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·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·2002年国际船舶保险条款
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·析一起签发放行记名提单再审争议案/郭国汀
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·民事答辩反诉状
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***郭国汀律师专译著
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中共滥用劳教制度镇压法轮功的法理解析


   
   中共滥用劳教制度镇压法轮功的法理解析
   
中共滥用劳教制度镇压法轮功的法理解析

   

   中国何时实现自由宪政民主?!
   
   南郭点评:这是一篇针对中共通过劳教制度对法轮功学员进行全方位迫害的严肃法学论文.对劳教制度的文化历史政治根源作了详尽剖析,南郭号称学者型人权律师,对一个外国法学专家对中国法律的高深知识深感惊讶更感汉颜.这是有关法轮功法律论著最佳之作,也是有关批判罪恶的劳教制度最力之作.值得每位中国人权律师特别是为法轮功辩护的律师精读,作者是美国密根大学法学博士研究生,学风严谨,学养深厚,论文论据充分详实,论点清晰明确,论证有力令人信服,极具批判精神同时不失客观公正立场,其治学方法与态度值得吾国人好好学习.
   
   2009年3月8日第157个反中共极权专制暴政争自由人权民主绝食争权抗暴日于加拿大
   Falun Gong Re-Education through Labor: Traditional Rehabilitation for the Misdirected to Protect Societal Stability within China's Evolving Criminal Justice System
   
   By Robert Bejesky
   
   
   
   
   
    I. INTRODUCTION ------------------------------148
   
    II. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO FALUN GONG -------- 151
   
    A. BACKGROUND OF FALUN GONG ---------------------151
   
    B. GOVERNMENT REACTION TO FALUN GONG ------------154
   
    C. FALUN GONG'S CLAIMS ----------------------------157
   
    III. TRADITION AND CULTURE IN CHINA & METHODS
   
    OF BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION --------------158
   
    A. CHINESE TRADITION & CULTURE --------------------158
   
    B. GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FALUN GONG -----------160
   
    C. DEFINING A JUSTIFIED REACTION TO FALUN GONG ------ 162
   
    1. Introduction ----------------------------162
   
    2. China's Government Structure & Institutions ------- 163
   
    3. The Opinion of Chinese Citizens Regarding Falun Gong----------167
   
    D. BEHAVIORAL CHANGE FOR SOCIETAL TRANSGRESSIONS:
   
    FORMAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM VS. INFORMAL RETL----170
   
    1. Theory of Instilling Acceptable Behavior vs. Punishment -------170
   
    2. Reform of the Formal Criminal Justice System ------ 172
   
    3. Informal Behavioral Modification Mechanisms and RETL ----- 176
   
   IV. BALANCING STATE INTERESTS WITH HUMAN
   
    RIGHTS PROTECTIONS FOR FALUN GONG -------180
   
    A. MODERNIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIVISM, AND
   
    RECONSIDERING THE SUBSTANTIVE UNDERLYING OFFENSE
   
    IMPOSED ON FALUN GONG MEMBERS -----------------180
   
    1. Introduction ---------------------------- 180
   
    2. Global Human Rights Restricted --------------180
   
    3. The Role of Government Institutions -----------182
   
    B. HUMAN RIGHTS AND RETL --------------------184
   
    V. CONCLUSION --------------------------------186
   
   
   
    I. INTRODUCTION
   
   
   
    Re-education through labor (RETL) is a form of administrative detention employed in China that is conducted outside of the formal criminal justice system and is designed to rehabilitate the behavior of societal "agitators." It has been utilized more in recent years than in the past because flexibility in the formal criminal justice system has been diminishing with the modernization process. While Chinese officials have maintained that RETL is a necessary and effective device for sustaining societal harmony,[1] mounting pressure prompted Beijing leaders in February 2003 to endorse new prohibitions on RETL administrators to improve the image of these centers.[2]
   
   
   
