In the past, many features of the Canadianpolitical system were undemocratic, but Canada has become increasinglydemocratic over time.Democracy in the modern western world it usuallyincludes the elements of popular sovereignty, political equality, politicalfreedom, and majority rule.
Popular sovereignty means that the peoplehave final say, which in modern political system take the form of elections atcertain specified intervals. The election held at least every five years, Bymeans of plebiscites or referendums, only three times since 1867, when in 1898,1942 and 1992.Canadian cherished representativedemocracy, in which elected officials and appointed authorities made decisionson people’s behalf.Popular sovereignty is normally exercised inperiodic elections, which are mere opportunity to select those who will beresponsible for making political decision over the next four years on behalf ofwhole population. Political thinker believes that the people are the bestjudges for those who have best virtue and merit, and public interest and good.
Everyone is equal on Election Day. Women,those without property, aboriginal, and various minority ethno culture group,excluded in the past. Considerable room for inequality remain in the electoralsystem. Political parties have been privately financed and it many well be thatthose who contributed money to a party or candidates expected to get somethingin return. Thus those help finance elections have more influence than thosemerely vote, beyond election day, tremendous inequality in political influencebegin to emerge, such as in-advocacy group and lobbying activity
Everyone has the fundamental freedoms. Freedomof conscience and religion;Freedom of thought, belief, opinion,expression, press, media;Freedom of peaceful assembly;Freedomof associationCharter provided a new means of enforcing rights andfreedoms, using the Courts to invalidate legislation that infringed on them.Sec 98 of Canadian Criminal Code prohibiting “unlawful association”, it wasin traduced after the 1919 Winnipeg general strike and not repealed until 1936.Incarceration or deportation of Canadian Japanese deprived personalliberty, property, and livelihood, as well as freedom of expression.Invocationof the War Measure Act 1970, imprison 400 non-violent Quebec separatists whohad no connection with the FLQ, which was outlawed.During theauthoritarian regime of Maurice Deplessis in Quebec; 2011 Governmentinfringement of political freedom in the anti-terrorism legislation after 2001.
Majority rules donot mean people have the right to arbitrary infringethe minority rights. Senate’s role is protect the minority rights and check thepowers of majority.