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郭国汀律师专栏
·答L君之三项基本原则
·郑恩宠案网友评论
·网友支持或反对郑恩宠的评论
·支持或反对郑恩宠的网友评论之二
·中国律师声援支持郑恩宠
·吴国策律师:“求名求利的律师代表——某律师的心里”系他人盗名发表的声明
·中国律师声援支持郑恩宠律师
·网警\网友\特务与郑恩宠案
·郑恩宠律师的最后一篇代理词
·关于记者杨金志、陈斌严重侵犯郑恩宠律师名誉权的律师函
·郭国汀律师如果你还是个真正的男人的话,请你勇于承担败诉的责任。
·郑恩宠案上海当局特务什么下流无耻的手段皆用
·谋害郑恩宠的凶手是谁?
·郑恩宠案上海高院驳回上诉后网友们的评论
·请记住一位伟大的律师英雄——郑恩宠/郭国汀
***(四)香港联中公司与厦门国际贸易信托投资公司国际贸易争议再审案
·司法腐败的典型案例
·最高法院无理拖宕九年拒不下判再审案代理词
·反了你!竟敢不尊敬我大法官!
·就十五载官司致最高法院法官的公开函
·中国法官如何让吾尊敬/南郭
·最高法院的院长们为何威胁郭国汀律师?
***(五)涉外亿元合同诈骗案
·涉港“亿元”合同诈骗案之辩护词/郭国汀
·惊心动魄的辩护
·涉外亿元诈骗案致有关负责人的公开函
·致福建省委、省政府各位领导及福州市委、市府各位负责人的公开信
·关于本司与福州市粮油公司贸易纠纷案及因此而被无辜拘留、逮捕者至福州市、福建省、中国政府、公安、检察各部门负责人公开函:
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市市长函
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记函
·关于亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记的函
·亿元合同诈骗案至中央政法委书记紧急呼吁函
·福州市公安局插手涉港经济纠纷造成海内外不良影响事
·亿元合同诈骗案郭国汀律师与龚雄副市长会谈备忘录
***(59)(五)郭国汀律师名案劲辩
***(1)政治良心案
·力虹(张建红)煽动颠覆国家政权案的咄咄怪事
·郭国汀力虹被中共无罪重判的真实原因
·评论严正责令胡锦涛立即无条件释放朱宇飙律师!
·简析严正学所谓颠覆国家政权案
·严正学所谓[涉嫌颠覆国家政权案]必须公开审判
·强烈谴责胡锦涛公然践踏法律任意拘禁人律师的恶劣行径
·东洲惨案发生的根源——呼吁由联合国组织调查团进行公正调查/郭国汀
·评吴爱中张惠刘兰(法轮功讲真相)案的两审判决
·郑恩宠律师“为境外非法提供国家秘密罪”辩护词
·律师关于郑恩宠案的二审辩护词
·郑恩宠非法为境外提供国家秘密罪刑事申诉状
·郭国汀:我为什么为清水君辩护
·作家张林又被刑事拘留!
·声援支持杨天水和张林
·杨天水是令人敬佩的民主战士
·辩护律师郭国汀获准会见杨天水
·坚决支持李国涛先生的义举,反对极权专制独裁政治!
·师涛是当代中国英雄——
·六四与师涛
·师涛为中国记者受难为自由民主坐牢
·郭国汀指雅虎遵守当地法律说无法律根据
·辩护律师郭国汀获准会见师涛
·长沙国安局无理拒绝辩护律师会见师涛
·答mironet质疑何谓真正的中国人权律师?
·向刘晓波,余杰先生学习,致敬!
·当一名律师无辜失去自由时——无题
***(2)民告官---行政诉讼案强制拆迁案
·国家赔偿行政诉讼案代理词
·政府欺诈何时休?!评一起政府参与非法强制拆迁案
·关于苏州市丽人服饰有限公司被非法强制拆迁案的法律分析意见
·苏州“历史文化街区”拆迁案代理词
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出<房屋拆迁许可证>行政诉讼争议案
·关于苏州市丽人服饰有限公司被非法强制拆迁案的法律分析意见
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出<房屋拆迁许可证>行政诉讼争议案代理词
·烟台「历史文化街区」拆迁案代理词
·社会公共利益与强制拆迁
·身残志坚受苦遭难的马亚莲二次劳教案:行政复议申请书/郭国汀
·马亚莲案代理词
·马亚莲因强迁上访两次劳教争议案行政上诉状
·上海黄浦区法院第三次变相密秘审判马亚莲二次劳教行政诉讼案/郭国汀
·苏州历史文化街区拆迁争议案上诉状
·苏州 “历史文化街区”拆迁争议上诉案代理词
·苏州“历史文化街区”拆迁案代理词
·敬请关注一起严重违法强制拆迁苏州相城区民营企业案
·非法强制拆迁民营企业争议案一审代理词/郭国汀
·一起非法强制拆迁争议案的法律意见书
·苏州市衣丽人服饰有限公司诉苏州市相城区建设局非法作出《房屋拆迁许可证》行政诉讼争议案代理词
·张锐诉上海市普陀区房屋土地管理局之行政诉讼案有关问题的初步法律意见
***(3)行政诉讼案
·征收船舶港务费行政争议案代理词
·行政处罚行政诉讼案上诉状
·谢安诉湖南省醴陵市工商行政管理局不当行政处罚案
·行政处罚行政诉讼案代理词
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·虚假抵押行政侵权案代理词
·虚假抵押行政侵权上诉案代理词
·关于浦东公安分局扣押公司帐册及业务档案的法律意见书
·龙岩市恭发城市信用合作社诉龙岩市土地管理局国家行政赔偿争议案初步法律意见书
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当代自由主义的基本特征

