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郭国汀律师专栏
***(四)香港联中公司与厦门国际贸易信托投资公司国际贸易争议再审案
·司法腐败的典型案例
·最高法院无理拖宕九年拒不下判再审案代理词
·反了你!竟敢不尊敬我大法官!
·就十五载官司致最高法院法官的公开函
·中国法官如何让吾尊敬/南郭
·最高法院的院长们为何威胁郭国汀律师?
***(五)涉外亿元合同诈骗案
·涉港“亿元”合同诈骗案之辩护词/郭国汀
·惊心动魄的辩护
·涉外亿元诈骗案致有关负责人的公开函
·致福建省委、省政府各位领导及福州市委、市府各位负责人的公开信
·关于本司与福州市粮油公司贸易纠纷案及因此而被无辜拘留、逮捕者至福州市、福建省、中国政府、公安、检察各部门负责人公开函:
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市市长函
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记函
·关于亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记的函
·亿元合同诈骗案至中央政法委书记紧急呼吁函
·福州市公安局插手涉港经济纠纷造成海内外不良影响事
·亿元合同诈骗案郭国汀律师与龚雄副市长会谈备忘录
***(59)(五)郭国汀律师名案劲辩
***(1)政治良心案
·力虹(张建红)煽动颠覆国家政权案的咄咄怪事
·郭国汀力虹被中共无罪重判的真实原因
·评论严正责令胡锦涛立即无条件释放朱宇飙律师!
·简析严正学所谓颠覆国家政权案
·严正学所谓[涉嫌颠覆国家政权案]必须公开审判
·强烈谴责胡锦涛公然践踏法律任意拘禁人律师的恶劣行径
·东洲惨案发生的根源——呼吁由联合国组织调查团进行公正调查/郭国汀
·评吴爱中张惠刘兰(法轮功讲真相)案的两审判决
·郑恩宠律师“为境外非法提供国家秘密罪”辩护词
·律师关于郑恩宠案的二审辩护词
·郑恩宠非法为境外提供国家秘密罪刑事申诉状
·郭国汀:我为什么为清水君辩护
·作家张林又被刑事拘留!
·声援支持杨天水和张林
·杨天水是令人敬佩的民主战士
·辩护律师郭国汀获准会见杨天水
·坚决支持李国涛先生的义举,反对极权专制独裁政治!
·师涛是当代中国英雄——
·六四与师涛
·师涛为中国记者受难为自由民主坐牢
·郭国汀指雅虎遵守当地法律说无法律根据
·辩护律师郭国汀获准会见师涛
·长沙国安局无理拒绝辩护律师会见师涛
·答mironet质疑何谓真正的中国人权律师?
·向刘晓波,余杰先生学习,致敬!
·当一名律师无辜失去自由时——无题
***(2)民告官---行政诉讼案强制拆迁案
·国家赔偿行政诉讼案代理词
·政府欺诈何时休?!评一起政府参与非法强制拆迁案
·关于苏州市丽人服饰有限公司被非法强制拆迁案的法律分析意见
·苏州“历史文化街区”拆迁案代理词
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出<房屋拆迁许可证>行政诉讼争议案
·关于苏州市丽人服饰有限公司被非法强制拆迁案的法律分析意见
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出<房屋拆迁许可证>行政诉讼争议案代理词
·烟台「历史文化街区」拆迁案代理词
·社会公共利益与强制拆迁
·身残志坚受苦遭难的马亚莲二次劳教案:行政复议申请书/郭国汀
·马亚莲案代理词
·马亚莲因强迁上访两次劳教争议案行政上诉状
·上海黄浦区法院第三次变相密秘审判马亚莲二次劳教行政诉讼案/郭国汀
·苏州历史文化街区拆迁争议案上诉状
·苏州 “历史文化街区”拆迁争议上诉案代理词
·苏州“历史文化街区”拆迁案代理词
·敬请关注一起严重违法强制拆迁苏州相城区民营企业案
·非法强制拆迁民营企业争议案一审代理词/郭国汀
·一起非法强制拆迁争议案的法律意见书
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出《房屋拆迁许可证》行政诉讼争议案代理词
·张锐诉上海市普陀区房屋土地管理局之行政诉讼案有关问题的初步法律意见
***(3)行政诉讼案
·征收船舶港务费行政争议案代理词
·行政处罚行政诉讼案上诉状
·谢安诉湖南省醴陵市工商行政管理局不当行政处罚案
·行政处罚行政诉讼案代理词
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·虚假抵押行政侵权案代理词
·虚假抵押行政侵权上诉案代理词
·关于浦东公安分局扣押公司帐册及业务档案的法律意见书
·龙岩市恭发城市信用合作社诉龙岩市土地管理局国家行政赔偿争议案初步法律意见书
·虚假抵押行政侵权上诉状
·养老保险争议案初步法律意见
·赌博行政处罚争议案代理词
·征收船舶港务费行政争议案答辩状
·行政处罚(没收赌资)争议案再审申请书
·上海黄浦区法院第三次变相密秘审判马亚莲二次劳教行政诉讼案
***(4)重大涉外经贸争议案
·Ocean Glory 轮碰撞争议案代理词
·一起重大涉外提单侵权争议再审申请书
·评一起重大“委托贷款”纠纷案的两审判决
·一起重大信托存款合同争议再审申请书
·中外合资企业退股争议案代理词
·中外合资企业股权转让债务纠纷案代理词
·中外合资企业外方未出资争议案代理词
·无效中外合资企业合同争议案代理词
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伯拉图论共产主义

