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·Why Federalism?Dose Federal system better to protect minority rights?
·Injustice as the root of terrorism: Social political and economic fact
·列宁之“无产阶级专政”批判
·ompare Analysisof Marx and Lenin’s Theory of the Dictatorship of the
·我的坎坷律师生涯(9):孤独的长跑者
·《我的坎坷律师生涯《我的坎坷律师生涯》(7):知青岁月》(7):知青岁月
·有关圣经翻译的若干问题
·郭国汀:论爱情
·錯帐俏曳傅模珨凳旰笥H自糾錯我還不偉大嗎?!
·文革教训原因考
·开放党禁与多党联合政治——回顾三大改造、三面红旗、反右、文革史有感
·论质、量互变关系
·学习与开放
·无产阶级领袖有感
·无产阶级领袖的重大作用
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!
·郭国汀:从 “中国律师人”说开去
·中國律師朋友們幸福不會從天降
·律師的文學功底
·郭國汀:中國涉外案件沒有一起獲得執行
·南郭:堂堂正正做個真正的中國人!
·郭国汀:愿王洪民先生在天之灵安息.
·南郭:令郭國汀律師老淚縱橫的真情
·郭国汀:民族败类!你是否中国人?
·郭國汀:令我熱淚橫流的小詩
·郭国汀:专制流氓暴政本质的再暴露
·郭國汀:強烈譴責中共惡意迫害自由戰士楊天水 許萬平
·今天我絕食——英雄多多益善!
·一个中国人权律师的真实故事
·郭国汀:全球接力绝食抗暴运动的伟大意义
·郭国汀:闻律师英雄高智晟再遇车祸有感
·只有思想言论信仰结社出版新闻舆论的真正自由能够救中国!
· 南郭:自由万岁!新年好!
·志当存高远-我的理想与追求
·我的知识结构与思想
·人生 道德 灵魂/南郭
·男子汉的眼泪/郭国汀
·相信生命—郭國汀律師印象
·南郭点评
·Racism is the biggest enemy of Justice and equality
·The Essence Distinguish Between Marx and Lenin on the Dictatorship of
·Race Politic as the Enemy of Justice and Equality
·The Great Leap Famine: Natural Disaster or Political disaster or Murde
·Homosexuality: a legal or moral problem?
·1958-1962年中国历史上最具毁灭性的大灾难
·马恩列无产阶级专政研究手稿/郭国汀
·郭国汀:穷大律师与亿万富翁
·政治体制改革的实质与根本要件/郭国汀編译手稿
·台湾自由宪政民主之路/郭国汀编译
·Terrorism and state terrorism studying
·The Truth of Chinese Economic development studying by Thomas Guoting G
·Comparing Analysis of Marx and Lenin’s Theory on the Dictatorship of
·China overtake the USA becoming an economic superpower??? by Thomas G
·人性论:人性本恶或人性本善? 郭国汀
·《诗经》英译(精选)/郭国汀編译
·Running build up a sound man
·An top important massage sent by the Holy Spirit
·My special experience help me build up my faith to the God
·I saw five ghosts when I was eighteen
·My adventure in this wonderful world
·My cross road as the first Chinese human rights lawyers who has lost h
·Does Xi in nature(evil) is same as Hu?
·Art, painting, and Civilization by Thomas G Guo
·A great teacher on our time ?
·What kind of characteristic I have ?
·郭国汀律师业绩简介
·Guo's fighting for freedom and Justice will certify that "Freedom is n
·What Human rights lawyer Thomas G Guo had done and why he received suc
·中共在抗战期通日敌打国军卖国史实考证/郭国汀
·I always tears stopless without crying, am I still a genuine man???
·My sixty year struggle for freedom and justice
·My appreciation to all professors in the Uvic and friends in the world
·Is Thomas Guoting Guo really a great teacher on our time ?
·My sixty years struggle for freedom and justice II
·孙文和蒋介石与苏俄党国体制的原则性区别
·Probably the Last idealist of Chinese lawyer?
·What looks like Mr. Thomas G Guo in my eyes
·a virtues, righteous, wisdom, and courage,and distinguished lawyer
·郭国汀律师:法轮圣徒瞿延来为何令南郭敬重?
·专访郭国汀律师(下) :回首不言悔
·郭国汀律师:何谓真正的中国人权律师?
·My sixty years struggle for freedom and justice III
·思想、言论、出版、舆论、新闻的真正自由
·民族败类!你是否中国人?
·思想言论自由的理由
·思想言论出版新闻自由的价值
·律师的文学功底
·最高法院的院长们为何对郭国汀极为反感?
·反了你! 竟敢不尊敬我大法官!
·Critical analysis on the Chinese Communist Party’s Regime by Thomas
·马克思研究手稿/郭国汀
·大师大哲论勇气 /郭国汀译
·任何欲与郭律师公开辩论者敬请公示真名实姓
·天才的古代中国/郭国汀編译手稿
·The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution studying by Thomas Guoting G
·关于内因与外因关系的争论
·Canadian Indigenous people’s right of self-determination and sovereig
·世界思想大哲论暴政----反抗专制暴政是天赋人权
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法治的基石和实质

