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郭国汀律师专栏
·《共和革命之父孙中山》17、辛亥革命的意义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》18、捍卫革命精神
·《共和革命之父孙中山》19、宋教仁遇刺
·《共和革命之父孙中山》20、二次革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》21、袁世凯破坏共和体制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》22、中华革命党
·《共和革命之父孙中山》23、袁世凯称帝闹剧
·《共和革命之父孙中山》24、袁世凯众叛亲离
·《共和革命之父孙中山》25、张勋复辟帝制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》26.孙文护宪
·《共和革命之父孙中山》27.著书立说
·《共和革命之父孙中山》28.新文化运动和五四运动
·29.新文化及五四期间的孙文
·《共和革命之父孙中山》30.东山再起
·《共和革命之父孙中山》31、孙文为何联俄容共?
·《共和革命之父孙中山》32.孙越上海宣言
·《共和革命之父孙中山》33.阴差阳错 逼上梁山
·《共和革命之父孙中山》34.以俄为师
·《共和革命之父孙中山》35.反帝遵儒
·《共和革命之父孙中山》36.关税事件
·《共和革命之父孙中山》37.国民党一大
·《共和革命之父孙中山》38.三民主义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》39.屡战屡北
·《共和革命之父孙中山》40.最后岁月
·《共和革命之父孙中山》41.壮志未酬身先死
·国际权威专家对孙文的客观公正评价
·辛亥革命重大历史与现实意义
***(32)《还原蒋介石》郭国汀译著
·郭国汀谈论毛泽东和蒋介石
·我为何研究孙文,蒋介石及中华民国史?
·《民族英雄蒋介石》
·《还原蒋介石》:身世
·《还原蒋介石》:辛亥革命中的蒋介石
·《还原蒋介石》:二次革命
·《还原蒋介石》:中华革命党
·《还原蒋介石》:袁世凯称帝与张勋复辟
·《还原蒋介石》:军阀混战
·《还原蒋介石》:南北军政府对抗
·《还原蒋介石》:辞职将军蒋介石
·《还原蒋介石》:孝子情深
·《还原蒋介石》:情深义重
·《还原蒋介石》:远见卓识 肝胆相照
·《还原蒋介石》:壮志未酬身先死
·《还原蒋介石》:列宁的对华政策
·《还原蒋介石》:中共的由来
·《还原蒋介石》:孙中山的“联俄容共”
·《还原蒋介石》:共产党篡夺国民党的领导权
·《还原蒋介石》:篡党夺权
·《还原蒋介石》:‘联俄联共,扶助农工’的骗局
·《还原蒋介石》:蒋介石领导北伐
·《还原蒋介石》:中山舰事件真相
·《还原蒋介石》:北伐雄师所向无敌
·《还原蒋介石》:中共恶意制造南京事件
·《还原蒋介石》:共产党阴谋操控反蒋运动
·《还原蒋介石》:上海三次起义
·《还原蒋介石》:汪(精卫)陈(独秀)联合宣言
·《还原蒋介石》:四一二清党真相
·《还原蒋介石》:恢复北伐
·《还原蒋介石》:宁汉政府相争
·《民族英雄蒋介石》33、汪精卫武汉政府清共
·《民族英雄蒋介石》34、南昌暴动
·《民族英雄蒋介石》35、蒋介石辞职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》36、蒋介石访日
·《民族英雄蒋介石》37、蒋(介石)宋(美玲)联姻
·《民族英雄蒋介石》38、广州暴动国民党与苏联决裂
·《民族英雄蒋介石》40、济南事件
·《民族英雄蒋介石》39、北伐第二阶段
·《民族英雄蒋介石》41、浩气长存的蔡公时
·《民族英雄蒋介石》42、忍辱负重
·《民族英雄蒋介石》43、北伐最后阶段
·《民族英雄蒋介石》44、日本关东军暗杀张作霖
·《民族英雄蒋介石》45、北伐军胜利汇师北京
·《民族英雄蒋介石》46、满洲易帜归国民政府
·《民族英雄蒋介石》47、关税自治,
·《民族英雄蒋介石》48、李宗仁及冯玉祥反叛
·《民族英雄蒋介石》49、南方战云--叛乱的瘟疫
·《民族英雄蒋介石》50 、中原大战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》51 周恩来的灭门惨案
·《民族英雄蒋介石》52、共匪红军的兴起
·《民族英雄蒋介石》53、剿共匪--攘外必先安内
·《民族英雄蒋介石》54、55、56 “九一八事变”
·《民族英雄蒋介石》57 日本侵华与国联
·《民族英雄蒋介石》58 忍辱负重
·《民族英雄蒋介石》59、上海“一二八”抗战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》60、皮肉伤与心脏病
·《民族英雄蒋介石》61儒雅绅士 基督情怀
·《民族英雄蒋介石》62、国家危机和国内政治
·《民族英雄蒋介石》63、国家团结会议,蒋介石再辞职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》64日本攻占锦州,蒋介石复职
·《民族英雄蒋介石》65、国军上海一二八抗战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》66、伪满洲国成立
·《民族英雄蒋介石》67、心慈手软
·《民族英雄蒋介石》68、福建平叛
·《民族英雄蒋介石》69、剿匪
·《民族英雄蒋介石》70、西安事变
·《民族英雄蒋介石》71、七七卢沟桥事变
·《民族英雄蒋介石》72、沪淞会战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》73、悲壮的南京保卫战
·《民族英雄蒋介石》74.南京大屠杀
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西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   西方现代政治民主的基本要件

