滕彪文集
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滕彪文集
·太阳城:写在第三期“名家说法”被命令取消之后
·滕彪印象/法制日报
·Rule of Law requires our consciousness and responsibility
·临沂野蛮计生与陈光诚事件维权大事记(2006-11-7)
·耻为盛世添顺骨
·中国时报专访:盼与政府互动 和平维权
·滕彪博士:精神家园的守望者/刘爽
·司法改良和公民维权——学而思沙龙的网谈
·学术、政治与生活——2006年12月17日做客沧海论坛在线交流记录
·黎明前的见证
·看看我们的朋友——致受难中的高智晟和他的妻子和孩子
·临沂警匪暴行录
·临沂野蛮计生事件及陈光诚案维权大事记(五——七)
·中国当代宪政主义者的困境和选择/林泽波
·通过汉语改变中国
·茶人滕彪/萧瀚
·崔英杰案:“慎杀时代”的第一个考验
·死刑、司法与中国人权
·废除死刑的中国语境——在第三届世界反死刑大会上的发言
·司法独立,和谐中国——2007年“两会”之际的公民呼吁/许志永 滕彪
·彻底改革司法才能避免滥用死刑
·崔英杰案,在多重反思中寻找契机
·从“两会”看赎回选票运动
·关于尽快将青岛市四方区政府违法拆迁行为纳入法制轨道的法律意见书
·青岛野蛮拆迁:袁薪玉被控放火和妨害公务案一审的当庭辩护意见
·维权书简·戴脚镣的舞者
·被遗忘的谎言——就《成都晚报》事件致中宣部长和教育部长的一封信
·滕彪:可怕的“冤案递增律”
·不是我不明白
·张敏:滕彪律师访美谈中国司法现状与维权
·萧洵:纸包子案记者被判刑引发强烈质疑
·自由亚洲电台:拾荒者遇上联防离奇死亡 孙志刚式悲剧首都重现?
·何亚福 王鑫海 杨支柱等:放开二胎倡议书
·临沂野蛮计生事件及陈光诚案维权大事记(八--九)
·一个案件的真相与两个案件的正义(附:“聂树斌案”到了最危急时刻!)
·滕彪、胡佳:奥运前的中国真相
·郑筱萸案扇了死刑复核程序一记耳光/滕彪 李方平
·“杀害自己孩子的民族没有未来!”
·关于李和平律师被绑架殴打致国务院、最高人民检察院、公安部、国家安全部的公开信(签名中)
·NO FIGHTS,NO RIGHTS——接受博闻社采访谈中国人权现状
·挽包遵信先生
·香港电台铿锵集:扣着脚镣跳舞的中国律师
·那些陌生的人们在我们心底哭泣——推荐一个短片
·关于邮箱被盗用的声明
·《律师法》37条:为律师准备的新陷阱
·保护维权律师,实现法治——采访法学博士滕彪律师/张程
·Six Attorneys Openly Defend Falun Gong in Chinese Court
·李和平 滕彪等:为法轮功学员辩护-宪法至上 信仰自由
·面对暴力的思考与记忆——致李和平
·专访滕彪律师:《律师法》2007修订与维权/RFA张敏
·The Real China before the Olympics/Teng Biao,Hu jia
·我们不能坐等美好的社会到来
·律师:维权人士胡佳将受到起诉
·胡佳被捕 顯示中國要在奧運之前大清場
·人权的价值与正义的利益
·抓捕胡佳意味着什么?
·关于《奥运前的中国真相》一文的说明——声援胡佳之一
·邮箱作废声明
·关于审查和改变《互联网视听节目服务管理规定》部分不适当条款的建议
·胡佳的大爱与大勇
·后极权时代的公民美德与公民责任
·狱中致爱人
·奥运和乞丐不能并存?
·滕彪李苏滨关于青岛于建利涉嫌诽谤罪案的辩护意见
·纽约时报社评:中国的爱国小将们
·回网友四书
·我们都来关注滕彪博士/王天成
·暴力带不来和平,恐怖建不成和谐——就滕彪、李和平事件感言/王德邦
·让滕彪回家、追究国保撞车肇事的法律责任、还被监控公民自由/维权网
·刘晓波:黑暗权力的颠狂——有感于滕彪被绑架
·Article 37 of the PRC Law on Lawyers: A New Trap Set for Lawyers
·Chinese lawyer missing after criticising human rights record
·Chinese Lawyer Says He Was Detained and Warned on Activism
·For Chinese activists, stakes are raised ahead of the Olympics
·To my wife, from jail/Teng Biao
·Beijing Suspends Licenses of 2 Lawyers Who Offered to Defend Tibetans in Court
·National Endowment for Democracy 2008 Democracy Awards
·获奖感言
·司法与民意——镜城突围
·Rewards and risks of a career in the legal system
·太离谱的现实感
·35个网评员对“这鸡蛋真难吃”的不同回答(转载加编辑加原创)
·Dissonance Strikes A Chord
·顺应历史潮流 实现律协直选——致全体北京律师、市司法局、市律协的呼吁
·但愿程序正义从杨佳案开始/滕彪 许志永
·维权的计算及其他
·我们对北京律协“严正声明”的回应
·网络言论自由讨论会会议纪要(上)
·网络言论自由讨论会会议纪要(下)
·Well-Known Human Rights Advocate Teng Biao Is Not Afraid
·法眼冷对三鹿门
·北京律师为自己维权风暴/亚洲周刊
·胡佳若获诺贝尔奖将推动中国人权/voa
·奥运后的中国人权
·Chinese Activist Wins Rights Prize
·我无法放弃——记一次“绑架”
·认真对待出国权
·毒奶粉:谁的危机?
·不要制造聂树斌——甘锦华抢劫案的当庭辩护词
·“独立知识分子”滕彪/刘溜
·经济观察报专访/滕彪:让我们不再恐惧
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中国律师的阴与阳/金融时报


