历史资料
[发表评论] [查看此文评论]    满洲文化传媒
[主页]->[历史资料]->[满洲文化传媒]->[China's Manchu speakers struggle to save language]
满洲文化传媒
·满洲语地名初探
·满洲族美女大集合【一】
·满洲族美女大集合【二】
·清国八旗驻防将军兼统绿旗的问题
·满洲文六言诗:致彭德怀同志
·满洲民族崛起肇兴发祥的摇篮———新宾满洲家族民俗背景探查
·满洲语教学基地在吉林挂牌
·“我不会让母语满洲语消失”---一个满洲语自学者的执着求学路
·荡气回肠的蒙古国歌曲:为的祖国
·韓國的大清皇帝皇太極功德碑
·郎平,满洲族人的骄傲!!
·滿洲文書籍印刷卅年甘苦談
·满洲文字字型简介
·满洲族歇后语
·大金國皇帝世系表
·大清国满洲皇帝世系表
·滿洲實錄圖選
·《扬州十日记》是日本人伪造的!!
·《满江红》根本不是岳飞写的!!
·薩滿(SAMAN)
·明朝对女真人的七次种族灭绝屠杀
·明朝对女真人的民族政策与镇压屠杀
·满族民族禁忌
·满洲的贞德
·通古斯滿洲古代遺跡
·滿洲族高雅華麗的旗袍
·《满语365句》一天一句学习满洲语O(∩_∩)O~
·如何寫滿洲文書法
·努爾哈齊「七大恨」探討
·滿洲民族的生育習俗
·漂亮大气的满洲族旗袍玩偶
·设立满族自治区,自治州势在必行
·后金国盛京皇宫档案收藏概述
·《满洲民族史》教学大纲
·滿族建築
·通古斯學
·滿─通古斯諸語的分類
·大滿洲國地圖
·满族说部与人类口传文化
·萨布素--振翅高翔的满洲雄鹰
·滿洲族知識小百科
·满洲族女神佛哩佛多卧莫西妈妈论析
·台灣滿洲族的由來暨現況
·努爾哈赤的一生
·滿族協會如何迎向網路潮流
·大金国的忠孝军
·組圖:現代滿洲旗袍欣賞
·Awakens Tungus Manchu
·满洲族人的一般性格品质特征
·吉林九台萨满教文化的历史与现状
·寻找满洲族——思考“少数民族社会历史大调查”及其影响
·满洲族世界名著《尼山萨满》的背景
·《满法词典手稿》页面局部
·满洲族大作家老舍自杀之谜 谁是批斗他的幕后元凶?
· 通古斯滿洲利亞全圖(不包括俄羅斯被占的西伯利亞,庫頁島等)
·满洲族鸟崇拜及其对北方民俗的影响
·满洲民族独特的灵魂观念
·如何解决满洲民族自治的一大悬案
·满洲族名著《红楼梦》中满族旧俗
·罕见的满洲民族史诗《乌布西奔妈妈》
·瑞典皇家工程科学院满族院士吴季松
·满洲族著名大钢琴家郎朗
·大清国
·大清国通缉令
·满洲族松花江祭江大典盛况
·2009满洲族祭拜圣山长白山
·大清国末期忠烈满洲五虎将
·一个外来政权创造的历史奇迹
·铁血八旗满洲人的开疆拓土
·滿洲人的不歸路~~~
·满洲民族传统宗教萨满教变迁
·中國的版圖是這些人奠定的!!
·独具魅力的满族舞蹈欣赏
·毛泽东割让满族圣山长白山及其他割让给朝鲜的领土的问题
·【七子之歌】满洲版----献给所有飘零在外的满洲族人
·萨满教与北方原住民族的环保意识
·满洲老人----富育光
·后金國昭陵(皇太极陵寝)圖賞
·朝鲜见闻;贫穷就是社会主义
·满洲地区萨满教文化遗产保护
·汗水入土悄无声——忆满族文化传承人傅英仁先生
·满洲民族炕头上的艺术风景——满族刺绣幔帐套
·滿洲聖山長白山圖賞
·滿洲文門牌您見過麼?!
·后金国天命後期八旗旗主考析
·黑龙江省满洲语调查报告
·【组图】漂亮大气的满洲族旗袍(五)
·满族说部文本及其传承情况研究
·作秀都不做能抢救满族语言文化吗?!!
·满族女子马蹄底鞋大有故事
·黑龙江省满洲语调查报告(二)
·满洲鸭绿江上的被炸断桥
·溥仪书法:日益康强
·通古斯学
·满族说部中的历史文化遗存
·《满语研究》概况,投稿与订阅
·《满族研究》概况,投稿与订阅
·滿族集會活動照片
·论满族说部
·滿族集會活動照片【二】
·后金国皇太極的繼承汗位  
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
China's Manchu speakers struggle to save language


