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郭国汀律师专栏
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·愿王洪民先生的在天之灵安息!/郭国汀
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***(51)国际人权法律与实务
(A)***国际人权公约(中英文本)
·国际人权法律资料 世界人权宣言
·国际人权法律资料 公民权利和政治权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 法国人权与公民权宣言[人权宣言]
·国际人权法律资料 美国独立宣言
·国际人权法律资料 经济 、社会 、文化权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 保护人人不受酷刑和其他残刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚宣言
·禁止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约
·联合国有关健康保健人员尤其是医护人员在保护和防止囚犯和被拘禁人员不受酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的医疗伦理原则(1982)
·国际人权法律资料 囚犯待遇最低限度标准规则
·国际人权法律资料 国际刑事法院罗马规约
·消除基于宗教或信仰原因的一切形式的不容忍和歧视宣言
·联合国囚犯最低标准待遇规则
·联合国囚犯待遇基本原则(1990年)
·联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)
·结社自由和组织权利保护公约
·联合国反腐败公约
·联合国发展权利宣言
·促进和保护普遍公认的人权和基本自由的权利和义务宣言
·中国已签国际人权公约联合国人员和有关人权安全公约
·联合国律师职责的基本原则
·联合国司法独立的基本原则(1985年)
·联合国检察官的职责准则
·世界人权公约英文版Universal Declaration of Human Rights
·犯罪及权力滥用受害者恢复正义基本原则
·国际刑事法院规约(1998)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)规约
·起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
·国际人权法律资料 取缔教育歧视公约
·关于就业及职业歧视的公约
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
·联合国防止和惩罚种族灭绝罪的公约(1951)
·联合国有关难民身份的国际公约1954
·儿童权利国际公约1990
·起诉和惩罚欧洲轴心国主要战争罪犯的国际军事法庭协议(纽伦堡宪章)
***区域性国际人权法律文件
·1996年欧洲反破坏性异端决议及其邪教定义
·非洲人权和人民权利公约(1981)
·美洲人的权利与义务宣言(1948)
·美洲人权公约(1969)
·美洲防止和禁罚酷刑的公约
·防止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的欧洲公约1989
·欧洲保护人权和基本自由公约(1950)
·欧洲社会宪章1961
·建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990
(B)***美国人权法律文件
·美国1620年“五月花号”公约(The Mayflower Compact)
·美国1786年弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令
·美国1776年弗吉尼亚权利法案
·美国1862年解放黑奴宣言
·美国1777年邦联条款
·美国1776年维吉尼亚权利法案
(C)***英国人权法律文件
·英国1998年人权法案
·英国1676年人身保护令
·英国1689年权利法案
·英国1628年权利请愿书
·英国1215年自由大宪章
***(52)郭国汀论法官与律师
·悼念前最高法院大法官冯立奇教授逝世四周年
·法官律师与政党 郭国汀
·尊敬的法官大人你值得尊敬吗?!
·郭国汀与中国律师网友论法官
·法官的良心与良知/南郭
·法官!这是我法律生涯的终极目标! 郭国汀
·律师与法官之间究竟应如何摆正关系?
·从 “中国律师人”说开去
·唯有科班出身者才能当律师?!答王靓华高论/南郭
·律师的责任——再答李洪东/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/南郭
·我为北京16位律师喝彩!郭国汀
·郭国汀律师与网上警官的交锋
·我是中国律师我怕谁?!
·郭国汀 好律师与称职的律师
·温柔抗议对郭律师的ID第二次查封
·第五次强烈抗议中国律师网无理非法封杀郭律师的IP
·中国律师网为何封杀中国律师?
·中律网封杀删除最受网友们欢迎的郭国汀律师
·最受欢迎的写手却被中共彻底封杀
·我为何暂时告别中国律师网?
·南郭:律师的文学功底
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郭国汀:苏共政权垮台的根本原因

苏共政权垮台的根本原因

   

   郭国汀

   

   

   What reasons cause the communist regime collapse?

   

   

   Guoting Guo

   

   Russiancommunist regime was demised in the end of 1991 after Eastern Europeancommunist regimes finished years ago, which is out of almost all western andeastern politicians and scholars’ expectation. There are number of books andarticles debated and argued various reasons and causes led the communist empirecollapse. Since Chinese communist regime is a copy of Soviet regime and Chineseleaders always claim that ‘the soviet union’s yesterday is out’s today’. Manypeople wonder why Chinese communist regime continue survive and seems boomingin economy while Soviet Union totally collapses. Does soviet regime’s collapseis unavoidable or simply by some error made by its leader? Does Chinese regimerevive the communist regime? Even professor Fransis Fukuyama doubtsthat “Whetherthe Chinese model might be increasingly attractive, does this means thatcommunism could be resurrected?”[1] Professorof political science Holmes also said that communism mighthave some positivity elements; we should seriously treat the theory andpractice of the communism.[2]Myargument is that communist regime will collapses no matter how expression andachievement it will make, it is only a matter of whether peaceful or bloody wayand sooner or later to end of the evil and criminal regime.

