区别在于比例多少,有的人善的基因远远高于恶的基因,有的则反之,还有人则善恶相当;世上决没有全善,全恶之人。因此我认为善恶皆是人类天生的本质属性。西方现代政治学最了不起的发明在于设计出一整套行之有效的程序机制,最大限度限制了人性中天生的恶的因素,而迫使当权者释放其善的一面。因此,将当权者锁进了法治与宪政的牢笼内。恶人无法行恶而被迫行善,而善者则其善被发杨光大,这正是为何西方自由宪政法治民主国家社会长期稳定和谐的根据。2010年12月27日

   

   "There are no righteousness, not a single one! " I think this statement in Bible is right, for no human being are perfect, only the God is perfect. Even the God sometimes seems make mistake, for example, when he created the first Human being, he did not create a perfect man and woman, which prove that the God seems did not do his job absolutely good. Bible in Chinese version translate the sentence as " there is no Justice man, not a single Justice or good man". I firmly believe that it is wrong translation. For there are tons of justice and good men, although none perfect man. At least I am a justice and good man!

   Human nature is a fundamental idea of political science. According to its nature, our political design is quite different. In fact, Chinese have study this issue long time ago and many scholar and thinkers have create many good ideas. almost each generation have some idea about it. Good and evil, love and hate, selfish and other characteristics…

   Recently I have read through Chinese history and to my greatest surprise our ancient ancestors a number of great sages in fact known human nature much better than modern Chinese, they are second to none in this area, I will introduce their thought a little later, which really helpful for us to understand Chinese philosophy and political history.

   

   Chinese ancient thinkers and philosophers create a number of theory of human nature as follow:

   Mencius(372-289 BC) believes that Human nature are kind and good which come from Heaven, while Sunzhi(313-238 BC) observes that human nature are bad and evil, which can be correct and improve through morality training and adjust. Yangzhu(395-335 BC)perceives that human nature are selfish and one should care of himself first and do not care of other's business. Mozhi(468-376 BC) argues that human nature are love. Gaozhi(War-states) proposes that Human nature are not good nor bad, just like water change its shape and form to fit any content, he notes that social morality of good or bad are man-made idea which is not innate of man, He put it that "eating and sexing are human nature".

   Dong Zhongshu(179-104 BC) suggests that Heaven and Man have same nature, He divided human nature into three kind: holly nature, middle nature, and lower nature. the first is good and kind, the third is bad and evil. the second is between good and bad or kind and evil which is the ordinary people's nature, through culturalized can improve middle people's nature to be good. Yang Xiong(53-18 BC) claims human nature mixed good and evil, which through study and meditation can be kind and good. Sunyei(148-209) announced that above human nature is gentleman's kind nature, while lower nature is little man's evil nature, in the middle are mixed bad and good nature. to above educate them with "Li", to lower punish them with wipe and constrain, to middle with both Li and criminal.

   

   Hangyu(768-824) declared that human nature have three category, the best nature is always kind and good, while the worst nature is always bad and evil, and middle nature may be good or bad depend of education. He divide human nature into two group: Nature (Xin) is innate, which including Ren, righteousness, Li,wise, and trust; emotion (qing) is inspired by environment and reflection of one's inner mind, which including, happy, anger, lament, scare, love, evil, and desire. Nature is the base of emotion, and emotion is the nature's present. Li Ao(772-841) coined nature is good, but emotion are bad theory. He said "the man become holly because of his nature, while a man turn into confuse and puzzle his nature because of his emotion". "the emotion is not come from emotion, but come from nature, and the nature is not come from the nature, but because of emotion to show the nature". thus, to restore one's good nature, he must forget his emotion. and man want to be a holly man, he must be restore his nature, and forget his desire and back the way of nature life. This method of meditation is totally forget and get rid of all outside objects intervene, let himself quite in mind and soul. then he can understand the Heaven and the earth.

   

   Chen Jing (1032-1085) and Chen Yu(1033-1107) create the human nature have "Heaven fate called nature" and "life called nature" double nature theory, the former means that human nature is innate, which is the original reason reflect in human nature, and this heaven fate nature is the reason, is everyone when born with innate., it is the fundamental and best kind of nature. In human nature have Ren, righteness, Li, wise, and trust all are innate, which also are innate of heaven reason, human nature reflect the heaven reason. As to life is called nature, is from gas perspective to describe. From human nature's original source, which must be kind and good, human nature content bad and evil element, is caused by outside objective, and because of thought and worry to led it. the bad and evil is caused by emotional activity, also is the result of the gas influence, therefore we must be maintain heaven reason and get rid off human desire. Zhuxu (1130-1200) believes that the reason reflect on man is called nature, human nature content heaven reason is heaven fate nature; gas constitute human body,the human nature which mixed with the reason and gas is called gas characteristic nature. Since the reason is the best good, so the heaven fate nature are best kind, due to the gas has clear and dirty difference, so the gas characteristic nature have both good and evil, good or bad man depend on his gas is clean or dirty, through education and training, one's gas become clean again then he will turn to good and kind. Dao mind and human heart decide, by mediation on body and nourish nature can improve man's heaven fate nature and reason. Dao mind is Heaven reason, Human heart is not equal with human desire which is bad, human desire are bad, Heaven reason and human desire are conflict and can not exist at same time, thus he suggest to get rid off human desire and maintain heaven reason.Gong ZhiZhen(1792-1841) point out that human nature has no good nor bad, good or bad are caused by environment after one's born.

   

   

   In summary, Chinese thinkers and scholars thousand years ago already develop complicate theory about human nature, Mencius hold on human nature are good innate from Heaven, Sunzhi believes human nature are bad, although through education can correct and improve human nature from bad to good. Gaozhi notes that human nature are not good nor bad, all depend on environment influence. Dong Zhongshu first coins the three nature theory, which divide human nature into three group, above, middle and lower, above nature are always good, while lower nature are always bad, the middle nature can be both good and bad, rely on education and culture. Hangyu's three human nature divide "nature" from " emotion" and articulate human nature with five virtues and seven emotion. Chen Jing and Chen Yu as well as Zhuxu first divide human nature into Heaven fate nature with reason and gas nature with body. only gas nature might content bad and evil element, the heaven fate nature are reason and the reason is the best good. the Gas nature content human desire which is bad, so man should be remain Heaven reason, and get rid off human desire.

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