   
China's Manchu speakers struggle to save language

   SANJIAZI, China — Seated cross- legged in her farmhouse on the kang, a brick sleeping platform warmed by a fire below, Meng Shujing lifted her chin and sang a lullaby in Manchu, softly but clearly.
   
   After several verses, the 82-year-old widow stopped, her eyes shining.

   "Baby, please fall asleep quickly," she said, translating a few lines of the song into Chinese. "Once you fall asleep, Mama can go to work. I need to set the fire, cook and feed the pigs."
   
   After 5 children, 14 grandchildren and 5 great-grandchildren, Meng has the confidence that comes from long experience. "If you sing like this, a baby gets sleepy right away," she said.
   
   She also knows that most experts believe the day is approaching when no child will doze off to the sound of these comforting words.
   
   Meng is one of 18 residents of this isolated village in northeastern China, all older than 80, who, according to Chinese linguists and historians, are the last native speakers of Manchu.
   
   Descendants of seminomadic tribesmen who conquered China in the 17th century, they are the last living link to a language that for more than two and a half centuries was the official voice of the Qing Dynasty, the final imperial house to rule from Beijing and one of the richest and most powerful empires the world has known.
   
   With the passing of these villagers, Manchu will also die, experts say. All that will be left will be millions of documents and files in Chinese and foreign archives, along with inscriptions on monuments and important buildings in China, unintelligible to all but a handful of specialists.
   
   "I think it is inevitable," said Zhao Jinchun, an ethnic Manchu born in Sanjiazi who taught at the village primary school for more than two decades before becoming a government official in the city of Qiqihar, 50 kilometers, or 30 miles, to the south. "It is just a matter of time. The Manchu language will face the same fate as some other ethnic minority languages in China and be overwhelmed by the Chinese language and culture."
   
   (While most experts agree that Manchu is doomed, Xibo, a closely related language, is likely to survive a little longer. Xibo is spoken by about 30,000 descendants of members of an ethnic group allied to the Manchus who in the 18th century were sent to the newly conquered western region of Xinjiang. But it too is under relentless pressure from Chinese.)
   
   The disappearance of Manchu will be part of a mass extinction that some experts forecast will lead to the loss of half of the world's 6,800 languages by the end of the century. But few of these threatened languages have risen to prominence and then declined as rapidly as Manchu.
   
   Within decades of establishing their dynasty in 1644, the Qing rulers had brought all of what was then Chinese territory under control. They then embarked on a campaign of expansion that roughly doubled the size of their empire to include Xinjiang, Tibet, Mongolia and Taiwan. However, the dynasty's fall in 1911 meant that the Manchus were relegated to the ranks of the more than 50 other ethnic minorities in China, their numbers dwarfed by the dominant Han, who today account for 93 percent of the country's 1.3 billion people, according to official statistics.
   
   Indistinguishable by appearance, the Manchus have melded into the general population. There are now about 10 million Chinese citizens who describe themselves as ethnic Manchus. Most live in what are now the northeastern provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, although there are also substantial numbers in Beijing and other northern cities.
   