   伯拉图论共产主义

   

   郭国汀编译

   

   

   

   南郭点评:伯拉图主张的共产主义是在上层社会实行,由哲学家做国王,由于政治是高度复杂的事务,须由社会精英人士贵族主导;与马克思主张的暴力专制共产主义有实质的区别,马主张无产阶级专政,伯氏主张由精英管理国家;马主张暴力革命夺权,伯氏不主张暴力;马主共全社会实共产,伯氏仅主张上流社会实行共产共妻。。。。。。

   

   

   你的城市所接受的第一项基础每个个体必须按照各自的本性做他自已的事。‘Thefirst foundation of your city admitted that each single person must do his ownone business according to nature.’(V.452b)

   

   这些女人由所有这些男人共有;任何人不得允许有他自已的妻子,所有的孩子也应当共有;双亲不应当知道谁是他们的孩子,孩子们也不应当知道谁是他们的父母。‘thesewomen are to be all common to all these men; no one must have a private wife ofhis own, and the children must be common too, and the parent shall not know thechild nor the child its parent’.(V.456c-457a)

   

   无人将否认共有女人及共有孩子将最佳。‘no one will deny it would be the greatest good to have women in common andchildren in common .(V. 457a)

   

   你选择出男人,然后尽可能选出那些有相同本性的女人给予这些男子为公妻。他们将共产共妻,任何人不得有私产,因此他们将共同生活在一起,接受训练。‘youhave picked out the men, and likewise then you will pick out the women of thesame nature as far as possible, and give them to the men. These will all havedwellings and messes in common, and no one will have any private property ofthat kind at all; so they will be together and mingle together in places ofexercise and in all their training.’(V. 457d)

   

   最优秀的男子必须与最优秀的女子结合,最差劲的男子则配对最差劲的女子。最佳配对所生的孩子应当交由他人抚养,除了统治者一人之外,其他人皆不让他们知道这些孩子的去向。‘thebest men must mingle most often with the best women, but the opposite, theworst with the worst, least often; and the children of the best must be broughtup but not the others, if the flock is to be tiptop. And none must know this tobe going on except the rulers alone.’(V.459a)

   