当代自由主义的基本特征 What is liberalism?

   

   Thomas G.Guo

   

   自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;当代世界各国主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。

   

   Abrief history of the liberalism

   

   Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and many social democratic partiesin Europe, has really been liberal in character.The liberalism associated withthe social democratic left, is a new orsocial liberalism; the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory of Herbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedomand rewards those who work hardest.

   Atthe end of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw more positive role of state, creategreater opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.

   Through a range of social reform measures,liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20 century. 1970s arevised version of classical liberalism emerged to challenge the newliberalism, right wing government, political thinker Hayekand Nozick.

   

   Meaningof liberalism

   

   The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products. Classicalliberalism emphasizes the negative liberty,remove external constraints; new liberalismemphasizes positive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed the consent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that

   stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict.

   Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financial resource,ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Humannature make human beings are rational andself-interested they look after themselves first and have thecapabilities to do so better than anyone else. They have the power to choose andtherefore responsible for their action.

   

   Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.

   

   Developmentfeatures of liberalism

   

   Reform liberalismin four ways to refashion the liberalism idea: first,add the idea of positive freedom, is freedomto, it entails the capacity and power to do something. Second,boosted conception of equality. Add the equality of opportunity. Third, more favourstate intervention. Market alone would not provide individuals withpositive freedom and the equality of opportunity, using mechanisms ofredistribution such as progressive taxation and welfare/ unemployment policies,advocated welfare state conceptualised by John Maynard Keynes. Fourth, advocated universalsuffrage.

   

   Early liberals were not democrats, liberal politicalsystem are not necessarily democratic. Liberalism in contemporary politics hassome characters.

   Liberalism is the dominant ideology in Western society. Canada usesseveral mechanisms to control and limited political powers: responsible government, whereby the execrativeneeds to explain, justify and defend its action to a legislative assembly; federalism, which in formally dividing powerbetween federal and provincial governments. Fragments power and provide a checkon the power of both; the charter of rights andfreedom, which offer a judicial check on political power, assures therule of law

   and guarantees liberalrights and freedoms. Five major federal parties allagree with the main principles of liberalism.

   The central ideological in Canada is betweenclassical and reform liberalism. Classical speak of lowering taxes,eliminating deficit, reducing the debt, controlling public spending,privatizing Crown Corporation, creating a good business environment. Reformliberals put more emphasis on social spending and rely on the state to redistributewealth and correct the deficiencies of the market, speak of social justice andequality. American political parties, Republican and Democratic, are verysimilar, close to classical liberalism. Liberalism is not as dominant inWestern Europe as it is in North America. Neoliberalism is classical liberalismwith the added element of international free trade.

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