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郭国汀律师专栏
·儿童权利国际公约1990
·起诉和惩罚欧洲轴心国主要战争罪犯的国际军事法庭协议(纽伦堡宪章)
***区域性国际人权法律文件
·1996年欧洲反破坏性异端决议及其邪教定义
·非洲人权和人民权利公约(1981)
·美洲人的权利与义务宣言(1948)
·美洲人权公约(1969)
·美洲防止和禁罚酷刑的公约
·防止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的欧洲公约1989
·欧洲保护人权和基本自由公约(1950)
·欧洲社会宪章1961
·建设新欧洲的巴黎宪章1990
(B)***美国人权法律文件
·美国1620年“五月花号”公约(The Mayflower Compact)
·美国1786年弗吉尼亚宗教自由法令
·美国1776年弗吉尼亚权利法案
·美国1862年解放黑奴宣言
·美国1777年邦联条款
·美国1776年维吉尼亚权利法案
(C)***英国人权法律文件
·英国1998年人权法案
·英国1676年人身保护令
·英国1689年权利法案
·英国1628年权利请愿书
·英国1215年自由大宪章
***(52)郭国汀论法官与律师
·悼念前最高法院大法官冯立奇教授逝世四周年
·法官律师与政党 郭国汀
·尊敬的法官大人你值得尊敬吗?!
·郭国汀与中国律师网友论法官
·法官的良心与良知/南郭
·法官!这是我法律生涯的终极目标! 郭国汀
·律师与法官之间究竟应如何摆正关系?
·从 “中国律师人”说开去
·唯有科班出身者才能当律师?!答王靓华高论/南郭
·律师的责任——再答李洪东/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/南郭
·我为北京16位律师喝彩!郭国汀
·郭国汀律师与网上警官的交锋
·我是中国律师我怕谁?!
·郭国汀 好律师与称职的律师
·温柔抗议对郭律师的ID第二次查封
·第五次强烈抗议中国律师网无理非法封杀郭律师的IP
·中国律师网为何封杀中国律师?
·中律网封杀删除最受网友们欢迎的郭国汀律师
·最受欢迎的写手却被中共彻底封杀
·我为何暂时告别中国律师网?
·南郭:律师的文学功底
·中国最需要什么样的律师?
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!
·将律师协会办成真正的民间自治组织
·强烈挽留郭国汀律师/小C
·the open letter to Mr.Hu Jintao from Lawyers' Rights Watch Canada for Gao Zhisheng
·自宫与被阉割的中国律师网 /南郭
·做律师首先应当做个堂堂正正的人——南郭与王靓华的论战/南郭
·呵!吉大,我心中永远的痛!
·再答小C君/南郭
·凡跟郭国汀贴者一律入选黑名单!
·历史不容患改!历史专家不敢当,吾喜读中国历史是实
·思想自由的益处答迷风先生
·答迷风先生
·答经纬仪之民族败类之指责,汝不妨教教吾辈汝之哲学呀?
·南郭曾是"天才"但一夜之间被厄杀成蠢才,如今不过是个笨蛋耳!
·答时代精英,
·长歌独行至郭国汀律师公开函
***(53)大学生\知识分子与爱国愤青研究
·春寒料峭,公民兀立(南郭强烈推荐大中学生及留学生和所有关心中国前途的国人精读)
·大中学生及留学生必读:胡锦涛崇尚的古巴政治是什么玩意?!
·是否应彻底否定中华传统文
·向留学生及大中学生推荐一篇好文
·向留学生大学生强烈推荐杰作驳中共政权威权化的谬论
·强烈谴责中共党控教育祸国殃民的罪孽!--闻贺卫方教授失业有感
·學術腐敗是一個國家腐敗病入膏肓的明證
·中共专制暴政长期推行党化奴化教育罪孽深重
·教育国民化、私有化而非政治化党化是改革教育最佳途径之一
·论当代中国大学生和爱国愤青的未来
·给中国大学生留学生及爱国愤青们开书单
·中国知识分子死了!
·强烈推荐大学生与爱国愤青必读最佳论文
·敬请爱国愤青们关注爱国民族英雄郑贻春教授
·敬请海内外爱国愤青兄弟姐妹们关注爱国留学生英雄清水君
·敬请海内外爱国愤青们关注爱国留学生英雄冯正虎
·爱国愤青主要是因为无知
***(54)《郭国汀妙语妙言》郭国汀著
***随笔\散文
·中华文化精华杂谈
·儒家文明导至中国人残忍?!
·儒家不是中共极权专制暴政的根源
·商业文明决定自由宪政民主体制
·关于儒学与中华传统文化之争
·孔子的哲学识见等于零且其思想落后反动?!
·中华文化精华杂谈
·中国人民代表大会体制纯属欺骗国人的摆设
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郭国汀:苏共政权垮台的根本原因

