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·货代违约造成贸易合同毁约应向谁索赔损失?
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·2002年国际船舶保险条款
·Peter . Liu劳动争议初步法律意见/郭国汀
·船舶保险合同(保证条款)争议案析/郭国汀
·自有集装箱被占用案初步法律意见/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·析一起签发放行记名提单再审争议案/郭国汀
·上海亚太国际集装箱储运有限公司诉天津海峡货运有限公司上海分公司海上货物运输合同货物被盗损失代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·海上保险合同争议起诉状/郭国汀
·民事答辩反诉状
·关于应当如何理解《INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES (A)》中“一切险”责任范围的咨询复函/郭国汀
·海运运费及代理费问题的解答/郭国汀
·美亚保险公司上海分公司诉BDP亚洲太平洋有限公司海上货运合同货损争议代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·货代违约造成贸易合同无效怎么办?郭国汀
·捷运通有限公司诉东方集团上海市对外贸易有限公司海上货运合同争议案析/郭国汀
·平安保险公司代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·记名提单若干法律问题上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·乐清外贸公司与长荣航运公司海上货物运输合同争议案初步法律意见书/郭国汀
·新世纪轮船舶保险合同争议上诉代理词
·“富江7号”轮沉船保险合同争议案析/郭国汀
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决 郭国汀
·请教郭国汀律师有关留置权问题
·新加坡捷富意运通有限公司诉上海中波国际贸易有限公司运费争议案析/郭国汀
·中国海关实际运作的宣誓证言/郭国汀
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀译
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀 译(下)
***郭国汀律师专译著
***(1)《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 郭国汀校
·寄语中国青少年——序《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》
·《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》译后记
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第二编 海上货物保险格式
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第三编 海上船舶格式保险单
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第五编 为各利益方的保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第六编 战争和罢工险格式
***(2)英国协会保险货物保险条款英中对译
·1934年1月1日协会更换保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物保险(B)和(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年8月1日协会恶意损害保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年9月5日协会商品贸易(A)(B)(C)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会黄麻保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冻肉保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年10月1日协会煤炭保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会天然橡胶(液态胶乳除外)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险A条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会运费定期战争和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1983年2月1日协会散装油类保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年12月1日协会盗窃、偷窃和提货不着保险条款(仅用于协会保险条款)/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日国际肉类贸易协会冻肉展期保险条款(仅适用于协会冻肉保险(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1986年4月1日协会木材贸易联合会条款(与木材贸易联合会达成的协议)/郭国汀译
***(3)英国协会保险船舶条款英中对译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船舶港口险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1988年6月1日协会造船厂的风险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶乘客设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损和3/4碰撞责任航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会机器损害附加免赔额保险条款/郭国汀译
·1985年11月1日协会游艇保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船壳定期保赔保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日附加免赔额适应条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶限制危险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1996年1月1日协会运费共同海损-污染费用保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年1月1日协会集装箱定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会渔船保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶搬移另件保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶附加危险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损、3/4碰撞责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增加价值(全损险,包括额外责任)定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶租赁设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1997年3月1日协会船舶抵押权人利益保险条款/郭国汀译
***(4)英国协会保险运费、战争、罢工险保险条款英中对译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增值定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·The Practice of Marine Insurance: Marine Insurance Policy Forms
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
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   SocratessaysThis is not the definition of justice, to speak thetruth, and to give back whatever one has received.’(I 330b) Polemarchos says ‘gives back benefits to friends and hurts to enemies’.(I.331e)He interpret the dictum as meaningthat one should benefit one’s friends and harmone’s enemy: the merit or desert concept of justice: return good for good and evil for evil: that iswhat is due. Thrasymachos says ‘Ideclare justice is nothing but the advantage of thestronger’.(I.337c) a similarpoint more elaborated made by Callicles inthe Gorgias, he argues that nature justice is theright of the strongman and the legal justice is merely the barrier which themultitude of weaklings puts up to save itself.[29]

   

   In AncientGreeks, expressions of practical wisdom in the poets cited asauthoritative; in Oresteia: we learn by suffering;what you do shall be done to you; in one of thepoets: justice is ‘randering to everyman hisdue’. Which become definition of justice in Roman Law; Justice is rendering to each man what is his (whatbelongs to him, is due to him).

   

