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郭国汀律师专栏
·中共活割法轮功学员人体器官主调查人DADID Matas 获Tarnopolsky 2007年人权奖(英文)
***(2)郭国汀律师为法轮功强力抗辩
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·中共为何血腥镇压法轮功?
·诉江泽民案美国依据国际法的义务:是对公共安全的危胁还是种族灭绝?
·值得中国律师学习的起诉书: 诉江泽民\李岚清\罗干\刘京\王茂林损害赔偿两千万加元
·郭国汀论辩法轮功
·我为法轮功说句公道话
·陈光辉监外执行、保外就医申请书
·为争取信仰自由权已绝食抗争七百八十天的瞿延来.
·百无一用是中国律师
·答三项基本原则
·中共必须立即停止镇压法轮功
·我为什么为法轮功辩护? 郭国汀
·我为法轮功抗辩的真实心声
·法轮功真相之我见
·中共才是真正的邪教----中共血腥残暴迫害法轮功的根源
·中共镇压法轮功的国际法分析
·中共滥用教制度镇压法轮功的法理解析
·当代中国的盖世太宝[610办公室]研究(英文)
·有感于对法轮功学员的强制教育
·中共当局必须立即无条件释放刘如平律师!郭国汀
·声援支持杨在新律师!
·郭国汀章天亮曾宁谈425和平上访到千万退党的精神延续
·中共专制暴政一直在杀人----悼念讲真相英雄陈光辉
·FALUN GONG PERSECUTION FACTS HEET
·RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND FALUN GONG IN CHINA
·2
·Falun Gong Wins Motion in Historic Torture Lawsuit against Former Head of China
·为法轮功抗辩与自由中国论坛部份网民的论战
·Dr Wang Wenyi will be remembered by history as a great courage hero
·法轮功是比中共有过之无不及的一人专制吗?-答谭嗣同先生
·法轮功讲真相无罪
·郭国汀:对法轮功学员的劳教、判刑是非法行为
·郭国汀介绍为法轮功学员打官司的曲折经历
·质疑张千帆教授对法轮功的评价 郭国汀
·宣誓证词Affidavit
·中共一贯谎言连篇是个地道的骗子党!
·中共下达密文奥运成迫害最大借口
·中国著名人权律师从为法轮功辩护看中共践踏法律(图)
·郭国汀律师批评中共奧運前加劇迫害法輪功
·郭国汀律师呼吁台湾政府予吴亚林政治庇护
·郭国汀律师称中共持续非法迫害法轮功及其辩护律师
·答Gavin0919郭国汀是法轮功走狗之指控
***(3)郭国汀为法轮功辩护的专访
·专访郭国汀律师(上) :为法轮功辩护
·专访郭国汀律师(下) :回首不言悔
·RFA:郭国汀介绍为法轮功学员打官司的曲折经历
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***(三)郭国汀律师为郑恩宠抗辩
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·历史将证明郑恩宠律师无罪/郭国汀
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·上海市高级法院郑恩宠案刑事裁定书
·郑恩宠冤案再审案至全国律协诸位会长之公开函/郭国汀
·中国最需要像郑恩宠这样的律师
·诽谤郑恩宠律师的中共党奴及特务名录
·再谈郑恩宠案 郭国汀倡律师网上辩护
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·一切源于郑恩宠案,可敬的国安兄弟请自重!
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·郑恩宠案网友评论
·网友支持或反对郑恩宠的评论
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什么是自由主义?新自由主义?改革自由主义?

Thomas G.Guo

   

   最近曾节明发表了数篇抨击新自由主义及批判自由的价值的评论。其中某些论点虽有一定道理,但似乎首先应当明确“新自由主义”包括哪些具体原则,并明确指出其依据和证据。且不宜一概否定之,因为任何理论与主张皆可能存在不足,同时也有其合理内涵。在批判某一论点的同时,应当指出为其辩护的论点有哪些,供读者参考。自由是公认的最高价值观之一,“自由,平等,博爱”是法国大革命的口号,“生命,自由,追求人生幸福的权利“是美国独立宣言归纳的原则,自由有其公认的特定含义,中共暴政下党用文人滥用”新自由主义“给暴政脸上贴金而已。吾以为曾先生似乎混淆了新自由主义及改革自由主义,而且节明对自由主义的主要内容和基本原则有不切实的评论。Hayek and Nozick等人提出的是改革自由主义而非新自由主义,而且当代世界各主要自由宪政民主国家皆奉行改革自由主义。英国前首相萨切尔和美国前总统里根皆非奉行新自由主义,而是主张改革自由主义。

   

   孟德斯鸠指出:“自由是做法律所许可的一切事情的权利”,穆勒说:人是自由的,但以不伤害他人的自由为边界。法国人权宣言明确:自由即为法律所不禁止之事。因此,自由有其明确的定义。随心所欲胡作非为显然不是政治学中公认的自由概念。自由从来是法律下的自由,而该法律主要是指自然法或上帝法则。中共暴政下,决非自由太多,而是根本没有丝毫政治自由,因此批判自由主义明显不合适宜。即使要批,也必须首先明确定义的前提下为之。

   

   自由主义最初形成于十七世纪的英国。自由主义作为术语是由十九世纪的威廉哥拉斯通首创。自由主义的价值有更远久的历史,自由主义源于资本主义政治经济的堀起,由霍布斯和洛克为捍卫私有财产和个人自由首创的政治哲学。自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;古典自由主义将亚当斯密的经济理论结合斯滨赛的社会学理论,强调国家的作用应当限于确保国内外安全,并保障私有财产安全,主张消极自由,排除外部干预;其政治哲学依据则是霍布斯和洛克的社会契约,强调个人主义,保护个人权利对抗社会和国家,否认国家干预个人生活任何领域的权利。极端自由主义是无政府主义者倡导的。十九世纪末由于原始资本主义带来的普遍贫困,社会主义问世,因而自由主义与社会民主主义结合则产生了新自由主义,强调国家干预的积极自由,消除自由的障碍;1970年代Hayek andNozick等人又提出了改革自由主义.当代世界各自由宪政国家主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等(强调机会平等)、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   自由主义的理论与实践博大精深,并非口号式的公式能够解决。任何人未作深入细致研究学习,不宜作任何结论式评论。限于时间关系,仅提供吾归纳之自由主义(英文)主要论点供各位参考。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and manysocial democratic parties in Europe, has really been liberal incharacter.The liberalism associated with the socialdemocratic left, is a new or social liberalism;the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory ofHerbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedom andrewards those who work hardest. At theend of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw morepositive role of state, create greater opportunities for individuals to achievetheir goals. Through a range of socialreform measures, liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20century. 1970s a revised version of classicalliberalism emerged to challenge the new liberalism, right winggovernment, political thinker Hayek and Nozick.

   Meaningof liberalism

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products.

   Classical liberalismemphasizes the negative liberty, removeexternal constraints; new liberalismemphasizespositive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed theconsent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict. Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financialresource, ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Human nature make human beings are rational and self-interested they look afterthemselves first and have the capabilities to do so better than anyone else. Theyhave the power to choose and therefore responsible for their action.

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

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