   金融时报 Jamil Anderlini
   
   陶景洲和滕彪代表着中国司法体系的阴阳两极。两人都毕业于极具声望的北京大学法学院(Peking University law school),却走上了截然不同的职业道路,得到的回报也有天壤之别。
   

   陶景洲在美国众达律师事务所(Jones Day)豪华的北京办事处工作,是这家事务所的合伙人。1977年,他成为中国20年来的第一批法律系学生。“我们那时没有任何法律书籍,”他表示,“因为当时在中国几乎没有任何法律可言。”
   
   相比之下,滕彪从遍布刑事司法体系的暗纹中发掘出自己的职业定位——在这个体系中,律师经常要为当事人的政治罪行承担责任。
   
   农民出身的滕彪现年35岁,2002年毕业于北京大学,获得博士学位。从那以后,他成为知名律师,经常为那些被剥夺政治权利的人辩护。事实上,因为组织一群律师为3月拉萨暴乱后被捕的西藏抗议者提供辩护,滕彪今年6月被剥夺了律师执业资格。
   
   他若不是一直坚持原则,为被压制的民众辩护,滕彪很早以前就能加入中国新生的中产阶级行列——这个阶层需要一套法律体制,能够充分保护其财产和个人权利。
   
   中国的法律体制已经经历巨变。30年前,陶景洲的班上只有82名“敢为天下先”的法律学生,与之相比,今天全国600多所法律院校共有30万学生。
   
   但是,现行体制仍然无力应对日益增多的需求。过去5年间,中国法院审结案件近3200万起,其中超过三分之二是由公司或个人提出诉讼的民事或经济案件。
   
   在极权国家生活的现实,也为法律体制带来不确定性。
   < p>北京大学直言不讳的法学教授贺卫方表示,有权有势的人有很多机会干涉法律。
   
   “事实上,在中国不存在真正西方意义上的法律体制,”他宣称。
   
   现行法规的执行经常并不严格——如果你把中国完备的环境法与窗外的现实相比较,或是读到中国宪法保障所有公民享有宗教信仰自由、言论自由和结社自由,这一点就变得显而易见。
   
   在刑事案件和人们广泛关注的民事案件中,经常存在政治干涉;而在不那么重要的案件中,贿赂法官和公诉人则是常见的做法。
   
   “中国法律体制最大的问题是,政治与法律没有分立,”滕彪表示。“在现行体制下,不可能实现独立的司法权,因为法律被视作服务于党的工具。”
   
   每级法院之上都有一个特殊的共产党委员会——政法委,在“政治”案件中,政法委有权否决法院意见。在较小的地方,政法委书记经常由当地公安局局长担任,这使得法院在事实上成为公安部门的附属机构。
   
   陶景洲认为,与文化大革命的余波相比,这些问题都不严重——当时,他刚刚开始上大学。
   
   当他进入新设立的北京大学法学院时,这个学院的存在都是“国家机密”,只有家庭出身够“红”的孩子才能入学。他们的教授大多刚刚从农村或生产队回来。上世纪50年代后期,毛泽东发起残酷的反右运动,将知识分子送下乡,实质上终结了中国的法律专业。
   
   在法国学习法律并从业多年之后,陶景洲于上世纪90年代初回到国内,为那些在中国寻求投资机会的外国公司服务。如今,他们这一行业已相当繁荣。
   
   自他回国以后,法律界又经历了革命。上世纪80年代,多数法官都是来自公务员或军官队伍,从未学过法律。而根据中国政府在2005年发布的最新数据,当年,中国持有学士或以上学位的法官刚好超过半数;10年前,这个比例只有7%。
   
   滕彪的道路截然不同。他在北京市郊狭小的办公室里工作,勉强能够糊口,因为他为之辩护的都是中国的棘手人群——法轮功信徒、持不同政见者和未经国家批准的基督教会的组织者。中国政府要求律师每年进行执业证年检,并经常拒绝批准滕彪等“麻烦制造者”的年检登记。
   
