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·《还原蒋介石》:壮志未酬身先死
·《还原蒋介石》:列宁的对华政策
·《还原蒋介石》:中共的由来
·《还原蒋介石》:孙中山的“联俄容共”
·《还原蒋介石》:共产党篡夺国民党的领导权
·《还原蒋介石》:篡党夺权
·《还原蒋介石》:‘联俄联共,扶助农工’的骗局
·《还原蒋介石》:蒋介石领导北伐
·《还原蒋介石》:中山舰事件真相
·《还原蒋介石》:北伐雄师所向无敌
·《还原蒋介石》:中共恶意制造南京事件
·《还原蒋介石》:共产党阴谋操控反蒋运动
·《还原蒋介石》:上海三次起义
·《还原蒋介石》:汪(精卫)陈(独秀)联合宣言
·《还原蒋介石》:四一二清党真相
·《还原蒋介石》:恢复北伐
·《还原蒋介石》:宁汉政府相争
·《民族英雄蒋介石》33、汪精卫武汉政府清共
·《民族英雄蒋介石》34、南昌暴动
·《民族英雄蒋介石》35、蒋介石辞职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》36、蒋介石访日
·《民族英雄蒋介石》37、蒋(介石)宋(美玲)联姻
·《民族英雄蒋介石》38、广州暴动国民党与苏联决裂
·《民族英雄蒋介石》40、济南事件
·《民族英雄蒋介石》39、北伐第二阶段
·《民族英雄蒋介石》41、浩气长存的蔡公时
·《民族英雄蒋介石》42、忍辱负重
·《民族英雄蒋介石》43、北伐最后阶段
·《民族英雄蒋介石》44、日本关东军暗杀张作霖
·《民族英雄蒋介石》45、北伐军胜利汇师北京
·《民族英雄蒋介石》46、满洲易帜归国民政府
·《民族英雄蒋介石》47、关税自治,
·《民族英雄蒋介石》48、李宗仁及冯玉祥反叛
·《民族英雄蒋介石》49、南方战云--叛乱的瘟疫
·《民族英雄蒋介石》50 、中原大战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》51 周恩来的灭门惨案
·《民族英雄蒋介石》52、共匪红军的兴起
·《民族英雄蒋介石》53、剿共匪--攘外必先安内
·《民族英雄蒋介石》54、55、56 “九一八事变”
·《民族英雄蒋介石》57 日本侵华与国联
·《民族英雄蒋介石》58 忍辱负重
·《民族英雄蒋介石》59、上海“一二八”抗战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》60、皮肉伤与心脏病
·《民族英雄蒋介石》61儒雅绅士 基督情怀
·《民族英雄蒋介石》62、国家危机和国内政治
·《民族英雄蒋介石》63、国家团结会议,蒋介石再辞职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》64日本攻占锦州,蒋介石复职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》65、国军上海一二八抗战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》66、伪满洲国成立
·《民族英雄蒋介石》67、心慈手软
·《民族英雄蒋介石》68、福建平叛
·《民族英雄蒋介石》69、剿匪
·《民族英雄蒋介石》70、西安事变
·《民族英雄蒋介石》71、七七卢沟桥事变
·《民族英雄蒋介石》72、沪淞会战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》73、悲壮的南京保卫战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》74.南京大屠杀
·《民族英雄蒋介石》75.血战台儿庄
·《民族英雄蒋介石》76 英勇的太原保卫战
***(33)《匪首毛泽东》郭国汀编译
·《匪首毛泽东》
·《匪首毛泽东》郭国汀编译
·《匪首毛泽东》2、毛泽东滥杀政敌
·《匪首毛泽东》3、共匪滥杀无辜,十万红军将士地方党干魂飞魄散
·《匪首毛泽东》5、冷血毛泽东为权力疯狂滥杀红军将士
·《匪首毛泽东》6、毛泽东周恩来诱骗张学良发动西安事变
·《匪首毛泽东》7、受苏联指令张治中挑起八一三上海抗战
·《匪首毛泽东》8、中共假抗日真勾结日寇,狠打抗日国军
·《匪首毛泽东》9、平型关战斗和百团大战
·《匪首毛泽东》10、宛南事变:毛为争权借刀杀项英
·《匪首毛泽东》11、延安洗脑运动中共种植贩卖毒品
· 《匪首毛泽东》12、发动国共内战的罪魁是毛泽东!
·《匪首毛泽东》19.极度无知而狂妄自大的毛泽东
***中国问题研究
***(34)《论中共极权专制暴政的本质》郭国汀著
·共产党极权专制暴政的变革
·论中国共产党极权暴政的滔天罪孽
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》之二
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》中共夺取政权以前的杀人罪孽
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》中共盗国窃政后的滥杀罪孽
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》中共谋杀性大饥荒
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》毛共文革罪孽深重
·《论中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》六四天安门屠城
·《中共极权专制暴政的滔天罪孽》中共统治西藏罪孽深重
·《郭律师论中共极权流氓暴政》郭国汀著
·共产党极权暴政为争权夺利党内自相残杀的罪恶
·论推翻中共极权专制暴政的合法性
·中共政权始终是一个非法政权 郭国汀
·驳中共政权合法论 郭国汀
·中共极权暴政是严重污染毁灭中国生态环境的罪魁祸首
·论中共政权新闻控制-----2008年《巴黎中国新闻媒体控制国际研讨会》专稿
·论中共专制暴政与酷刑(全文)
·论中共专制暴政下的宗教信仰自由(英文)
·中国共产党极权专制流氓暴政的滔天罪孽
·中共政权是一个极权专制流氓暴政
·《郭国汀评论》第十九集:论中共暴政
·《郭国汀评论》第二十集:论中共暴政(下)
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ompare Analysisof Marx and Lenin’s Theory of the Dictatorship of the