   法治的基石和实质

   

   郭国汀

   

   “法治的基石乃是法律的普遍性原则。法律的普遍性乃是法律面前人人平等的基础:在某种措施面前不可能有平等,无论该措施是源于行政机构还是立法权力。如果法律的普遍性是法律国家的基石,其奠基石乃是由独立法官执行的行政行为的合法性,并使法官服从法律”。[1]

   

   法律应当是众所周知的,至少是可知的,依靠中共中央文件,或潜规则行事的国家,显然不可能有法治;法律面前人人平等是法治的实质,而法律的普遍适用性则是法律面前人人平等的前提。如果法律可以厚此薄彼,对不同的人适用不同的法律,那么法治必将荡然无存。陈希同,陈良宇辈在狱中享受着王公贵族的待遇,而所有的政治良心犯全部被流氓中共将对待奴隶一般进行酷刑虐待。因此中共国根本不可能有任何法治。

   

   “如果法律的普遍性是法律国家的基石的话,其基础则是行政行为的合法性,独立法官及法官受制于法律” [2]。中共暴政下,行政行为非法非常普遍,法官根本不独立,完全受中共操控,法官很多时侯不是依据法律判案,而是依据中共的指令,或政治需要大量公然枉法裁判。特别是在所有的政治案及宗教信仰案中,中共流氓法院几乎百分之百公然强暴国人意志,公然枉法裁判。这方面颠覆国家政权及煽动颠覆国家政权案和为境外非法提供国家秘密案的审理特别突出。

   

   “法律的普遍性是法律面前人人平等原则的根基”。[3]若法律可以厚此薄彼,如中共暴政下,则法律面前人人平等的原则即不复存在。

   

   “法治的基石是法律的普遍性原则” [4]。亦即法律的普遍适用性是法治的首要原则。普遍适用法律,要求对国王与乞丐同等对待,听起来似乎荒唐,但在西方正宗自由宪政民主国度很大程度上得以实现。至于人类精英犯罪受到处罚与普通民众犯罪受到同等对待,而白痴犯罪甚至免受刑罚,则是法治必须付出的代价。从总体上全局上看利远大于弊。

   

   “立宪主义和法治是宪法的基石,并反映我们国家的承诺:一个全体社会成员均受持续的规则、原则和作为最高法律渊源及权威的宪法价值的约束有序的公民社会”。[5]" 法律由于具有恒定性,公开性,普遍性,至上性,全社会成员共同遵守法律便能确立社会公共秩序,使之公平公正公道。法治对一个健全的社会至关重要,也是宪政的基础。没有独立司法,因而没有法治的社会,必定是不公不义的强盗匪帮骗子横行霸道之所。中共国既无独立司法,当然不可能有法治,更不可能有宪政,因此共匪才能随心所欲奴役全体国人长达60年。