   滕彪不仅是在拿自己的职业生涯冒险。今年3月,在中国“橡皮图章”性质的全国人大召开年度会议期间,他在大街上被人掳走,塞进一辆没有牌照的汽车,戴上头罩,送到一个不明地点。在那儿,他遭到审问和恐吓,两天后才被送回城里。
   
   偷袭他的人从未表明自己的身份,但滕彪怀疑他们是国家安全部门的人,因为他们曾多次威胁他,称如果他不停止撰写文章批评政府和法律体系,就把他关进监狱。
   
   但是,他没有胆怯。“我为工作付出了巨大代价,但这不足以让我放弃,”他表示。“我必须继续工作,因为愿意接手这些案件的律师太少了。”
   
   
   译者/何黎
   
   http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/abf9327c-58c9-11dd-a093-000077b07658.html
   
   July 23, 2008
   Rewards and risks of Chinese legal career
   
   By Jamil Anderlini in Beijing
   
   Tao Jingzhou and Teng Biao represent the yin and yang of China’s justice system. Both graduated from the prestigious Peking University law school, but they have followed very different career paths and been rewarded in very different ways.
   
   Mr Tao works out of the plush Beijing office of the American law firm Jones Day, where he is a partner. In 1977 he belonged to the first batch of Chinese law students in 20 years. “We didn’t have any law books,” he says, “because there were hardly any laws in China.”
   
   Mr Teng’s career, by contrast, has been scraped out of the dark cracks that pervade the criminal justice system, where lawyers are often held responsible for their clients’ political crimes. A 35-year-old from a peasant background, Mr Teng graduated in 2002 with a PhD from Peking University and has since become famous as a defender of the disenfranchised. He was in effect disbarred in June for organising a group of lawyers offering to defend Tibetan protesters arrested in the aftermath of March riots in Lhasa.
   
   Were it not for his principled defence of the downtrodden, Mr Teng would long ago have joined the ranks of China’s burgeoning middle classes, who are demanding a legal system that adequately protects their property and individual rights.
   
   That legal system has undergone vast changes. The 82 pioneer law students in Mr Tao’s class 30 years ago compare with 300,000 in more than 600 law schools today.
   
   But it remains ill-equipped to handle the increasing demands placed on it. In the last five years, Chinese courts ruled on nearly 32m cases, more than two-thirds of which were civil or economic cases brought by companies or individuals.
   
   The realities of living in a totalitarian state also lend uncertainty to the legal system. Opportunities abound for powerful individuals to intervene, says He Weifeng, an outspoken legal professor at Peking University.
   
   “Actually, there is no real legal system in the western sense in China,” he declares.
   
   Enforcement of existing legislation is often lax – something that becomes apparent when you compare China’s excellent environmental laws with the reality outside the window or read the country’s constitution, which guarantees all citizens freedom of religion, freedom of speech and freedom of political association.
   
   In criminal cases and high-profile civil cases, political interference is rife, while in smaller cases bribing judges and prosecutors is the norm.
   
   “The biggest problem with China’s legal system is that politics and the law are not separate,” says Mr Teng. “An independent judiciary is not possible under the current system because the law is regarded as a tool to serve the party.”
   
   Every court includes a special Communist party committee with the power to overrule it in “political” cases. In smaller towns it is often headed by the local police chief, in effect making the court a subsidiary of the police department.
   
   Mr Tao argues those problems are mild compared with the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution, when he began his studies. When he landed at the new Peking University law school its very existence was a “state secret” and only children with suitably “red” backgrounds could attend. Most of his professors were just back from the countryside or labour camps, where they were sent during Mao Zedong’s brutal anti-rightist campaign that virtually ended the legal profession in China in the late 1950s.
   
   After studying and practising law in France for many years, Mr Tao returned in the early 1990s to what is now a thriving practice working for international companies seeking to invest in China.
   
   Since his return the legal profession has undergone another revolution. In the 1980s most judges were former civil servants or military officers who had never studied the law. By 2005, the last time the government released figures, just over half of China’s judges held bachelor degrees or above, up from just 7 per cent a decade earlier.
   
   Mr Teng’s path remains very different. From his tiny office on the outskirts of Beijing, he barely makes a living defending China’s untouchables – Falun Gong practitioners, dissidents and organisers of non-state-approved Christian churches. The government requires lawyers to renew their practice licences annually and often refuses to renew them for “troublemakers” such as Mr Teng.
   
   He is not just risking his career. During the March annual meeting of China’s rubber-stamp parliament he was grabbed off the street, bundled into an unmarked car and hooded before being driven to an unknown location. There he was interrogated and threatened for two days before being returned to town. His assailants never identified themselves but Mr Teng suspects they were state security agents, as they repeatedly threatened to put him in prison if he continued to write articles criticising the government and legal system.

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