    For the past four years, Falun Gong members have been the target of aggressive Chinese government crackdown and caught the attention of human rights group worldwide. The group was banned after being marked an "evil cult"[3] on July 22, 1999.[4] Some say the banning and crackdown occurred because of the fear that such a collective and solidified group could pose to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) governance,[5] while others maintain such measures were necessary to protect societal stability and public order[6]from the harms that could emerge through diffusion of the group's message and actions. The Chinese government has taken Falun Gong's mobilization and expansion efforts very seriously.[7] Human rights groups have been critical of China's use of RETL and its treatment of Falun Gong members. In fact, Falun Gong filed a lawsuit in U.S. federal court that was supported in an amicus curiae brief by more than three dozen members of Congress, against former Chinese leader Jiang Zemin for acts of genocide on Falun Gong members.[8] While this lawsuit was dismissed by the U.S. District Court in September 2003 pursuant to the doctrine of sovereign immunity,[9] the dismissal likely did not spell the end of the controversy.[10]
   
   
   
    This article describes, from a cultural and historical perspective, why the vast majority of detained Falun Gong members, perhaps 99% of the approximately twenty thousand who have been confined, have been commonly subject to RETL[11] rather than to the criminal justice process. The supposition herein is that Falun Gong has been caught between China's gradually closing door of flexibility in the law, brought about by a government desire to improve the formal criminal justice system; and the gradually opening door of improved individual rights protections vis-d-vis collectivist interests. Consequently, applying RETL to Falun Gong practitioners maintains the traditional cultural approaches of behavioral modification for individuals/groups that fall too far outside the parameter of what the government deems is acceptable societal conduct. Finding justice in this situation becomes more enigmatic because it is unfolding within a dramatically changing and volatile society still under the administration of the CCP and under the microscope of the global community. Falun Gong has arguably posed the most significant challenge to the criminal justice reform process and to CCP power in the past decade.
   
   
   
    This article examines the positions of both Falun Gong and the Chinese government and endeavors to achieve resolution within the framework of human rights law and respect for state sovereignty. Section II considers the Chinese government's response to Falun Gong's emergence, while section III addresses global human rights standards and how tradition and culture have influenced the Chinese government's criminal justice modernization process and its response to Falun Gong members who have apparently violated Chinese law. Section IV appraises the risk that a consolidated collective group could have on the current state of legal and economic modernization in China and balances the threat of instability against human rights protections for Falun Gong members.
   
   
   
    II. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO FALUN GONG
   
   
   
    A. Background of Falun Gong
   
   
   
    Falun Gong has been described as a slow motion martial arts- like meditative practice that emphasizes living a moral and honest life[12] in order to cultivate a healthy mind-body connection.[13] It promotes "a modern variant of ancient Chinese practices of exercise, deep breathing, and meditation, collectively known as qigong, that enthusiasts claim promotes physical, mental, and spiritual well-being by enhancing the flow of vital energy through a person's body.[14] Falun Gong has associated itself with Buddhist and Taoist traditions,[15] and it could be classified as a spiritual movement,[16] religious order[17] or a philosophy.[18]Human Rights Watch states that Falun Gong does promote apocryphal[19] and salvationist teachings[20]The popularity of Falun Gong has resulted in peak membership of 80 million in China[21] and 30 million elsewhere in the world.[22]
   
   
   
    The founder of Falun Gong, Mr. Li Hongzhi,[23] published the primary treatise on Falun Gong, Falun Gong (Law Wheel Qigong) in 1993.[24] While Mr. Li Hongzhi's teachings are the foundation of Falun Gong, other derivative sects have emerged,[25] but he states that he is the only one who is spreading a true teaching and one cannot mix thoughts from other practices.[26] He enforces this with a fairly strict regimen of rules mandating exclusive and steadfast devotion to his Dafa.[27] While all freedom of religion and conscience must be protected at international law, Mr. Li Hongzhi does make some claims to recruits and disciples that many may find surreal to which the Chinese government has reacted, such as those which promise that disciples can develop supernatural abilities over the spiritual maturation process if they devoutly practice Falun Gong and adhere to its tenets.

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