   

   

   I

   

   Harvard

   University Professor of history

   Richard Pipes pointed out that soviet unioncommunist regime collapse reasons are economic failure, citizens contact greatdeal foreign information, the war in Afghanistan failure, could not able tomaintain the competition of weapons and equipment, could not able to suppressthe dissidents movement, Poland’s united worker association’s influence, ledleaders lose confidence and president Reagan challenge further made sovietgovernment lost its fighting will. Each these reason has some affection, but ifit is a health institution. They are not able to make a great empire suddenlycollapse; they work because the institution itself had rotten beyond rescue.Marxism as the basic theory of communism ,carry oncause it collapse, it is an unrealistic physiology base on wrongly historicphilosophy. [3]thesecond seriously error of Marxism is the notion of the human nature couldunlimited alienable, which assert that by forcing education measure couldeliminate human being’s greedy, it is far from the greatest original sin, suchas vanity,conceit, pride,ambition,deceitfulness,hypocrisy etc. Richard further assert that communism definitely failure for atleast two reasons: in order forced its main aim-equality, it had to create aforced institution, which demand privileges, then damage the equality; whileloyalty to nationality and territory conflict to the loyalty to class, inanywhere and at any time, the formal always overpass the later. Therefore heconcluded that communist as a wrong theory, a fake science turn into a fakereligion and plant in an unreliable institution, which had proved that it couldnot get rid of the error notion and rely on the mistake notion set up the errorregime and have to collapse.[4]

   

   There isquite common view that it is Gorbachev glasnost (that ispenness) and democratic socialism policy which mainly causes the demise of thecommunist regime in both western and eastern world.

   

   Peter,Our text book the author, pointed out that It is safe to say that had Gorbachevnot emerged victorious in the power struggle, or had he been a differentperson, the fate of the Soviet Union would have been different.[5]Conservative American commentators that it was Reagan’s military build-up thatforced the Soviet Union into bankruptcy drove home the conclusion to the newleaders that they would never catch up with the American and that as aconsequence Reagan’s politics were primarily responsible for the collapse ofthe SU.[6]Reagan did not but the communists defeated themselves.

   

   Professorpolitical science Holmes observed that the character of Gorbachev and hisreform and democratic policy cause the collapse of the communist party regimeof Soviet Union. Formal British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher remarked thatshe can do business with Gorbachev.

   

   

   SomeRussian scholars who visited or invited by Chinese government declared it isGorbachev who should responsible for the collapse of the empire. Л.С.Leyinova declares that competition between Gorbachevand Jelsin for power is a reason which causes the collapse of the Soviet Union.[7]“Gorbachev’s openness, democratization, reveal the dark side of the part,become the destroy country’s weapon.” Reirikov, a soviet scholar in aconference in Beijing said, he also claim that main reason is Gorbachev betraythe party and people.[8]American Professor of economy David inQinghua university make a speech: Collapse of the Soviet Union neither provesthe failure of socialism nor proves the advantage of the capitalism. It onlyproves that when soviet institution turn an agricultural society toindustrialization, it is better than capitalism, which has speeding and morefairness.[9]

   

   Many Chinese scholars claimed the similar opinionas above Russian and USA scholars, however, because they are under dictatorshipregime’s heavy surveillance which makes them either becomes fake scholar orsimply give party lip service exchange for their personal benefits. Forexample:

   

   A Chinese scholar remarks that Gorbachev denyStalin and Lenin, socialism, Soviet Union’s history, party’s leadership,finally cause the demise of the party.[10] Chen Zhihua, a Chinese scholar said.“Gorbachev’s new thinking, democratization, openness, in nature is anti-Marxismand Leninism, deny socialism. During the demise of soviet communism, variousanti-communism propaganda, he is the general director. He further claim that“Gorbachev betrays Marxism and Leninism, his reform and democratic socialism,openness, multiparty, privatization, denies soviet history, is the fundamentalreason of the demise of the soviet union and party.”[11]However,it is said that Gorbachev in a conference in the capital city Ankara of Turkeyremarks that “my life purpose is eliminating the communism” and “my aim of lifehas fulfil”. Mr. Wang Chengci whois the director of China social science institution said that “collapse of theSoviet Union is because of Gorbachev’s error new thinking reform and loseparty’s

   capacity of executive

   is the most important reason”.[12]

   Deputy dean of the Chinese Social ScienceInstitution (Marxism Study ) also claim that “Soviet party’s demise realthought root is betray the Marxism, so-called democratic democracy, amendconstitution, give up party’s leadership position and the ideology of Marxism.[13]“Decisive element is Russian communist party rotten, its demise fundamentalreason is not Stalin’s style but Gorbachev’s betray Marxism and Leninism aswell the basic interests of the people.[14]Chen Zhihua argued.

   “The failure ofRussian communist party is begin from the area of thought; Gorbachev supportedideology of multi-ideology, led disorder of thought of the party which open thedoor of Western thought.[15]hishumanly democratic socialism, democratization, and openness, in fact is userobber’s way to destroy socialism. The party give up the control of thought,hand out the culture, western though internet CNN and Hollywood media tool,export the idea of freedom, democracy, causes Russian people change theirnotion, led down the bases of thought.”A scholar name Maco even blame like this ridicule way.

   

   Above scholarsvarious comments the most believable one is Harvard university professorRichard’s argument which stress that “the roots of collapse of the communism islie on the basic theory of the communism which is Marxism”.

   I quite agree with his arguments.

   

   As regard to Peter’sargument that it is Gorbachev personality and who decide the fate of the SovietUnion sound reasonable, In 1987 and 1988 thousands of groupscame into being. The appearance of these associations changed the face ofSoviet society.[16]Gradually glasnost turns into freedom of speech. Intellectuals become courage,and the taboos fell one after another, creating a sense of excitement. [17] But this argument isnot acceptable without challenge, for had the regime is health and amendable,the openness and democratic policy could never bring such result. For truth candefeat mistake on free market of thought, and could bear any debate, only faketruth have to rely on violence support in closed society. In opened societyfreedom and justice always will do, while in closed society usually who hold onviolence will win. Human history is evolution from barbarous to civilization,the way to obtain political power is competed from violence to free andfairness election.

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