Han Institute President's Comments on Issue of Sovereignty
War, Treaties and Sovereignty
Editor's Words: We are going to introduce articles to present to you the
viewpoints from Republic of China's original graceful government, which
contributed greatly to world peace. We are in the process of seeking understanding
and justice, with real substantive compensation, with our sacred goal being
the eventual restoration of our sovereignty of mainland China. Let us hope
a better and fairer world will emerge to smooth our wounds, and may justice
and peace shine on this earth of ours.
Analysis of World War II Allies Overly Generous Concessions to the Soviet
Union without Honoring Republic of China's Contribution
Han Institute President addresses the issue of Diaoyutai sovereignty
We need to understand Cairo Conference and this conditional treaty designed
by our humane-at-heart nationalist government.
After WWII, my grandfather Jiaxin Kan went to Manchuria on an American plane
as part of a delegation of seven, to transfer the sovereignty of Manchuria
from Japan to the Republic of China.
This is because of the Cairo Conference agreement designed by legal expert
Wang Chung-hui, in concerted efforts with national officials such as my
grandfather and Dr. Jiu Jia-hua.
The Cairo Conference Outlined the Post War Plan of Restoring Sovereignty
On November 30, 1943, in the Teheran Conference, after Churchill introduced
the content of Cairo communique, Stalin told Churchill that he was completely
in agreement with the declaration and the entire content. Korea should be
independent; and Manchuria and Taiwan should return to Republic of China.
You may refer this from FRUS 1943 Cairo and Tehran page 566.
Because the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan, Stalin did not attend
the Cairo Conference, but he attended the Tehran Conference, and promised
the allies that at the end of the war with Germany, the Soviets would send
troops to fight Japan, but in exchange for Japan's northernmost four islands.
Cairo gained the total endorsement of Stalin, so Cairo was great plan prepared
by the ROC side with Dr. Wong Chung-hui, a top legal expert with a Yale
Law degree, who was the PM for the Beiyang government cabinet which won
the good name of "Good Man Cabinet". In 1927 he went to work as the first
judicial minister for the fledgling young Republic of China.
While Cairo was a success story with ROC experts attending along with Churchill
and Roosevelt, the complication is the Yalta Secret treaty, which was without
the Republic of China's attendance. The decisions at Yalta are not justified
because they were made without ROC representation.
Both Cairo and Tehran were the concerted efforts of the British and the
US, urging the Chinese and Soviets to come up with man power to fight the
war. While the Chinese Nationalists honored it with real action, the Soviets
weaseled out on the commitment, but gained grand concessions from the allies.
The Soviets did not declare war on Japan until one day after the US dropped
the first atomic bomb on Japan, yet reaped the same benefits as if they
has fought against Japan for many years, while China had fought against
Japan since 1937 on their own land.
Manchuria's history of Sovereignty dispute
On November 27, 1943, In Cairo, the allied world leaders Churchill, Roosevelt,
with Chiang Kai-shek held a legal conference in determining the future
land distribution of the WWII. The content said that Japan would surrender
the encroached land to the Republic of China.
The ROC legal representative adviser was Dr. Wang Chung-hui, Yale University
Ph.D. The returning of the land was on condition of Chinese sending troops
to assist the allies in upcoming battles. Chinese recruited more than 100,000
youth to help the governor of Burma, Mountbatten, for instance. My father
was one of the 100,000 soldiers recruited to fulfill the project called
"100K youth is 100K army; one inch mountain river is one inch blood".
ROC statesmen drafted this proposal and it was consented to by the world
leaders Roosevelt and Churchill, but without Stalin's attendance. But on
the following day, November 28, at the Tehran conference, Stalin attended
with Churchill and Roosevelt. In the conference, Russia was promised the
four northernmost Japanese islands in exchange for Soviet's assistance to
But the real truth is that after Roosevelt died, things deteriorated, and
the Soviets outmaneuvered the uninformed Truman, demanding concessions that
they claimed Roosevelt had secretly made to them at the Yalta conference.
The Soviets, without firing one shot or sending a soldier, were able to
be given Manchuria under Russia's control, as they took all the power plants,
and surrendered weapons from Japan in Manchuria, which they gave or allowed
to be taken by the Chinese Communists. My grandfather only found the skeleton
of a power plant; the equipment had all been taken away by the Soviets.
The Soviet military hindered the Nationalist troops to advance beyond the
Great Wall as supposedly the secret Yalta treaty stipulated that the Japanese
troops were to surrender to the Soviet military and not to the Chinese Nationalist
This is because the Yalta Treaty took place when Roosevelt was ill in the
last month of his life. All throughout the hard negotiations during the
ROC representatives were not present. Stalin insisted that Japan surrender
to the Soviet military in Manchuria.
When my grandfather went to Manchuria to take over along with other six
Nanjing government's special task force, he saw Japanese kneeling down on
the streets and offered up everything they owned including basins, tubs.
But factories were only empty shells, and all of the electricity in the
north of Manchuria was controlled by the Chinese Communists, there was no
light in the Nationalist-controlled downstream area. Communists spread the
rumor that Nationalists robbed Manchuria, when in fact the robbing was done
by the Chinese Communists in conjunction with the Soviets. The women all
had to shave their hair to avoid being raped by the Soviet soldiers. The
Soviets picked the best products for themselves, like the best tangerines,
and discarded the second-best. This is called the grand pillage of Manchuria
by the Soviets after the Japanese surrender. In order to illustrate to you
about Manchuria's condition, it is a parallel example to that of Czechoslovakia,
as it was first invaded by the Nazis, and next the Soviets. Manchuria was
invaded by the Russians and Japanese for centuries, and it was the war theatre
during the 1904-1905 Japan-Russia War, conducted on Chinese soil.
Nationalist Contributions in WWII
The Nationalists negotiated with the US to abolish the unequal treaties
and the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act in 1942. This was done by President Roosevelt
in thanks to the Nationalists war efforts as an ally in the war. This fulfilled
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's will to fight for an equal status for the Chinese nation,
but was only achived after much painful sacrifice on the homeland.
We carried on with several large converging wars. Perhaps by looking at
one general's efforts, Zhang Linfu, we can comprehend the battle for humanity.
Humanity love is in the Yi Jing already. This is our ethnical cultural value
which flows throughout dynasties and never dies. This is also the Republic
of China's main character and spiritual value.
We inherited this value, rather than the mainland of which is occupied by
We completed a successful but gruesome war against invader fascist Japan
We never treat lives frivolously. However we will die for justice. This
is based on Confucius' idea: Die for a just cause
General Zhan Linfu exemplified this idea when he conducted the defense battle