   当男人证明他们的良好和在战时的英勇或在任何地方证实他们的优秀,应予奖励特别是更慷慨自由与女人性交;同时,这是让此种男子生越多孩子越好的好借口。‘when young men prove themselves good and true in war or anywhere else, honoursmust be given them, and prizes, and particularly more generous freedom ofintercourse with women; at the same time this will be a good excuse for lettingas many children as possible to begotten of such men.’(V.459b)

   

   良好生育的孩子将置于城外集中养育;那些低劣或天生残疾的孩子应当将他们隔离于秘密而不为人知的处所。‘childrenof the good will live in some place apart in the city; those of the inferiorsort, and other who may be born defective, will put away as is proper in somemysterious, unknown place’.(V. 459c)

   

   二十至四十岁的女人应当为国家生育,男了则以三十至五十岁为宜。‘woman shall bear for the state from the age of twenty to forty; the man shallbeget for the state from the time when to the age of five and fifty’.(V.460a)

   

   如果某人过于年青或过于年老而为国家生育,此种过犯既不当也非法。‘ifa man either older or younger than these shall meddle in begetting for thestate, this offence is neither lawful nor right. ‘(V. 460b)

   

   一旦女人和男人过了生育年龄,我们应让他们随意过性爱生活,除了女儿母亲及女儿的子女及祖母之外,对女人而言则除了儿子,父亲或那些晚辈之外自由性交。‘as soon as the women and the men pass the age of begetting , we shall leavethe man free to consort with any they will, except with daughter or mother, anddaughters’ children, and those of an earlier generation that the mother; andthe women again free except for son or father or those above and below asbefore.’ (V460c)

   

   但是如果这些法定年龄的男女生子,不应当予此种出生者任何食物。‘but if a child is born, if one forces its way through, they must dispose of iton the understanding that there is no food or nurture for such a one’. (V.460d)

   

   他将称所谓的男孩子为儿子,所有的女孩儿为女儿;他们则将称他为父亲;他将称这些子女的孩子为孙儿女。‘ he will call all the male children sons and all the female childrendaughters, who are born in the ten month, they will call him father; he

   will call their offspring grandchildren, andwill call these grandfathers and grandmothers.’(V.460e)

   

   社区成员同甘共苦。所有的公民均同乐或同悲,同生共死或承受相同的灾难。‘community in pleasure and pain binds it together. All the citizens alike areglad or sorry, on the same occasions of births and successes or deaths anddisasters.’(V.461b)

   

   ‘that is when the city is nearest the single man.The whole community, arranged throughout the body , stretching to the soul asone orderly whole under that which rules in it, feels the pain, and thecommunity has pain all together as a whole when the part is in trouble…. ‘thebest governed city comes nearest to such a man.’(V. 462a)

   

   这些人没有他们自已的房屋,没有土地或财产;他们由其他公民供奉,共同花消他们的管理所得的薪俸。‘theseassistants were to have no houses of their own, no land or property; they wereto be supported by the other citizens

   tospend this wage of their guardianship all in common.’(463d)

   

   他们之间的法律诉讼及相互指控几乎完会消失。‘lawsuits and accusations against each other vanish almost entirely from amongthem. For they will have all in common, nothing private except their body;which makes them free from quarrels and factions, as far as human quarrels comefrom possessing wealth or children and kindred.’(V463e)

   

   社区的男女。。。以各种方式,共享所有的事物直至他们的权力。‘community of women with men, …share everything in every way up to theirpower.’(465c)

   

   ‘the philosophers must become kings in our cities orthose who are now called kings and potentates must learn to seek wisdom liketrue and genuine philosophers, and so political power and intellectual wisdomwill be joined in one; until that happens, there can be no rest from troublesfor the cities, until then, this constitution which we have now evolved inwords will never grow into being’. (V472e)

   

   如果任何人有某种学习的良好渴望,假如他如饥如渴地学习每一种学问,而且学无止境,学而不厌,那么他即可称做哲学家。‘ifanyone has a good appetite for study, if he is ready to taste every dish, andtackles learning gladly and never can have enough, we justly call him aphilosopher’. (V.474c)

(2012/12/12 发表)

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