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达赖啦嘛论爱同情怜悯与慈悲

达赖啦嘛论爱同情怜悯与慈悲

   郭国汀编译

   人类蒙受的剥夺人的尊严,自由与和平,最具破坏性的原因乃是解决不同争议的暴力文化。[1]

   我们必须发展相互的同情,爱和基本的正义理念。在此种情况下,国家之间,家庭之间的问题有希望逐渐获得解决,人民能够生活在和平与和谐共处。反之,如果人民选择自私,统治和妒忌及个体的态度,将永远也无法享受和平与和谐。因此,我相信建立在相互慈悲和爱基础上的人类关系,是人类幸福至关重要的基石。[2]

   伤害他人没有人获得真实的利益。以伤害他人为代价而获得的暂时利益是短视的。从长远的观点看,对他人的和平与幸福造成可悲和伤害,对加害者自身会制造忧郁,害怕和疑虑。[3]

   如果我们真的互相帮助保护我们的家园,我们每个人都应当体验某种生动的怜悯慈悲和责任感。唯有这些感情能够排除那种导致欺诈和人们相互误用的自我中心的动机。[4]

   渴望自由,平等和尊严乃是所有人类固有的天性。在经济发展与尊重人权的需要之间,我未看到任何茅盾。丰富多样的文化和宗教有助于在所有的社区加强基本人权。因为此种多样性的根基乃是约束我们作为所有人类家庭成员的基本原则。多样性和传统从来不会赋予侵犯人权合法性。因此,基于不同种族,妇女,和社会弱势群体的歧视,可能在某些地区是传统习俗,但是它们与全球公认的人权相悖,这种形式的作为必须改变。所有的人类全球平等的原则必须优先。[5]

   我们需要良好的动机:怜悯慈悲,而不教条,无需复杂的哲学,只需理解其他人是我们人类的兄弟姐妹并尊重他们的权利和人类尊严。世界上所有的主要宗教在潜在帮助人类和平共处,互相帮助与环境和谐相处方面均是相似的。[6]

   残酷的暴力,无论其使用多大的强制力,决无法压制人类为自由和尊严的渴望。象共产主义制度假设的那样,仅提供人民食物,住房和衣服是远远不够的。人类自然深层的需要乃是呼吸宝贵的自由空气。[7]

   对一个新世界秩序最安全的基础并非简单的政治扩张和经济联盟,而是每一个体的真实践行爱和慈悲。[8]

   发展一个建立在相互尊重,宽容和人类幸福基础上的同情怜悯的社会,宗教能够伴演重要的角色[9]。

   西藏人经常被外国访问者形容为幸福快乐的人民。这是我们民族的部分特点,是由强调精神和平的重要性,代代相传对所有其他有感知的生物,包括人类和动物的爱和慈悲的文化和宗教价值形成。心灵的平静是关健:如果你拥有心灵的平静,外部的问题不能影响你深层心灵的平静与宁静感。在那种心灵状态下,你可以镇静理智地处理事务,同时保持你心灵的幸福。那是非常重要的。没有此种心灵的安宁,无论你的物质生活是多么舒适,你仍然会由于外界环境而感到焦虑,烦恼,忧郁和不幸。[10]

   暴力,无论其如何强制适用,从来无法征服人类对自由的基本渴望。人民不喜欢被无论个人或一个制度欺凌,欺骗,或欺诈。此种行为与人类心灵的实质相悖。因此,即使那些使用欺诈和暴力手段的人可以短暂成功,最终他们必将失败。另一方面,每个人均欣赏真理和尊敬,因为它真实地流淌于我们的血液中。真理是最佳的保证人,也是自由和民主的真实基础[11]。

   我相信人生的目的在于幸福。我们的心灵渴望满足。在我自已有限的经验中,我们越关注他人的幸福,我们自已越能体会到更大的幸福。由于我们不仅仅是物质生物,将我们所有的幸福希望寄托于单纯的外在发展是错误的,关健在于发展心灵的宁静[12]。