   Western World Political Democracy

   

   By thomasgguo

   

   

   现代西方国家民主至少包括四个要件:大众主权,政治平等,政治自由,及多数规则。大众主权即人民有最终决定权,体现为代议制民主,人民直接选举产生下议院议员,由议员代表人民行使立法权,间接选举产生国家领导人(总统,总理),行使行政管理权;政治平等表现为定期公开的自由选举,选举权一人一票,加拿大早在上个世纪50年代即已没有政治犯;普通刑事犯的政治权利,自1996年始,在狱犯人全部享有平等的投票权;政治自由指人权公约确认的公民基本自由,包括良心自由,宗教自由,思想自由,信仰自由,意见自由,表达自由,出版自由,和平集会自由,结社组党自由;多数规则受不得任意侵犯少数人的权利的限制,主要由上议院平衡制约。必须指出的是:政治民主仅是共和宪政自由民主政体的一个要素,而非全部。中国自由宪政民主运动的目标决非纯民主,而是共和宪政自由民主。

   

   Democracy

   In the past, many features of the Canadianpolitical system were undemocratic, but Canada has become increasinglydemocratic over time.Democracy in the modern western world it usuallyincludes the elements of popular sovereignty, political equality, politicalfreedom, and majority rule.

   

   Popular sovereignty

   Popular sovereignty means that the peoplehave final say, which in modern political system take the form of elections atcertain specified intervals. The election held at least every five years, Bymeans of plebiscites or referendums, only three times since 1867, when in 1898,1942 and 1992.Canadian cherished representativedemocracy, in which elected officials and appointed authorities made decisionson people’s behalf.Popular sovereignty is normally exercised inperiodic elections, which are mere opportunity to select those who will beresponsible for making political decision over the next four years on behalf ofwhole population. Political thinker believes that the people are the bestjudges for those who have best virtue and merit, and public interest and good.

   

   Political equality

   Everyone is equal on Election Day. Women,those without property, aboriginal, and various minority ethno culture group,excluded in the past. Considerable room for inequality remain in the electoralsystem. Political parties have been privately financed and it many well be thatthose who contributed money to a party or candidates expected to get somethingin return. Thus those help finance elections have more influence than thosemerely vote, beyond election day, tremendous inequality in political influencebegin to emerge, such as in-advocacy group and lobbying activity

   

   Political freedom

   

   Everyone has the fundamental freedoms. Freedomof conscience and religion;Freedom of thought, belief, opinion,expression, press, media;Freedom of peaceful assembly;Freedomof associationCharter provided a new means of enforcing rights andfreedoms, using the Courts to invalidate legislation that infringed on them.Sec 98 of Canadian Criminal Code prohibiting “unlawful association”, it wasin traduced after the 1919 Winnipeg general strike and not repealed until 1936.Incarceration or deportation of Canadian Japanese deprived personalliberty, property, and livelihood, as well as freedom of expression.Invocationof the War Measure Act 1970, imprison 400 non-violent Quebec separatists whohad no connection with the FLQ, which was outlawed.During theauthoritarian regime of Maurice Deplessis in Quebec; 2011 Governmentinfringement of political freedom in the anti-terrorism legislation after 2001.

   

   Majority rules donot mean people have the right to arbitrary infringethe minority rights. Senate’s role is protect the minority rights and check thepowers of majority.

(2012/01/01 发表)

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