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中國擴張,圖伯特古都遭殃

   
   
   【圖伯特/2013.05.26/中國擴張,圖伯特古都遭殃】
   
   


   台灣懸鉤子译
   
   週日泰晤士報遠東區記者麥可‧薛利登(Michael Sheridan)報導/中國計畫徹底改造圖伯特(西藏)古老的首都拉薩,建設成現代的中國城市,打算在拉薩主要的寺廟旁邊蓋一棟購物商城以及地下停車場,驚動了國際藏學研究者。
   
   拉薩傳出來的圖片與影視顯示拉薩市中心的傳統建築物已經被摧毀,有難過的僧人坐在工地中央。
   
   超過一百三十位西方學者上週簽署了一個請願書,籲請聯合國派遣獨立調查小組前往拉薩,以建立中國是否違反作為聯合國教科文組織會員之義務。
   
   聯合國教科文組織已經警告中國必須致力保存圖伯特的文化遺產。國際藏學家則呼籲該組織必須制定清楚的步驟來拯救拉薩,使它免於成為「二十一世紀的觀光城」。
   
   他們表示,中國的購物中心計畫(譯按:中文名:八廓商城)「正在摧毀無可替代、已經屹立數百年的建築物」,還說:「中國已經開始改變千年以來拉薩在圖伯特生活中扮演的角色。」
   
   這個新的大型購物中心、以及可容納1117輛汽車的地下停車場,地點在朝聖者繞祖拉康(大昭寺)轉經的帕廓廣場之東北角落。原來居住在此地的數百位商店主人、生意人、居民已經被趕走。
   
   文化批評者、藏族作家茨仁唯色在她的部落格寫道:「再也見不到從四方來到拉薩磕長頭轉輕的朝聖者,再也見不到每天點燃的千盞酥油燈的燈房。只剩下槍擊手在藏人家的屋頂上佇守,全副武裝的軍隊巡邏街道。」
   
   中國審查者很快就把她的貼文與照片移除,然而微博上已經出現了數千相關的評語。
   
   大部份的外國記者都不准前往圖伯特地區採訪,然而中國當局允許一個法國的電視拍攝小組前往,他們拍到的畫面顯示拉薩工地正在趕工興建、數十架監視攝影機以及維穩部隊經常不斷地巡邏。
   
   已經有超過一百二十位圖伯特人自焚以對中國刻意摧毀他們文化與宗教表達抗議。中國的領導人則說他們將現代化與財富帶給這一個長期以來陷入貧窮與封建主義的民族。
   
   拉薩此番大幅進行都市更新計畫,似乎是北京的發展策略一部份,用意在壓制中國官員稱之為西藏「迷信與分裂主義」的勢力。
   
   中國在1950年入侵西藏以後,以武力鎮壓了一系列的反抗,直到圖伯特精神領袖達賴喇嘛在1959年逃到印度為止。
   
   
   
   拉薩過去是遙不可及、充滿傳奇色彩的地方,但2006年世界最高、穿越封雪高原的鐵路完工後,該城已經湧入大量的中國觀光客以及外地民工,造成爆炸式的發展。它的人口從1964年的十五萬四千人大量增加,今天至少已經有五十萬人住在此城,還不包括中國駐軍的人口。
   
   2008北京奧運之前,圖伯特人民的怨恨與恐懼引發拉薩暴動,然而很快遭到中國鎮壓,許多僧人被軍警包圍封鎖在寺院之中。
   
   拉薩傳出來的照片以及學者向聯合國教科文組織請願,剛好與中國官方媒體新華社一篇興高采烈的報導時機重疊。這篇報導指出,達賴喇嘛的出生地,名為塔澤的村落,正在面臨城市化的命運。
   
   新華社報導,塔澤位在中國青海省(譯按:在中國的全名為「青海省海東區平安縣石灰窯鄉紅崖村」,中國已批准海東區「撤區設市」,平安縣「撤縣設區」,而平安縣目前正在發展「中關村高新技術產業基地」工業園區),將得到國家投入一億六千五百萬英鎊,以興建道路、住宅區、商業中心、地下水道、水塔等等。
   