苏共政权垮台的根本原因

   

   郭国汀

   

   

   What reasons cause the communist regime collapse?

   

   

   Guoting Guo

   

   Russiancommunist regime was demised in the end of 1991 after Eastern Europeancommunist regimes finished years ago, which is out of almost all western andeastern politicians and scholars’ expectation. There are number of books andarticles debated and argued various reasons and causes led the communist empirecollapse. Since Chinese communist regime is a copy of Soviet regime and Chineseleaders always claim that ‘the soviet union’s yesterday is out’s today’. Manypeople wonder why Chinese communist regime continue survive and seems boomingin economy while Soviet Union totally collapses. Does soviet regime’s collapseis unavoidable or simply by some error made by its leader? Does Chinese regimerevive the communist regime? Even professor Fransis Fukuyama doubtsthat “Whetherthe Chinese model might be increasingly attractive, does this means thatcommunism could be resurrected?”[1] Professorof political science Holmes also said that communism mighthave some positivity elements; we should seriously treat the theory andpractice of the communism.[2]Myargument is that communist regime will collapses no matter how expression andachievement it will make, it is only a matter of whether peaceful or bloody wayand sooner or later to end of the evil and criminal regime.

   

   

   I

   

   Harvard

   University Professor of history

   Richard Pipes pointed out that soviet unioncommunist regime collapse reasons are economic failure, citizens contact greatdeal foreign information, the war in Afghanistan failure, could not able tomaintain the competition of weapons and equipment, could not able to suppressthe dissidents movement, Poland’s united worker association’s influence, ledleaders lose confidence and president Reagan challenge further made sovietgovernment lost its fighting will. Each these reason has some affection, but ifit is a health institution. They are not able to make a great empire suddenlycollapse; they work because the institution itself had rotten beyond rescue.Marxism as the basic theory of communism ,carry oncause it collapse, it is an unrealistic physiology base on wrongly historicphilosophy. [3]thesecond seriously error of Marxism is the notion of the human nature couldunlimited alienable, which assert that by forcing education measure couldeliminate human being’s greedy, it is far from the greatest original sin, suchas vanity,conceit, pride,ambition,deceitfulness,hypocrisy etc. Richard further assert that communism definitely failure for atleast two reasons: in order forced its main aim-equality, it had to create aforced institution, which demand privileges, then damage the equality; whileloyalty to nationality and territory conflict to the loyalty to class, inanywhere and at any time, the formal always overpass the later. Therefore heconcluded that communist as a wrong theory, a fake science turn into a fakereligion and plant in an unreliable institution, which had proved that it couldnot get rid of the error notion and rely on the mistake notion set up the errorregime and have to collapse.[4]

   

   There isquite common view that it is Gorbachev glasnost (that ispenness) and democratic socialism policy which mainly causes the demise of thecommunist regime in both western and eastern world.

   

   Peter,Our text book the author, pointed out that It is safe to say that had Gorbachevnot emerged victorious in the power struggle, or had he been a differentperson, the fate of the Soviet Union would have been different.[5]Conservative American commentators that it was Reagan’s military build-up thatforced the Soviet Union into bankruptcy drove home the conclusion to the newleaders that they would never catch up with the American and that as aconsequence Reagan’s politics were primarily responsible for the collapse ofthe SU.[6]Reagan did not but the communists defeated themselves.