   

   法治的实质

   

   “法治的实质在于强调:任何权力均必须限制。无论是政府的还是贵族的或是人民大众的权力,均必须限制”。[6]人民民主或大众民主若无法治制约,必定演变成多数人的暴政,中外历史充分证明了此点。古希腊雅典民主投票处死大哲苏格拉底;法国大革命后期的雅格滨专政均为典型;苏联及中共之所谓人民民主皆是没有法治保障的实质是最坏的“极权民主”。

   

   “法治的实质乃是宪政理论与实务中的立法至上原则;质言之,立宪主义乃是立法权至上,辅之以对该权力仅在法内行使主权的自我限制,再加上使行政官员和法官均必须受制于法律约束的所有安排”。[7] 法律至上,限制权力及立法权至上即是法治的实质。中共国最大的不公乃是立法权的不公。因为源于苏联的全国人民代表大会的政治制度安排是典型的自欺欺人的虚伪至极的罪恶政治制度。其人大代表的产生实质上全是由共产党一党独裁任命,尽管表面上通过虚假的选举,而且共产党实际上凌架于全国人大之上。正因为如此,中共随心所欲地泡制了大量恶法奴役国人,诸如宪法序言中的四项基本原则(党的领导)、刑法条款中的颠覆及煽动国家政权罪、有关国家秘密、邪教、劳教、游行示威等大量恶法。

   

   不过,中共国虽然不存在法治,不等于不存在法制,更不等于律师无用。因为,一般刑、民、行政案件律师作用相当大,即便政治案,若真正的人权律师强力抗辩,也有很重大的作用,输赢不能仅看法庭效果或判决结果,而要看社会效果,正由于一个个强力抗辩,使法治精神一点一粒积累,最终起到终结暴政的作用。原始暴政是赤裸裸的,精致化的暴政,由于其伪善,因此,法律和律师有相当的空间,因此“法律无用,律师无用”论,至少在一般刑、民、行政案中不能成立,即便在政治案中也不能成立。我们严厉批判中共伪法治目的不是虚无法律,更非虚无律师,律师是促进推动中国走向法治社会的主力军。但必须实现真正的立法公正,司法独立,法治原则得以确立后,才有可能实现真正意义上的司法公正和社会正义。

   

   2009年11月1日

   

   

   

   [1] The bedrock of the Rule of Law is the principle of the generality of law. the generality of law is essential to the principle of equality before the law: There can be no equality before a measure, whether that measure originates with the executive or legislative power. if the generality of law is the bedrock of the legal state, its cornerstones are the legality of administrative action enforced by independent judges, and the subordination of the judge to the law.

   

   [2] if the generality of law is the bedrock of the legal state, its cornerstones are the legality of administrative action (action only intra vires) enforced by independent judges, and the subordination of the judge to the law (limitation of judicial discretion).

   

   [3] the generality of law is essential to the principle of equality before the law:]

   

   [4] The bedrock of the Rule of Law is the principle of the generality of law.

   

   [5] Constitutionalism and the rule of law are cornerstones of the Constitution and reflect our country’s commitment to an orderly and civil society in which all are bound by the enduring rules, principles, and values of our Constitution as the supreme source of law and authority." (Lalonde)

   

   [6]id

   

   [7] The essentiale of the Rule of Law is represented in the constitutional theory and practice of the s-y-stems of legislative supremacy, most clearly in the British s-y-stem. Abstracting from these s-y-stems we may formulate as follows: Constitutionalism is the sovereignty of the legislative power, coupled, however, with a self-limitation of that power requiring it to exercise its sovereignty only by law, plus all such arrangements as keep executive officials and judges within legal bounds, i.e., limits on administrative and judicial discretion.

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