   For generations, the vast majority have spoken Chinese as their first language. Manchu survived only in small, isolated pockets like Sanjiazi, where, until a few decades ago, nearly all the residents were ethnic Manchus. Most are descended from the three main families that made up a military garrison established here in 1683 on the orders of the Qing emperor, Kangxi, to deter Russian territorial ambitions, according to Zhao.
   
   The traditional Manchu-style wood- and-adobe farmhouses have largely been replaced by Chinese-style brick homes, the local residents say. The village now looks just like any other settlement in this region as a biting wind whips snow across the bare ground between the houses and the piles of dried cornstalks, stacked high to feed cattle and pigs through the winter.
   
   Traditional shamanistic rites, along with ethnic dress and customs, have also been mostly abandoned, although some wedding and funeral ceremonies retain elements of Manchu rituals, Zhao said. But, villagers still observe one Manchu taboo that sets them apart from others in China's far northeast.
   
   "We don't eat dog meat," Zhao said. "And we would never wear a hat made from dog fur." The prohibition, tradition has it, honors a dog credited with having saved the life of Nurhachi, the founder of the Manchu state, who lived from 1559 to 1626.
   
   Even now, about three-quarters of Sanjiazi's 1,054 residents are ethnic Manchus but the use of Chinese has increased dramatically in recent decades as roads and modern communications have increasingly exposed them to the outside world. Only villagers of Meng's generation now prefer to speak Manchu.
   
   "We are still speaking it, we are still using it," said Meng, a cheerful woman with thick gray hair pulled back in a neat bun. "If the other person can't speak Manchu then I'll speak Chinese."
   
   But Meng disputes the findings of visiting linguists that there are 18 villagers left who can still speak fluently. By her standards, only five or six of her neighbors are word-perfect in Manchu.
   
   Zhao, 53, on the other hand, estimates that about 50 people in the village have a working grasp of the language.
   
   "My generation can still communicate in Manchu," he said, although he acknowledged that most villagers speak Chinese almost all the time at home.
   
   Meng supports efforts to keep the language alive. Her 30-year-old grandson, Shi Junguang, has studied hard to improve his Manchu and teaches speaking and writing to the 76 pupils, 7 to 12 years old, at the village school.
   
   This is the only primary school in China that offers classes in Manchu, according to officials from the local ethnic affairs office. These lessons, which Shi shares with one other teacher, take up only a small proportion of classroom time but they are popular with students, say the school's staff and other residents in the village.
   
   "Because they are Manchus, they are interested in these classes," Shi said.
   
   He is also teaching basic conversation to his 5-year-old son, Shi Yaobin, and encourages him to speak with his great-grandmother. "It would be a great blow for us if we lose our language," he said.
   
   But most experts say that with so few people left to speak it, attempts to preserve Manchu are futile.
   
   "The spoken Manchu language is now a living fossil," said Zhao Aping, an ethnic Manchu and an expert on Manchu language and history at Heilongjiang University in the provincial capital, Harbin. "Although we are expending a lot of energy on preserving the language and culture, it is very difficult. The environment is not right."
   
   While scholars agree it is now only a matter of time before Manchu falls silent, in Sanjiazi, Meng clings to hope.
   
   "I don't have much time," she said. "I don't even know if I have tomorrow. But I will use the time to teach my grandchildren.
   
   "It is our language, how can we let it die? We are Manchu people."
   
   By David Lague
   Published: Friday, March 16, 2007
   
   http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/16/world/asia/16iht-manchu.4935046.html?scp=1&sq=manchu&st=cse
   
   
China's Manchu speakers struggle to save language

   
   
China's Manchu speakers struggle to save language

   
   【東北滿族在綫北美博客:http://www.mmmca.com/blog_ak87/index.html】
   
   【東北滿族在綫北美相册: http://s264.photobucket.com/albums/ii163/manchu87】
   
   【東北滿族在綫视频空间: http://manchu87.v.56.com】
   
   【满洲文化传媒博讯博客:http://boxun.com/hero/manchu87/】

[下一页]

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场