   Plato defined justiceas “giving to every men his due”. Forwhat is the due to him, is that he should be treated as what he is, in thelight of his capacities and his training, while what is due from him is thehonest performance of those tasks which the place accorded him requires[30].Platoargued that The Guardians need the virtue of Wisdom to carry out soundly theirfunction of governing; the auxiliaries needthe virtue of courage for the specificfunction of maintaining security and order; all three classes need the virtue of temperance to accept their experienceroles; the virtues of justice is the balance or harmony of each class performing its proper role. [31] Platoasserted that The just city must reduce the opportunity for selfish errors. Sorulers not allow have any private property, wife, children. Just means doingfor common, not individual, advantage, those most devoted to the common goodare most worthy of respect.[32] InGorgias, Plato’s theory of justice observed that ‘ naturehimself intimates that it is just for the better to have more than the worse,the stronger than the weaker, and in many way she shows that among man as wellas among animals justice consists in the superior ruling over and having morethan the inferior’. [33] Plato was not considering any altruistic virtue such as kindness,sympathy, benevolence, generosity, but only what natural indicates to bethe essential condition of successful association. In laws, Plato to the notion of justice ‘gives to the greatermore, and to the inferior less, and in proportion to the nature of each;greater honor always to the greater virtue, and to the less less; and to eitherin proportion to their respective measure of virtue and eduction, and this isjustice. [34]Blitz commentson Plato that Honesty might lead to bad results; justice depends on knowingwhat is good. To procure any good one would prefer an expert to a just man,justice seems useless. Honesty, law-abidingness, good character, morality, in aword, justice is seeing or doing what is good as awhole; [35]becausejustice is the heart of a good political community,to explore it is to explore the merits of different forms of government.The justice of the whole is that each minds or does only his own job. The bestpolitical community is the just one, where each, and especially the rulers,enjoys the virtue or combinations of virtues, the moderation, courage, andwisdom, to act well. [36]

   

   Aristotle terselydefined justice as ‘that virtue of the soul which is distributive according todesert’. He declared that

   “politicalscience is the most excellent of all the arts and sciences, and the end soughtfor in political science is the greater good for men,which is justice, for justice is the interest of all.” He said that justice in treatingequals equally and unequal unequally, but in proportion to their relevantdifferences. One more familiar quotation on this theme by Aristotle: “God, then, as the old stonyhas it, holding the beginning and the end and the middle of all things thatexist, Proceeding by a straight path in the course of nature, brings them toaccomplishment; with him ever follow justice, the avenger of all that fallshort of the divine law-justice, in whom may he that is to be happy be from thefirst a blessed and happy partaker.[37] The essence of law is justice, which all existinglaws should endeavour to embody as perfectly as possible ,‘ justice is the most excellent of virtues… more gloriousthan either the evening or Moring star.’ Aristotle said in Ethics BookV.Since Aristotle time, that justice involves suppression of the arbitrarydestination. ‘ the core of justice I talk to be the exclusion of arbitrages.’[38]

   

   Right-wing political parties tent tostress the merit conception, while left-wingpolitical parties stress the equality conception. Aristotle gave a (weak) argument forrejecting the equalitarian conception ofdistributive justice. John Rawlsingenious argument for acceptation equality needsconception and has added a less impressive argument for rejecting the merit conception[39].

   

   Glauconregardsthe system of law and government as the result of social contract made in orderto avoid the worse alternative of being oppressed by tyrannical regime. Heasserts ‘all man believe in their hearts that injustice is far more profitableto the individual than justice. [40]The injustice man has a reputation for justice. For if a man is merely just butnot also thought just, he gain nothing. Man have historically praised justiceand condemned injustice only because of their consequences.[41] Glaucon says I know ‘most people thinkjustice is and whence it comes; all who practise it practise unwillingly, as anecessary thing but not

   as a good; forthe life of the unjust is much better than the life of the just.’(II.357a) ‘Ihave never heard any account of justice such as I want to show it is betterthan injustice’.(II.357b) ‘to be unjust is good, and to suffer injustice isbad, and the excess of evil in suffering injustice is greater than the excessof good in being unjust;’.(II.357b) ‘down to present generation of men, not oneof you has ever praised justice or dispraised injustice except in terms of thereputations and honours and gifts which come from them.’(II.366a) ‘ no one hasshown that injustice is the worst evil that the soul has in itself, and justicethe greatest good.’(II.366b)

   

   Epicureans and Sophists,with theory of the nature of virtue, maintained that justicewas merely a name for such convention among men as they should adjudgebest for their own utility and happiness.[42] Thisis the earliest social contract. Greekphilosopher Carneades ( 2 B.C.) argued that the orthodox view of justice,assumed and demonstrate that justice was not avirtue at all, as virtue was defined by the philosophers, but was merely a convention; was what men shouldagree to be a sound basis for the maintain of civil society, and hence that it varied with times places, circumstances and even opinions.[43]Sophists put it morality is man-made convention. The result of separating the‘ought’ from the ‘is’.

   

   Chrysippus who excelledin logic, the theory of knowledge, ethic, and physics said: you cannot find any other beginning of justice than thatfrom Zeus and from common nature; for from this source all such must have itsbeginning, if we are to take any ground on boons and evils. [44]

   

   The famous passage from Hesiod:

   “ the better path to go by on the other side towards Justice; forJustice beats outrage when she comes at length to the end of the race. But onlywhen he has suffered, does the fool learn this. For oath keeps pace with wrongjudgement. There is noise when justice is being dragged in the way where thosewho devour bribes and give sentence with crooked judgements take...they whogive straight judgements to strangers and to the man of the land, and thepeople prosper in it... neither famine nor disasterever haunt men who do true justice; but light heartedly they tend thefields which are all their care[45].

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