百家争鸣
郭国汀律师专栏
[主页]->[百家争鸣]->[郭国汀律师专栏]->[正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性]
郭国汀律师专栏
***随笔\散文
·中华文化精华杂谈
·儒家文明导至中国人残忍?!
·儒家不是中共极权专制暴政的根源
·商业文明决定自由宪政民主体制
·关于儒学与中华传统文化之争
·孔子的哲学识见等于零且其思想落后反动?!
·中华文化精华杂谈
·中国人民代表大会体制纯属欺骗国人的摆设
·诚实是人类最大的美德
·人的本质
·圣诞感言
·宽容
·友情
·批评
·物以类聚,人以群分
·中国人难以团结协作的根源何在?
·
·特务
·民运人士需要静心学习思考充实提高自已的理论休养
·诚实是人类最大的美德
· 真理是客观的永恒的不以任何人的主观意志为转移
·马虎学风要不得
·爱与战争及宗教
·为什么说爱才是宇宙的本质?
·最爱我的人去了--哭母亲/郭国汀
·论爱情/郭国汀
·难忘的真情至爱
·初恋
·忠诚的品格
·论幸福/郭国汀
·生命感悟/南郭
·人生 道德 灵魂/南郭
·学者 神 上帝 /南郭
·论英雄
·思想家是真正的王者
·论诗人/郭国汀
·诗论/郭国汀
·人性兽性的证明 南郭
·论嘲讽/南郭
·讽刺与赞美
·南郭点评芦笛
·竞技的由来与意义
·思想言论自由
·精神与物质同性
·自由的含义
·历史的价值
·战争与国家
·自学与真才实学
·欢迎批评批判
·其实我对法官充满了敬意!
·情由可言,难言之隐
·沉重的心!
·我为小点格格说句公道话
·堂堂正正做个真正的中国人!
·为自由为独立为思想的彻底解放大家努力呵!
·吾之专业乃出庭诉讼律师
·怒气
·最美丽的人
·南郭评论美人美言美语美文
·吾之教授梦在今天实现! 南郭
·南郭:我的遗嘱与托孤
·男子汉的眼泪/南郭
·性格决定命运/南郭
·文学感言/郭国汀
·郭国汀:春
·郭国汀:读实秋有感.
·郭国汀:理想.
·郭国汀:律师.
·郭国汀:作文.
·郭国汀:坚韧不拔
·郭国汀:兴趣.
·信函/南郭
·日记与书信/南郭
·性格/南郭
·天才,蠢才,笨蛋/南郭
·陈良宇是中共残酷政治斗争的牺牲品
·郭国汀 国人民族主义乃中共误导所致
·人民公社万岁?!--《辉煌的幻灭》读后感
·如何成为一名伟大的,优秀的法律人?网友评论
·如何成为一名对社会有用的人
·谁杀死了中国伟大的诗人杨春光?
·忆对我前半生影响至深的三位老师
·A Letter to a Chinese
·不敢讲真话的民族注定是受奴役遭天谴的软骨头的劣等种族
·This is no time to kowtow to China
·南郭初步定论宣昶玮
·自封上帝皇帝圣人者:狂妄无知之徒?!
·南郭点评宣昶玮自封紫薇圣人
·南郭点评张千帆教授论宪政
·愤怒出诗人,悲愤出伟诗
***(55)郭国汀律师专访
·世纪回眸(69)-专访郭国汀之一
·世纪回眸(70)-专访郭国汀律师之二
·郭国汀谈郭飞雄、力虹、陈树庆遭被捕
·法律人的历史使命---答《北大法律人》主编采访录
·郭国汀律师答亚洲周刊纪硕鸣采访实录
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性

   正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性

   郭国汀

   

   

   当代最著名的政治哲学理论家罗尔斯在其名著《正义的理论》中提出正义的两项基本原则:其一,每个人均有与其他人所拥有的相似的最充分的基本自由的平等权利; 其二,社会和经济的不平等得按下述两种途径安排:(1)合理预期按每个人的利益;(2)政府公职平等向社会公众开放。罗尔斯解释道:公民的基等自由权大致包括:政治自由(投票权和有资格担任公职)与言论与结社自由;信仰自由和思想自由;拥有私有财产的权利和自由;免受法治定义之任意逮捕与搜查的自由。由于中共国的实践在各方面与罗尔斯的正义理论的两项基本原则完全背道而驰,既不存在公民平等的政治自由和政治权利,也没有任何公平合理的公职向社会公众平等开放的任何可能;因而中共暴政成为全球最极度不公不义的山寨国是必然的;不过,更重要的是正如政治理论家Rainer Forst 先生在其批评罗尔斯的正义论之“正义的两种画面” (Two Pictures of Justice)指出:罗尔斯的正义两原则,仅涉及正义的一种画面,是一种“正义的语法”解释仅涉及分配正义,程序正义方面,而未触及更未阐明正义最重要的第一原则:政治权力归属的正当合法性;因为反抗非正义的基本冲动并非主要基于想要得到某种东西,而是不想受专制暴政的任意蹂躏宰割骚扰,要求统治的基本合法性。分配正义仅是第二步的问题,由谁决定政策和如何实施才是政治与社会正义最关健的头号问题。吾以为Forst 先生的立论与理由非常充分,更符合当今中国现实。因为正义首先涉及权力问题,与政府与人民及人与人之间的关系密切相关,不首先解决政治权力的合法性基础,亦即由谁制定法律与政策,决定谁能获得什么利益,要想根本解决社会政治正义问题是完全不可能的;正因为如此,罗尔斯在其正义理论中似乎有一项前提条件:“一个业已建立良好秩序的社会”;质言之,其正义理论仅适用于西方发达的自由民主社会,而不能直接适用于类似中共极权专制暴政此种罪恶的政治体制。Forst 先生的下述基本论点十分精彩:

   

   “Political and social justice is a matter of how a context of political rule and social cooperation is constituted; and the first question in this regard is how individuals are involved in political and social relations generally and in the production of material and immaterial goods in particular, so that a result is just only if it is produced under conditions that can be accepted by all under conditions of non-domination”。

   “Justice is not a criterion for universal levels of goods or for all efforts to overcome privation but for quite specific ones, namely, those which eliminate arbitrary rule – i.e. domination and exploitation. The primary demand of justice is not that human beings should obtain certain goods but that they should be agents equipped with equal rights within a social context”。

   “a supreme principle holds within such a framework – namely, the principle of general and reciprocal justification – which states that every claim to goods, rights or liberties must be justified in a reciprocal and general manner, where one side may not simply project its reasons onto the other but has to justify itself discursively”.

   “the central insight for the problem of political and social justice – namely, that the first question of justice is the question of power. For justice is not only a matter of which goods, for which reasons and in what amounts, should legitimately be allocated to whom, but in particular of how these goods come into the world in the first place and of who decides on their allocation and how this allocation is made”.

   “the question of power is the first question of justice means that justice has its proper place where the central justifications for a social basic structure must be provided and the institutional ground rules are laid down which determine social life from the bottom up. Everything depends, if you will, on the relations of justification within a society”.

   “This dignity is violated when individuals are regarded merely as recipients of redistributive measures and not as independent agents of justice”.

   “a conceptual distinction between fundamental (minimal) and full (maximal) justice. Whereas the task of fundamental justice is to construct a basic structure of justification, the task of full justice is to construct a justified basic structure”.

   “Fundamental justice is violated when primary justification power is not secured for all equally in the most important institutions”.

   

   正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性

(2012/07/19 发表)

blog comments powered by Disqus

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场