   達賴喇嘛的堂外甥公保扎西向新華社表示:「城市當然好啊,在城市裏面孩子能上到好學校,看病能找到好醫院。」
   
   中國現在傳達的文宣訊息,就是從塔澤一路到拉薩,藏區正在現代化,藏人都很聽話。然而即使是連新華社似乎都顯露出中國官員對於他們否能夠贏得圖伯特民心感到懷疑。
   
   該報導引述藏學家何峰的話,他表示:「但在這過程中,對於民族傳統文化,還應當一如既往地加強保護與傳承。」
   
    CHINA has shocked Tibet scholars by building a shopping arcade and car park next to the main temple in Lhasa as part of plans to transform the ancient capital into a modern Chinese city.
   
    New photographs and video footage from Lhasa show the destruction of traditional buildings and morose monks sitting in a construction site.
   
    More than 130 scholars last week signed a petition calling on the United Nations to send an independent investigative team to find out if China is violating its obligations as a member of Unesco, the UN cultural agency.
   
   Unesco has already warned China that it must do more to preserve the heritage of Tibet. The scholars called for the agency to draw up a clear plan to save Lhasa and stop it being “turned into a 21st-century tourist town”.
   
   They said the project was “destroying irreplaceable structures that have stood for centuries” and added: “It has begun to alter the role that Lhasa has played in Tibetan life for more than a millennium.”
   
   The large shopping mall and an underground car park for 1,117 vehicles are rising at the northeast corner of the Barkhor, an open space where pilgrims process around the Jokhang temple. Hundreds of shopkeepers, traders and residents have been evicted.
   
   “No more of the pilgrims . . . who prostrate themselves from the far borders to Lhasa, no more lamp pavilions in which tens of thousands of butter lamp offerings were lit every day,” the Tibetan cultural critic Tsering Woeser wrote in her blog, “only snipers poised on the roofs of Tibetans’ homes and fully armed military sweeps.”
   
   Chinese censors rapidly removed her postings and photographs but thousands of comments had already appeared on the Weibo social network.
   
   Most foreign journalists are banned from Tibet, but a French television crew who had been given official permission filmed new building works, dozens of surveillance cameras and constant patrols by the security forces in the old city.
   
   More than 120 Tibetans have set themselves ablaze to protest against what they say is the deliberate destruction of their culture and religion. Chinese leaders say they are bringing modernisation and prosperity to a people hitherto sunk in poverty and feudalism.
   
   The radical changes in Lhasa appear to be part of a development strategy by Beijing to subdue what officials call the forces of “superstition and separatism” in Tibet.
   
   China invaded Tibet in 1950 and put down a series of rebellions until the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan spiritual leader, fled to India in 1959.
   
   Once a far-off, fabled place, Lhasa has witnessed explosive growth with an influx of Chinese tourists and migrants since the completion of the world’s highest railway across the snowy plateau in 2006. Its population has expanded from 154,000 in 1964 to at least 500,000 today, excluding the Chinese military garrison.
   
   Simmering resentment and fears among Tibetans led to rioting in Lhasa before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, but it was swiftly suppressed and thousands of monks were locked in their monasteries.
   
   The images from Lhasa and the petition coincided with a triumphant report by Xinhua, China’s state news agency, stating that even the Dalai Lama’s birthplace in the hilltop village of Taktser where his nephew, Gonpo Tashi, acts as guardian over a prayer hall, is facing urbanisation.
   
   Taktser, in the Chinese province of Qinghai, will benefit from £165m a year to be spent on roads, residential areas, commercial centres, sewage and water plants, Xinhua reported.
   
   “It’s good to live in a city, where children can attend better schools and we can enjoy better medical services,” Gonpo Tashi told the agency.
   
   The propaganda message of modernisation and obedience is consistent from Taktser all the way to Lhasa. But even Xinhua appeared to acknowledge doubts among Chinese officials about whether they can ever win Tibetan hearts and minds.
   
   
   
   It quoted a Tibet specialist, He Feng, calling for “better preservation of traditional culture during the urbanisation drive”.
   
   
   
   
   來源:http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/world_news/Asia/article1264848.ece
   
   
(2013/05/27 发表)
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