   在处理这些全球性问题时,不仅有必要培养理性的心灵,而且必须陶冶其它不可或缺的人类灵性:爱的力量,慈悲和团结[13]。

   我们应当看到伤害某些人,或把痛苦强加给其他人民,并不能带来幸福或心灵的平静。唯有发展同情怜悯和理解其他人,才能给我们带来我们寻找的幸福和心灵宁静。我是个非暴力信仰者,我认为新的世界秩序应当建立在同情怜悯与自由基础之上。我觉得我们的角色应当建立在民主,自由基础上[14]。

   当我们感受到对其他人的爱和慈悲时,不仅使其他人感受到被爱和关怀,而且它亦将帮助我们发展内心的幸福和宁静。有多种方式我们可以注重发展爱和慈悲的情感。对于我们当中的某些人而言,最有效的方式乃是宗教修炼。对其他人而论,它可以是非宗教的修炼。[15]

   

   

   

   ________________________________________

   [1] Speech of Dalai Lama at the Forum 2000" Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 3 - 7 September 1997“the most devastating cause of human suffering, of deprivation of human dignity, freedom and peace has been the culture of violence in resolving differences and conflicts.”

   [2] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 25st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1984 “we must develop mutual compassion, love and a fundamental sense of justice. In such an atmosphere there is hope that problems between nations and problems within families can be gradually overcome and that people can live in peace and harmony. Instead, if people adopt an attitude of selfishness, domination and jealousy, the world at large, as well as individuals, will never enjoy peace and harmony. Therefore, I believe that human relations based on mutual compassion and love is fundamentally important to human happiness. ”

   [3] Human Rights and Universal Responsibility by Dalai Lama Non-Governmental Organizations The United Nations World Conference on Human RightsVienna, Austria 15 June, 1993 “No one truly benefits from causing harm to another being. Whatever immediate advantage is gained at the expense of someone else is short-lived. In the long run causing others misery and infringing upon their peace and happiness creates anxiety, fear and suspicion for oneself.”

   [4] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “If we are truly to help one another and protect this home of ours, each of us needs to experience a vivid sense of compassion and responsibility. Only these feelings can remove the self-centred motives that cause people to deceive and misuse one another.”

   [5] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “it is the inherent nature of all human beings to yearn for freedom, equality and dignity, and they have an equal to achieve that. I do not see any contradiction between the need for economic development and the need for respect of human rights. The rich diversity of cultures and religions should help to strengthen the fundamental human rights in all communities. Because underlying this diversity are fundamental principles that bind us all as members of the same human family. Diversity and traditions can never justify the violations of human rights. Thus discrimination of persons from a different race, of women, and of weaker sections of society may be traditional in some regions, but if they are inconsistent with universally recognized human rights, these forms of behavior must change. The universal principles of equality of all human beings must take precedence.”

   [6] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “We need a good motivation: compassion, without dogmatism, without complicated philosophy, just understanding that others are our human brothers and sisters and respecting their rights and human dignity. all the world's major religious traditions are similar in having the potential to help human beings live at peace with themselves, with each other and with the environment.”

   [7] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “Brute force, no matter how strongly applied, can never subdue the basic human desire for freedom and dignity. It is not enough, as communist s-y-stems have assumed, merely to provide people with food, shelter and clothing. The deeper human nature needs to breathe the precious air of liberty. ”

   [8] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “the most secure foundation for a new world order is not simply broader political and economic alliances, but each individual's genuine practice of love and compassion.”

   [9] Speech of Dalai Lama at the Forum 2000" Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 3 - 7 September 1997 “Religion can play an important role in developing a compassionate society based on mutual respect, tolerance and human well being.”

   [10] Dalai Lamas Statement at the Smithsonian Institution's Sackler Gallery, Washington, D.C.2 September 1995 “Tibetans are always described by foreign visitors as being a happy, jovial people. This is part of our national character, formed by cultural and religious values that stress the importance of mental peace through the generation of love and kindness to all other living sentient beings, both human and animal. Inner peace is the key: If you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquillity. In that state of mind you can deal with situations with calmness and reason, while keeping your inner happiness. That is very important. Without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed or unhappy because of circumstances.”

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