Compare Analysisof Marx and Lenin’s Theory of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat

   Guoting Guo

   3/22/2013

   

   ompare Analysisof Marx and Lenin’s Theory of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat

   

   The Dictatorshipof the Proletariat is the most important theory of the Marxism and Leninism,and the most confused idea in the Communist movement, which become allcommunist regime’s constitution fundamental principle. [1]Marxbelieved the capitalist mean of production will produce large number of workersthat constitute majority of population, and class struggle between bourgeoisand workers inevitable lead to the proletariat dictatorship, with the aim toeliminate private property and establish classless society; However, he neverdiscuss the theory in detail. Lenin claims himself as the real disciple ofMarx, develops his version of the dictatorship of the proletariat, practiced inSoviet Union and other communist regimes, caused at least 100 million peoplekilled during its practice.[2]Inmy essay, I am going to compare study the theory of the dictatorship and thedictatorship proletariat of Marx and Lenin, argue that for Marx and Engel, thedictatorship of the proletariat do not means revolutionary party or its elite’sdictatorship, but workers as a class for special purpose during transitionalperiod through working class democracy, implement political rule of the workingclass; while Lenin in the name of the proletariat, claimed for despoticabsolute power, rely on force unrestrained by any law, in essence turn toparty’s dictatorship over whole society, which completely against Marx’s idea.

   I. Meaning of thedictatorship of the proletariat

   Theterm ‘dictatorship’ origin as a constitutional institution of ancient RomanRepublic that provided for an emergency exercise of power by a trusted generalfor temporary and limited purposes, with aim to defense the republic againstforeign enemy or domestic subversion.[3]In1850s the term had the same meaning as its ancient time, which was not asynonym for despotism, tyranny, absolutism, or autocracy.[4]Although Marxmentioned about six times of the dictatorship of the proletariat, he neverdefined the term and only discussed it vaguely: universal franchise applied‘inevitable outcome will be the political rule of the working class.’[5] Hesometimes uses ‘worker state’, ‘parliamentary dictatorship of the party oforder’, ‘workers political rule’, and ‘worker class dictatorship’ to change theterm of the dictatorship of the proletariat’. Engels confirmed in his 1891Introduction to The Civil War in France …what this ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’look like? Paris Commune…was The Dictatorship of the Proletariat.”[6]Lenin defined the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ as the industrial workerslead people to overthrow the capitalism,create socialist system, eliminate private property , and abolish classes,realise the communism.[7]For Lenin, the aim of it is a ‘new democracy and independent participation inthe administration of the state.’[8]The basic principle is workers and peasants and other non-proletariat alliance,overthrow the bourgeois ruling, set up the political rule of the proletariat,establish and consolidate the socialist system. The essence is under theleadership of the proletariat party as the vanguard of working people to buildsocialism, abolish classes, and remove the basis for any kind of exploitationof man by man.”[9]