   

   Professorpolitical science Holmes observed that the character of Gorbachev and hisreform and democratic policy cause the collapse of the communist party regimeof Soviet Union. Formal British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher remarked thatshe can do business with Gorbachev.

   

   

   SomeRussian scholars who visited or invited by Chinese government declared it isGorbachev who should responsible for the collapse of the empire. Л.С.Leyinova declares that competition between Gorbachevand Jelsin for power is a reason which causes the collapse of the Soviet Union.[7]“Gorbachev’s openness, democratization, reveal the dark side of the part,become the destroy country’s weapon.” Reirikov, a soviet scholar in aconference in Beijing said, he also claim that main reason is Gorbachev betraythe party and people.[8]American Professor of economy David inQinghua university make a speech: Collapse of the Soviet Union neither provesthe failure of socialism nor proves the advantage of the capitalism. It onlyproves that when soviet institution turn an agricultural society toindustrialization, it is better than capitalism, which has speeding and morefairness.[9]

   

   Many Chinese scholars claimed the similar opinionas above Russian and USA scholars, however, because they are under dictatorshipregime’s heavy surveillance which makes them either becomes fake scholar orsimply give party lip service exchange for their personal benefits. Forexample:

   

   A Chinese scholar remarks that Gorbachev denyStalin and Lenin, socialism, Soviet Union’s history, party’s leadership,finally cause the demise of the party.[10] Chen Zhihua, a Chinese scholar said.“Gorbachev’s new thinking, democratization, openness, in nature is anti-Marxismand Leninism, deny socialism. During the demise of soviet communism, variousanti-communism propaganda, he is the general director. He further claim that“Gorbachev betrays Marxism and Leninism, his reform and democratic socialism,openness, multiparty, privatization, denies soviet history, is the fundamentalreason of the demise of the soviet union and party.”[11]However,it is said that Gorbachev in a conference in the capital city Ankara of Turkeyremarks that “my life purpose is eliminating the communism” and “my aim of lifehas fulfil”. Mr. Wang Chengci whois the director of China social science institution said that “collapse of theSoviet Union is because of Gorbachev’s error new thinking reform and loseparty’s

   capacity of executive

   is the most important reason”.[12]

   Deputy dean of the Chinese Social ScienceInstitution (Marxism Study ) also claim that “Soviet party’s demise realthought root is betray the Marxism, so-called democratic democracy, amendconstitution, give up party’s leadership position and the ideology of Marxism.[13]“Decisive element is Russian communist party rotten, its demise fundamentalreason is not Stalin’s style but Gorbachev’s betray Marxism and Leninism aswell the basic interests of the people.[14]Chen Zhihua argued.

   “The failure ofRussian communist party is begin from the area of thought; Gorbachev supportedideology of multi-ideology, led disorder of thought of the party which open thedoor of Western thought.[15]hishumanly democratic socialism, democratization, and openness, in fact is userobber’s way to destroy socialism. The party give up the control of thought,hand out the culture, western though internet CNN and Hollywood media tool,export the idea of freedom, democracy, causes Russian people change theirnotion, led down the bases of thought.”A scholar name Maco even blame like this ridicule way.

   

   Above scholarsvarious comments the most believable one is Harvard university professorRichard’s argument which stress that “the roots of collapse of the communism islie on the basic theory of the communism which is Marxism”.

   I quite agree with his arguments.

   

   As regard to Peter’sargument that it is Gorbachev personality and who decide the fate of the SovietUnion sound reasonable, In 1987 and 1988 thousands of groupscame into being. The appearance of these associations changed the face ofSoviet society.[16]Gradually glasnost turns into freedom of speech. Intellectuals become courage,and the taboos fell one after another, creating a sense of excitement. [17] But this argument isnot acceptable without challenge, for had the regime is health and amendable,the openness and democratic policy could never bring such result. For truth candefeat mistake on free market of thought, and could bear any debate, only faketruth have to rely on violence support in closed society. In opened societyfreedom and justice always will do, while in closed society usually who hold onviolence will win. Human history is evolution from barbarous to civilization,the way to obtain political power is competed from violence to free andfairness election.

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