   II. The organisation of the dictatorship

   Marx suggestedworkers as a class to dictatorship, but he did not clear answer the questionconcerning the organisation of the dictatorship; in 1870, Engels pointed outthe Blanqui’s dictatorship is not of the whole revolutionary proletariat class,but of just those few who launched the attacked. [10]In April 1871 in the “Civil War in France” Marx praised the commune as an‘essentially working class government’, he implies the Commune as the exampleof The Dictatorship of the Proletariat, represents ‘proletariat democracy’.Paris commune consists of universal suffrage elected councillors who functionas legislators and executives, a citizens army, elected judges, police andofficials, equal pay as workers, subject to recall at any time.[11]Engels declared ‘commune was The Dictatorship of the Proletariat’.[12]Bakunin rejected the idea of dictatorship, and asked ‘will the proletariat as awhole beat the head of the government? [13]Leninasserted the secret professional revolutionary party with strict discipline, the party soon turn the dictatorship ofproletariat into a dictatorship of the party over the proletariat andpeasantry;[14]in essence Lenin followed Blanquist rather than Marx’s idea of thedictatorship, in practice meant the dictatorship of the communist party overthe people, a small elite over the party.[15]

   III. The reason andpurpose for the dictatorship

   The purpose ofthe dictatorship as Marx explained that‘ the class dictatorship of the proletariat is the necessary transit pointalong the road to the abolition of class distinction; to the abolition of allthe revolutions of production…abolition of all the social relations that correspond to these relations ofproduction, to the revolutionizing of all the ideas that result from thesesocial relation .’[16],on 5 March 1852, In the letter to Weydemeyer, Marx remarked ‘this dictatorshipitself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to aclassless society.’ [17]as Engel claim ‘in a word, all Marx’s communism theory is to eliminate privateproperty’; to establish the fundamental economic basis of the communism have noway of agreement.

   IV. The dictatorshipis only a transitional period

   Marx in 1850 inthe Class Struggles in France 1848-1850, argued that the ruling of the workingclass ( eg. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat) was ‘a transitional period’ inthe establishment of the classless society;[18]hebelieved ‘every provisional political set-up following a revolution calls fordictatorship and an energetic dictatorship at that’.[19]Then in 1875 In the Critique of the Gotha Programme, Marx asserted: “betweencapitalist and communist society lies the period of the revolutionary transformation…the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of theproletariat”. [20]Forthe transition, Lenin said it should be ‘a state that is democratic for theproletariat and dictatorial against the bourgeoisie,”[21]and ‘a period of struggle between capitalism which defeated but not destroyedand communism which born but still very feeble.[22]SinceMarx and Engels believed only in the advanced industry state, the communistrevolution can success, the transition is only a ‘short period’ for implement thepolicy of eliminating classes and build the communism society; Lenin believewithin 10 to 20 years, Soviet Union can be successful to establish thecommunism[23].Thus, Lenin’s transitional period is ‘10 to 20 years’;[24]Chinese Communist party after failing its promise to fulfil socialismrepeatedly, declared in 2010, that China will completed her “primary stagesocialism” building, as to the communism that is ‘the great cause which needtens generation common struggle’, but China must be persist the dictatorship ofthe proletariat before set up the communism!

   V. The leadershipof the communist party for dictatorship

   Marxnever discusses the leadership of the dictatorship. During Paris Commune, afteracrimonious debating over to set up a dictatorial Committee of Public Safety,with special arbitrary powers , the proposed by the Blanquist-Jacobin Majoritywas adopted, the anti-dictatorial Minority represented all the figures who hadspecial connection with Marx walked out of the Commune.[25]Show Marx rejected Blanquist’s idea of dictatorship as party’s leadership.

   Lenin proceededthe idea of a socialist revolution must be led by an elite party. He urged thatThe Dictatorship of the Proletariat must be under the leadership of the party.Since The Dictatorship was ‘a persistent struggle, bloody and bloodless,violent and peaceful, military and economic, ’ ‘Without a party of iron thathas been tempered in the struggle’, it was impossible to wage such a strugglesuccessfully;[26]Lenin argued “whoever weakens…the iron discipline of the party of…dictatorship, actually aids the bourgeoisie against the proletariat”[27]therefore, Lenin turn the dictatorship of the proletariat into the partydictatorship over people with absolute despotism. Russian Marxism theorist Plekhanovin 1906 point out that ‘Lenin is Blanquist rather than Marxist, he show Marxistbanner while sell Blanquist idea,’[28]GermanMarxism theorist Kautsky in 1918 argued that Lenin’s ‘revolutionarydictatorship’ was far from removed from Marx’s idea of ‘The Dictatorship of theProletariat’, which not meant ‘a form of government’. [29] ‘It always led to the dictatorship of a single man, or of a small knot ofleaders. [30]Asanarchist communist Bakunin points out that such a state ‘will be nothing elsebut despotic rule over the masses by a new, numerically small aristocracy ofgenuine or sham scientist. [31]

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